Integrating Risk Reduction Strategies with Six Sigma and Lean

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1 Integrating Risk Reduction Strategies with Six Sigma and Lean Paul Gilkinson CSP, ARM, MBA Six Sigma Greenbelt - IIE 10 th Annual Applied Ergonomics Conference Celebrating The Past..Shaping The Future

2 Session Objectives Recognize why manufacturing process improvement initiatives are critically important to the safety professional Show how the Residual Risk Reduction, R3 process works with Lean, and Six Sigma Recognize how to leverage these initiatives to successfully reduce risk and improve the system. 2

3 Three Modules Six Sigma, Lean, and Safety; risk assessment approaches - Paul Gilkinson Integrating risk reduction with systems improvement Paul Myers Applying ergonomics tools to reducing risk Wayne Maynard 3

4 Quality (Six Sigma) Output Variance Reduction Safety Management. Risk Reduction Efficiency (Lean Mfg.) Waste Reduction Optimized Systems Products and Services People Want Workplaces People Want to be In Futures People Want to Invest In Business Partner Vendors Want Corporate Neighbor Communities Want 4

5 Theory of Profound Knowledge (Needed to Compete in the Marketplace) Knowledge of Systems How things work Knowledge of Statistics How things vary Knowledge of Psychology How people are motivated Boardroom to Boiler Room! Edwards Deming 5

6 The Nature of Risk Risk Frequency (Exposure Opportunity) Likelihood (Chance of Occurrence) Probability (Occurrence Opportunity) Severity (Degree of Harm) 6

7 R3 Risk Rating Scale Production Tasks Rating Frequency Likelihood Severity 1 < once per shift, sort or day Impossible First Aid 2 > once per shift, sort or day Unlikely Medical Treatment 3 > once per hour Possible Lost time, full recovery 4 > once per five minutes Probable Some permanent impairment 5 > once per minute Multiple Major permanent impairment or death 7

8 R3 TM Analysis Process Select system Identify concerns Identify existing controls Re-score concerns Identify New controls Score each concern Calculate expected R3 Implement new controls Report R3 as a Safety Outcome! Poster 1 Liberty Mutual NMLP 8

9 Integrating Risk Reduction with Systems Improvement Musculoskeletal Stress as an Output of Systems Paul Myers, CPE 10 th Annual Applied Ergonomics Conference Celebrating The Past..Shaping The Future

10 The Human/Workplace System Work Organization Work Environment Work Space Process Outputs Human Input Industrial Process Human Processing Process Inputs Human Output 10

11 System Outputs & Inputs Human Input Process Outputs Energy Information Chemicals Material Industrial Process Eyes Ears Respiratory System Skin Musculoskeletal System Human Processing Process Inputs Actuation Controls Keyboards Feed Systems Human Output Information Data Entry Keyboarding Forces Actuating Controls Feeding Materials 11

12 Work Space, Environment, Organization Work Space Anthropometry of the work space. Work Environment Ambient light, noise, temperature, atmosphere 5S issues Work Organization Macroergonomic Issues Supervision Education/Training Work scheduling Process Outputs Industrial Process Work Organization Work Environment Work Space Human Input Human Processing Process Inputs Human Output 12

13 System Interface Examples Process Outputs Human Inputs Affected By: Material Scrap Pans Musculoskeletal System Effect of a poor interface- Output Input Work Space auto/manual, size, wts, amounts, frequency. strength, age, gender, previous LBP injury. vertical location horizontal location Work Environment floor condition, temperature, 5S issues. Work Organization machine paced, work schedule, pay scale 13

14 System Interface Examples Human Outputs Process Inputs Affected By: Machine Actuation Upper Extremities 2-Hand Controls Effect of a poor interface- Output degree of shoulder abduction / wrist deviation Input force required to actuate controls. Work Space location & orientation of controls Work Environment Work Organization segmental vibration machine paced, work schedule, pay scale 14

15 Applying Ergonomics Tools to Reducing Risk Wayne S. Maynard, CSP, CPE 10 th Annual Applied Ergonomics Conference Celebrating The Past..Shaping The Future

16 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Risk: Transport Inventory Motion Waiting Overproduction Overprocessing Defects = 16

17 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Waste Transport: Excessive movement of materials, carts, forklifts. Risk Transport: High initial and sustained forces, long push, pull, carry distances. 17

18 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Waste Inventory: Too little or too much (JIT). Risk Inventory: Lifting, lowering, bending, reaching, twisting, weights, frequency, (e.g. warehousing, small lot delivery). 18

19 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Waste Motion: Unnecessary motions. Risk Motion: Repetitive lifting, lowering, bending, reaching, twisting, weights and forces. 19

20 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Waste Waiting: Long waiting times. Risk Waiting: Rest breaks (conflict?), increased cycle time, increase duration. 20

21 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Waste Overproduction: Make only what the customer orders (JIT). Risk Overproduction: Frequency and duration of all risk factors! 21

22 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Waste Overprocessing: Use best equipment for job. Risk Overprocessing: Equipment design, workstation design, engineering anthropometry. 22

23 Lean and Risk (Taiichi Ohno) Relentless commitment to banishing: Waste Defects: Reduce defects. Risk Defects: Rework, overtime, shiftwork, fatigue. 23

24 Lean and Ergonomic Tools Energy Expenditure Data Strain Index RULA Psychophysical Tables Industry guidelines Biomechanical Models ACGIH HAL OCRA OWAS PATH LMM NIOSH Lifting Guide 24

25 Biomechanical Models VidLiTeC Hsiang, S. M., Brogmus, G. E., Martin, S. E., and Bezverkhny, I. B., (1998), Video based lifting technique coding system. Ergonomics, 41 (3),

26 Problem Statement Back injuries to warehouse employees from picking orders; Dry Pick, Cool Pick and Frozen Pick. Frequent bending and reaching Dry Pick, Heavy Pick ( 35 lbs) especially a problem. Improve the system. Redesign Heavy Pick operations using ergonomic principles Team approach; three other locations. 26

27 Ergo Guidelines Voluntary Ergonomics Program Management Guidelines For Food Distribution Centers National-American Wholesale Grocers Association (NAWGA) International Foodservice Distributors Association (IFDA) Chuck Anderson, Ph.D., CPE Advanced Ergonomics, Inc. 27

28 Example VidLiTeC Analysis Start Closest Highest Final Peak L5/S1 disc compression force = 3,070 lbs (50 lb weight) 28

29 Cross Functional Team Warehouse Manager IEs from TX and CA locations Corporate Risk Manager Corporate Safety Manager Order Picker employees WC insurance carrier LP Consultant 29

30 R3 TM Risk Rating Scale Production Tasks Rating Frequency Likelihood Severity 1 < once per shift or day Impossible First Aid 2 > once per shift or day Unlikely Medical Treatment 3 > once per hour Possible Lost time, full recovery 4 > once per five minutes Probable Some permanent impairment 5 > once per minute Multiple Major permanent impairment or death Poster 5 Liberty Mutual NMLP 30

31 Likelihood Ergonomic Criteria Data Source Psycho physical Tables (Snook & Ciriello) No Manual Exertions >90% of Female Population 65% of Female Population 35% of Female Population <10% of Female Population Biomechanics (L5/S1 disc comp.force) No Manual Exertions <770lbs 770 lbs- 1,100 lbs 1,100-1,430 lbs >1430 lbs 1991 NIOSH Lifting Equation No Manual Exertions < >3.0 31

32 Likelihood Ergonomic Criteria Energy Expenditure (kcal/min) Duration MMH at or below 30 <1 hour No Manual Handling > 6.75 MMH at or below hours No Manual Handling > 5.40 MMH at or below hours No Manual Handling > 4.45 MMH above 30 <1 hour No Manual Handling > 5.40 MMH above hours No Manual Handling > 4.05 MMH above hours No Manual Handling >

33 33

34 Example VidLiTeC Analysis Start Closest Highest Final Peak L5/S1 disc compression force = 1,236 lbs (50 lb weight) 34

35 Modified Rack Design Up to 45 lbs Heavy products only 45 Up to 50 lbs No lift 15 Gravity flow rack 35

36 Job Design and Work Practices Pallet Jacks - Dry, Cool and Frozen Pick Bottom of case on pallet jacks or carts no higher than 72 Train workers to build pallets with minimum of case re-handling Park pallet jack close to slot to minimize carrying Rotate workers with others with less manual handling requirements Provide pallet jacks with adjustable height forks 36

37 37

38 38

39 How Did We Do? Transport Inventory Motion Waiting Overproduction Overprocessing Defects Improved somewhat pick rates Reduced risky motion! Could increase! Meet demand on time Improved slot design More efficient 39

40 Summary Ergonomic risk reduction strategies support Lean and Six Sigma initiatives nicely Ergonomic tools combined with risk assessment can objectively show risk reduction and support solutions ROIs can be impressive 40

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