1 Occupational Health & Safety Program SECTION 13 ERGONOMICS / JOB ANALYSIS PAGE 13.1 Introduction Steps in the Prevention of MSI Risk Identification Risk Assessment Risk Control Training Evaluation Investigating an MSI 13.9 Ergonomic Program Evaluation Forms Risk Assessments No. of Pages Identifying MSI Factors in the Workplace 7 Assessment Instructions 2 Task Analysis 1 Risk Assessment Work Sheets 10 Risk summary 1
2 13.11 Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention Program Evaluation Report Introduction The MSIP Program Evaluation Process Characteristics of an Effective Injury Prevention Program. Six Basic Steps in the Review Process Terms of Reference Information Gathering Methods and Guidelines - Documentation - Questionnaires - Interviews - Inspections Completing and Scoring the Evaluation. Corrective Action Plan. Follow-up Sample Forms MSIP Program Evaluation Documentation Checklist Program Evaluation Comments. MSIP Program Recommendations. Inspection Comments. MSIP Program Evaluation Score Sheet. Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention Program Evaluation Questionnaire.
3 THE MSIP PROGRAM EVALUATION REPORT WORKBOOK Terms of Reference Record. Program Evaluation Score (optional). MSIP Program Evaluation/Comments. Element 1 - Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention (MSIP) Policy Element 2 - Written Practical Safe Work Procedures Element 3 - Training of Workers and Supervisors Element 4 - Supervision of Workers Element 5 - Regular Inspection and Monitoring Element 6 - Hazardous Materials and Substances (Not Applicable) Element 7 - Monitoring of Workplace Exposures (Not Applicable) Element 8 - Medical Examination and Health Monitoring (Not Applicable) Element 9 - First Aid Services and Equipment Element 10 - Investigation of Accidents and Diseases Element 11 - Joint Occupational Safety and Health Committee Element 12 - Records and Statistics Element 13 - MSIP Program Review and Evaluation Inspection Comments MSIP Program Recommendations
4 No. of Pages APPENDIX 1 2 MSIP Program Evaluation Documentation Checklist APPENDIX 2 1 MSIP Program Evaluation Comments APPENDIX 3 1 MSIP Program Recommendations APPENDIX 4 7 MSIP Program Evaluation Questionnaire APPENDIX 5 1 MSIP Program Inspection Comments APPENDIX 6 2 MSIP Program Worker Questionnaire APPENDIX 7 2 MSIP Program Investigation Checklist APPENDIX 8 2 Ergonomic Risk Assessments And Control Options APPENDIX 9 1 MSIP Program Evaluation Score Sheet APPENDIX 10 2 General Ergonomic Analysis Checklist APPENDIX 11 1 Computer Work Station Checklist APPENDIX 12 1 Hand Tool Analysis Checklist APPENDIX 13 1 Keyboard and Mouse System Evaluation Form APPENDIX 14 1 Ergonomic Seating Evaluation Form APPENDIX 15 4 RULA Employee Assessment Worksheet APPENDIX 16 4 Task Hazard Analysis Worksheet Job Task Analysis Type #1 Job Task Analysis Type #2
5 13.1 INTRODUCTION ERGONOMICS / JOB ANALYSIS Some tasks performed at School District No. 53 such as lifting, reaching, and repeating the same movements can strain our bodies. In some situations, these tasks can result in an injury to the muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, blood vessels, and joints of the neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, legs and back. This type of injury is called a musculoskeletal injury, or MSI. MSI is a common type of injury in all our schools. MSI claims resulting from overexertion and repetitive motion accidents account for about one-third of claims accepted by WCB in British Columbia. In some districts this proportion is much higher. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulation [4.49(a) to (e)] lists specific requirements to help us prevent MSI. The section provides guidance to help Schools and Operations, Joint Health & Safety committees, and management health and safety representatives implement an effective strategy to prevent MSI in the School District. This section includes information that will help to: Identify factors that place workers at risk for MSI Understand the steps in preventing MSI Understand how control measures can reduce the risk of MSI Investigate injuries and signs or symptoms of MSI Risk Factors The factors that contribute to the risk of MSI are called risk factors. A risk factor is something that may cause or contribute to an injury. Two or more risk factors can be present at one time, increasing the risk of injury. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulation requires management to consider a number of factors when identifying and assessing the risk of MSI. The primary risk factors for MSI are the physical demands of a task, including: force, repetition, work posture, and local contact stress. For a description of these risk factors, along with illustrations and examples, see the WCB publication Understanding the Risks of Musculoskeletal Injury (MSI): An Educational Guide for Workers on Sprains, Strains, and Other MSIs. The publication also looks at factors that influence the physical demands, such as layout of the workplace and the organization of work tasks. In addition, this booklet provides information on the signs and symptoms of MSI and the potential health effects of these injuries. The booklet is available online. The mere presence of MSI risk factors may not in itself result in an injury. It depends on the extent of exposure-for example, how great the force is and how long the worker is exposed to the risk. Developing an MSI can also depend on individual characteristics that vary from worker to worker (such as height, gender, and the body s ability to deal with the risk factors). In addition, activities outside the workplace can result in exposure to the risk factors for MSI.
6 13.2 STEPS IN THE MSI PREVENTION PROCESS Step 1 CONSULTATION Consult with joint health and safety committee or worker health and safety representative during each step in the MSI prevention process below. Step 2 EDUCATION Educate workers about risk factors, signs and symptoms of injury and potential health effects. Step 3 RISK IDENTIFICATION Identify jobs with a risk of MSI. Identify risk factors on those jobs. Step 4 RISK ASSESSMENT Assess identified risk factors to determine the degree of risk to workers. Consult with affected workers and a representative sample of other workers who perform the same tasks. Step 5 RISK CONTROL Implement control measures, where required, to eliminate or minimize the risk to workers. Step 6 TRAINING Train workers in the use of control measures. Step 7 EVALUATION Evaluate control measures to determine their effectiveness to eliminate or minimize the risk of MSI. Where the risk has not been effectively controlled, re-examine the task.
7 13.3 RISK IDENTIFICATION School District No. 53 is required to identify factors in the workplace that may expose workers to a risk of MSI. This doesn t mean that you have to identify risk factors for every job at your workplace, just for jobs in which there is reasonable expectation of a risk of MSI. Risk identification should be conducted by people who understand both the work process and the risk factors and who have some education and training in the principles of risk assessment. Since it is not practical to identify MSI risk factors associated with all jobs at one time, a reasonable approach is to prepare a list of jobs in order of decreasing risk and establish a plan in order of priority. To determine which jobs are at a higher risk for MSI and should be given priority, you might examine first aid records and claims history for MSI and other relevant information. The jobs of workers who have already had an MSI or have signs or symptoms of MSI will likely have a higher risk of MSI. Therefore, priority for risk identification should be given to jobs in the following situations: A worker has already had a work-related MSI claim A worker has been injured and reports to first aid with an MSI A worker has reported signs or symptoms of MSI Risk identification should also take place before any problems or injuries are reported so that risk factors can be eliminated or minimized and injuries prevented. To set priorities for preventive risk identification, you might, for example, interview workers, take a survey, or observe workers on the job. In addition, early risk identification can help prevent injuries in the following situations: A worker or Principal observes high exposures to risk factors in a job for example, during workplace inspections and observations of current work methods. A new job is introduced or a process changes. After identifying particular jobs that pose a higher risk of MSI to workers, the School District needs to identify the MSI factors that contribute to the risk for each of those jobs. There are several tools (such as checklists and worksheets) available. Tools to help identify jobs or tasks incorporating exposures that pose a risk of MSI can be obtained from the District Health and Safety officer. These tools help identify risk factors that require further investigation to assess the risk to workers. Some of these tools take duration and magnitude into account along with the risk factors to help you establish priorities. Other methods can be used to identify risk factors as long as they include the risk factors listed in the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation (4.49). If the risk identification step reveals an obvious and effect risk control that will eliminate or minimize the risk to workers, you do not need to conduct a separate risk assessment (3.4) before implementing controls (3.5). For example, if a receptionist twists her neck to view the computer monitor (which has been placed to one side), the employer may decide to alter the counter so there is room for the monitor to be placed directly in front of the worker. This control measure can be implemented without first assessing how long the worker is in that posture or how severe it is.
8 13.4 RISK ASSESSMENT School District No. 53 must assess the degree of risk (high, moderate, or low) to the workers in those jobs or tasks where exposure to risk factors has been identified. Risk assessment will help you decide which risk factors pose a risk of injury to workers and are therefore important to control. For example, you may have identified an awkward stooping posture when a worker reaches to perform a task. During the risk assessment, you may find out that the worker does this task only occasionally or for a very short period of time during the day. There may be exposures to other factors (such as high force and repetition) associated with other tasks the worker performs for longer durations. In this example, force and repetition pose a greater risk and need control measures more urgently. During risk assessment, the management must consult with workers who have signs or symptoms of MSI and with a representative sample of workers who perform the tasks being assessed. The sample should include workers who represent a range of characteristics such as gender, age, and height. Some situations, however, may not require a specific risk assessment. As stated in 13.3, if the risk control is obvious and effective, risk identification can lead directly to risk control. In such situations, you should consult with workers at the risk identification stage. Risk assessment should be performed by people who understand the work process, the MSI risk factors, and the principles of risk assessment and control. The basic principles of risk assessment involve looking at the extent of exposure to assess how great the risk is. Extent of exposure includes magnitude (how much), duration (how long), and frequency (how often, how fast). To take extent of exposure into account, consider questions such as the following: What is the magnitude of the exposure? For example, how much force is needed or how severe is the awkward posture? How long (total time) is the worker exposed to the risk? For example, is the worker exposed to the risk for a full shift or for two hours? How frequently is the worker exposed to the risk? For example, is the task repeated many times each shift or does it occur only occasionally? A risk assessment should also consider the following: What is the combined effect of all the identified risk factors? For example, lifting heavy objects from the floor to a height above the shoulders several times a minute poses a greater risk than lifting the same objects between the knee and waist level infrequently. What body part is most likely to be affected? For example, when a person is working overhead, the shoulders and neck may be affected. If risk identification revealed exposure to risk factors that should be assessed, it may be more efficient to conduct risk assessment immediately following identification. In this way, the person doing the identification can use information already gathered, ask questions, and observe workers to assess whether the exposure is significant enough or frequent enough to require risk controls.
9 Risk assessment tools are available in APPENDIX These will help you assess the degree of risk (high, moderate, or low), determine where controls are needed, establish priorities for implementing controls to prevent MSI RISK CONTROL If risk controls are needed, the next step is to look at options. The School District must eliminate the risk of MSI, or, if that is not practicable, must minimize the risk. You should implement the risk controls selected without undue delay. If there will be a delay in implementing permanent controls, interim controls must be implemented without delay. First consider engineering or administrative controls that eliminate the risk to workers. If this is not practicable, introduce controls that minimize the risk. Personal protective equipment can be used only if engineering or administrative controls are not applicable. Engineering controls are the arrangement, design, or alteration of the physical work environment, equipment, or materials. For example, a backpack vacuum is an engineering control that custodians can use to reduce the risk of MSI when moving from room to room. Administrative controls include the use and scheduling of resources and staffing to improve how the work is organized and performed. For example, limiting the hours a painter spends at a task is an administrative control that can reduce the amount of repetitive motion. Personal protective equipment and clothing may be used as a control if other controls are not practicable, or in addition to other controls. For example, workers may wear vibration-dampening gloves while using a chainsaw or wear knee pads while working on their knees to install flooring. Some control measures will eliminate the exposure to the risk factor. Where that is not possible, the control measures should result in the extent of exposure being reduced in at least one of the following ways. Reduced magnitude of exposure Controls that reduce the magnitude of exposure involve, for example, reducing the force required or making the work posture more comfortable: Use better-designed tools to reduce the effort. For example, use a lighter tool or a suspended tool to reduce the force needed to grip the tool (engineering control). Redesign the work station to avoid excessive reaching. For example, change the height of the work surface to reduce the reaching distance and an awkward shoulder posture (engineering control). Modify the work practice. For example, use two people to lift a heavy table instead of one person (administrative control). Reduced duration of exposure Reduced duration of exposure to the risk over the work shift involves reducing the total time the worker is exposed to the risk:
10 Use some mechanization to reduce the time spent during the day doing physical tasks. For example, use a mechanical stacker for some products during the shift (engineering control). Rotate jobs to reduce the time spent doing manual handling. For example, rotate Librarian between manual stacking and unstacking books (administrative control). Reduced frequency of exposure Reduced frequency of exposure to the risk involves reducing the number of times the task is done in a period of time: Use partial mechanization to reduce repetition. For example, use power tools for parts of the job and use hand tools only where power tools are not practical (engineering control). Combine other tasks with the job to reduce repetition. For example, let a worker doing intense keyboarding tasks also handle non-keyboarding tasks such as customer service (administrative control). Improved pattern of exposure The pattern of exposure can be improved if the time the worker is exposed to the risk is divided into smaller blocks of time over the work shift. This control can be used where it is not practical to reduce the total duration of time on the task: Organize the work so that highly physically demanding tasks are interspersed with less physically demanding tasks. For example, rotate workers so that each worker does the physically demanding task in two blocks of two hours instead of one block of four hours (administrative control). In addition, to working through the MSI prevention process, management must investigate certain situations involving MSI to determine contributory causes. An investigation must lead to risk controls that eliminate or minimize the risk to the injured worker and prevent an recurrence of similar incidents TRAINING School District No. 53 will ensure that workers are trained to use the risk control measures. For example, if you provide a custodian with a riding floor cleaner, the worker must be trained to use the device properly. In addition, where safe work procedures have been implemented to reduce the risk of MSI, workers must be trained and supervised in those procedures. Workers must follow the safe work procedures they have been trained to use and must use any engineering controls and required personal protective equipment and clothing EVALUATION School District No.53 will evaluate our control measures to determine how effective they are in eliminating or minimizing the risk of MSI. Some ways to evaluate the controls are: Interviewing workers Looking for decreases in the number and severity of signs and symptoms of MSI Observing a reduction in the number of risk factors or in the severity of risk factors Using a checklist or other tool to compare the exposure to risk factors before and after controls are implemented
11 If the risk has not been effectively controlled or if new risks have been created, re-examine the task and reconsider which controls may be needed. Additionally, the School District needs to evaluate the overall MSI prevention program at least once a year to make sure it continues to meet the objective of eliminating or minimizing the risks to workers INVESTIGATING AN MSI School District No.53 is required to conduct an investigation into the following situations associated with MSI: Where a worker has a work-related MSI requiring medical treatment Where an incident had the potential to result in a serious MSI Unsafe or harmful conditions must also be reported and investigated. For example, if a worker reports persistent signs or symptoms of MSI (such as swelling or tingling), there may be an unsafe work situation that could lead to a serious MSI. The unsafe condition must be investigated. The focus of these MSI investigations is to: Identify risk factors that likely contributed to the MSI or to the unsafe condition that may result in MSI Implement controls to prevent the recurrence of similar injuries or to correct the unsafe condition To assist with the investigation process, a checlist is provided in APPENDIX 7. This checklist is useful in correlating which risk factors might have contributed to the injury of the specific body part. In the MSI Investigation Chart, each risk factor gives examples of movements or activities. Some of the examples involve more than one risk factor (such as exerting force with a bent wrist). Neck, shoulders, upper back Lower back Elbows, forearms, hands Hips, knees, feet 13.9 ERGONOMIC PROGRAM EVALUATION FORM Information used to evaluate the MSIP Program can be gathered from the following sources: DOCUMENTATION Use the MSIP Program Evaluation Documentation Checklist to request relevant documents, records and statistics, Appendix 1 List all existing and missing information Evaluate the information provided. Note content strengths and weaknesses on the Program Evaluation Comments sheet, Appendix 2 List recommendations for upgrading MSIP Program documentation on the MSIP Program Recommendations sheets, Appendix 3
12 QUESTIONNAIRES Program and site-specific questionnaires may need to be developed, samples Appendix 4 If suitable, distribute questionnaires to a representative number of workers, supervisors, principals and management personnel who have MSIP Program responsibilities It is not necessary for participants to sign their questionnaire INTERVIEWS Interview a representative number of workers, supervisors, management personnel, MSIP Program coordinators, joint health and safety committee members etc about the adequacy and effectiveness of the MSIP Program Ask interviewees how the MSIP Program can be improved Interview Techniques The interviewer(s) must create an atmosphere that allows for complete and open participation by the worker(s). This can be done by: Choosing a suitable location and time Establishing rapport with the interviewee Asking open/non-leading questions rather than closed/leading questions when soliciting comments Probing for meaningful precise answers Remaining neutral and objective Thanking the interviewees for their cooperation INSPECTIONS Whenever possible, observe student and material handling activities (manual and mechanical). Record your observations on the Inspection Comments, APPENDIX 5. List strengths and weaknesses observed. Include unsafe acts and conditions (e.g. incorrect lifting, faulty devices, workplace design and environment, work processes and routines). COMPLETING AND SCORING THE EVALUATION Place a check mark ( ) to indicate yes, no or N/A (not applicable) after each question in the MSIP Program Evaluation report. APPENDIX 6 Use the Program Evaluation Comments sheet to reference specific program questions and to list program strengths and weaknesses. APPENDIX 2
13 Use the Inspection Comments, APPENDIX 5, sheet to list strengths and weaknesses observed during the inspection. Specify recommendations for improving the MSIP Program effectiveness by completing the MSIP Program Recommendations sheet. APPENDIX 8 Completion of the MSIP Program Evaluation Score Sheet is optional. If the score sheet is used, enter an overall rating of S (satisfactory) or U (Unsatisfactory) or, P (Pass) or F (Fail) for each MSIP Program element specified on the MSIP Program Evaluation Score Sheet, APPENDIX 9 An effective MSIP Program usually has the following characteristics: 1. The required program elements are sufficiently detailed in writing. 2. The program content is technically correct. 3. The program is implemented. 4. Workers (management and labour) can adequately apply the program. 5. The program is enforced. 6. The program is periodically evaluated and upgraded as required. The completed MSIP Program Evaluation Report should begin with a Table of Contents and Executive Summary. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN Senior management must ensure that an action plan is developed which includes: the MSIP Program deficiencies to be corrected specific corrective action required to eliminate the deficiencies the person(s) responsible for taking corrective action a completion date for correcting program deficiencies submission of an action plan to the WCB (when requested by the WCB) FOLLOW-UP The employer or designate must follow-up to ensure that remedial action has been taken to correct program deficiencies.
14 SECTION IDENTIFYING MSI FACTORS IN THE WORKPLACE
15 Worker Questionnaire This questionnaire is intended to help me better understand the nature of your job. I am particularly interested in the kinds of tasks you perform and the percentage of the day that you spend doing each one. Employee name: Job Title: Date: In the following table, list the duties required to perform your job. Also identify the typical duration of each duty, any discomfort you experience and any comments you may have. Duty Duration Discomfort Comments Which of the duties above causes you the most physical discomfort? Describe the steps required to perform the above duty. Which tasks do you feel are the most awkward to perform? Which tasks do you spend most of your time doing?
16 Which of the tasks you performed today do you think could cause repetitive strain injuries? List any tools you used today? List any tools you typically use, if not listed above. Is this a typical day for you? If no, why not? Which of the duties or tasks you perform do you think could cause repetitive strain injuries? Discomfort Analysis Body Part No Discomfort Worst Imaginable Head-neck Right Shoulder-upper arm Right elbow-forearm Right wrist-hand Left shoulder-upper arm Left elbow-forearm Left wrist-hand Upper back-torso
17 GENERAL ERGONOMIC RISK ANALYSIS CHECKLIST Work Area: Date: Conducted by: A yes response indicates that an ergonomic risk factor may be present which requires further analysis. YES NO Manual Material Handling Is there lifting of loads, tools, or parts? Is there lowering of tools, loads, or parts? Is there bending at the waist to handle tools, loads, or parts? Is there twisting at the waist to handle tools, loads, or parts? Physical Energy Demands Do tools and parts weigh more than 10 lb.? Is reaching greater than 20 inches? Is bending, stooping, or squatting a primary task activity? Is lifting or lowering loads a primary task activity? Is walking or carrying loads a primary task activity? Is stair or ladder climbing with loads a primary task activity? Is pushing or pulling loads a primary task activity? Is reaching overhead a primary task activity? Do any of the above tasks require five or more complete work cycles to be done within a minute? Do workers complain that rest breaks and fatigue allowances are insufficient? Other Musculoskeletal Demands Do manual jobs require frequent, repetitive motions? Do work postures require frequent bending of the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, or finger joints? For seated work, do reaches for tools and materials exceed 15 inches from the worker s position? Is the worker unable to change his or her position often? Does the work involve forceful, quick, or sudden motions? Does the work involve shock or rapid build up of forces? Is finger pinch gripping used? Do job postures involve sustained muscle contraction of any limb? Computer Workstation Do operators use computer workstations for more than 4 hours a day? Are there complaints of discomfort from those working at these stations? Is the chair or desk non-adjustable? Is the display monitor, keyboard, or document holder non-adjustable? Does lighting cause glare or make the monitor screen hard to read? Is the room temperature too hot or too cold? Is there irritating vibration or noise? Environment Is the temperature too hot or too cold? Are the worker s hands exposed to temperatures less than 70 degrees Fahrenheit? Is the workplace poorly lit?
18 Is there glare? Is there excessive noise that is annoying, distracting, or producing hearing loss? Is there upper extremity or whole body vibration? Is air circulation too high or too low? General Workplace Are walkways uneven, slippery, or obstructed? Is housekeeping poor? Is there inadequate clearance or accessibility for performing tasks? Are stairs cluttered or lacking railings? Is proper footwear worn? Tools Is the handle too small or too large? Does the handle shape cause the operator to bend the wrist in order to use the tool? Is the tool hard to access? Does the tool weigh more than 9 lb? Does the tool vibrate excessively? Does the tool cause excessive kickback to the operator? Does the tool become too hot or too cold? Gloves Do the gloves require the worker to use more force when performing job tasks? Do the gloves provide inadequate protection? Do the gloves present a hazard of catch points on the tool or in the workplace? Administration Is there little worker control over the work process? Is the task highly repetitive and monotonous? Does the job involve critical tasks with high accountability and little or no tolerance for error? Are work hours and breaks poorly organized?
22 SECTION Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Assessment Worksheets Introduction & Purpose The Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Assessment Worksheets can be used to help achieve compliance with Section 4.48 of the Ergonomics (MSI) Requirements in the Occupational Health & Safety Regulation. For each risk factor identified, these worksheets will help you determine if the likelihood of injury is low, moderate, or high. You may select and fill out one or more worksheets for each task, depending on which risk factors were identified. There are eight worksheets, one for each risk factor to be considered as required in Section 4.49 of the Occupational Health & Safety Regulation: 1. Force Required-Grip Force 2. Force Required-Lift, Lower or Carries Objects 3. Force Required-Pushes or Pulls Objects 4. Work Postures 5. Aspect of the Layout and Condition of Workplace or Workstation 6. Local Contact Stress 7. Environmental Conditions 8. Work Organization There are no distinct worksheets for the risk factors Repetition, Duration, and Objects Handled. Instead these factors were incorporated into other worksheets where appropriate. For each risk factor parameter, scenarios are described under the Low Risk, Moderate Risk, or High Risk columns. Corresponding scores reflect the risk i.e. a score of 1 represents low risk, a score of 2 represents moderate risk, and a score of 3 represents high risk. You can use these worksheets to determine appropriate risk controls. Where observations fall into a high risk category, look to see what the lower risk category requires to determine if it is practicable for you particular situation. For each worksheet, a subtotal score can be determined. The subtotal for a particular worksheet can be compared before and after ergonomics improvements are made as evidence of risk reduction. For all worksheets filled out for a particular task, a total score can be determined. The total score can be compared between tasks for prioritizing tasks for risk control (those with the highest total score have the highest risk).
23 Assessment Instructions STEP 1 Fill out the Task Analysis Worksheet. STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Note: Select the applicable MSI Risk Assessment Worksheets to reflect the risk factors identified. Read down the first column to determine which risk factor parameters are applicable (Not all parameters may be pertinent. For example, under Grip Force, vibration may not be present in a hand tool, therefore, skip vibration and go to the next parameter). For each pertinent parameter, circle the descriptor or parts thereof which best apply and enter the corresponding score in the far right column. When observations fit between the High and Low Risk categories, but a blank box exists for Moderate Risk, write in your specific scenario and enter a corresponding score of 2. If a parameter is not present or observed, do not enter a score, and go to the next parameter. If there are 2 or more observations for a particular parameter, the highest score (highest risk category) should be recorded. STEP 5 STEP 6 Add the corresponding scores and enter the subtotal in the space provided at the bottom of the worksheet. Once all applicable worksheets have been filled out, transfer the subtotals from the individual worksheets to the summary sheet in the column labeled Before. STEP 7 Parameters which were described as high or moderate risk (corresponding scores of 2 or 3) need to be targetted for risk control. The goal is to implement changes to reduce the overall risk which will be reflected in reduced subtotals on one or more worksheets or a reduced total score for a task. STEP 8 After controls have been implemented, go through STEPS 2 to 5 and enter the total score on the Summary Worksheet in the column labeled After.
24 Task Analysis Date of Assessment: Job Title: List tasks in the job and specify the relative percentage of a shift spent performing each task: Task List % of Shift Task observed for this assessment: List activities involved in task: Include worker comments about task (i.e. discomfort, effort required): Assessment Completed By: Name(s) of worker(s) observed/interviewed:
25 Risk Factor Parameters Wrist posture Neutral or straight wrist position Force Required - Grip Force Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Enter scores below Wrist in partial flexion or Grasping while wrist in extension extreme range of motion Poor fitting or increased slipperiness between hand and object Gloves Good fitting, high friction Good fitting, poor friction Hand-arm vibration OH&S Regulation Section 7.25 Grip type Grip span Dampened, acceleration < 4 m/s/s Power grip: thumb and forefinger slightly overlap Thumb and forefinger slightly overlap around a closed grip, or 3.7 cm diameter grip size Grip effort Holds object weighing 10 lb. or less in power grip, or holds object weighing 2 lb. or less in pinch grip, or low worker effort Acceleration > 4 and < 12 m/s/s Pinch grip but with palmar contact or partial power grip Thumb and forefinger overlap greatly Medium worker effort Acceleration > 12 m/s/s, above ISO Standard , or above ANSI Standard S Pinch grip or no overlap of thumb and forefinger Requires a wide span grip Holds object weighing 10 lb. or more in power grip, or holds object weighing 2 lb. or more in pinch grip, or high worker effort Object temperature Comfortably warm object Very cold object or cold exhaust on hands Object surface High friction surface to allow worker to gain comfortable and efficient grip Frequency Hands idle most of the time or consistent conspicuous pauses Less than 10 repetitions per minute when performed at least 60 minutes continuously Gripping for less than 5 seconds at once Slow or steady gripping but with frequent pauses Gripping for more than 5 seconds but less than 30 seconds at any one time More than 10 repetitions per minute but less than 60 minutes continuous Slippery object requiring increased grip force to hold Rapid steady gripping, no opportunity for pauses Difficulty keeping up More than 10 repetitions per minute performed for at least 60 minutes continuously Gripping for 30 seconds or more at once Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift % of shift Exposure Pattern Occasional (not daily) Daily intermittent Daily continuous Subtotal
26 Force Required - Lifts, Lowers, or Carries Objects Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Risk Factor Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Enter Parameters score below Weight of object Less than 8 kg. (17 lb.) 8-23 kg. (17-51 lb.) More than 23 kg. (51 lb.) Distance load is away from body 0-10 cm. (0-4 in.) More than 10 cm. (4 in.) up to 25 cm. (10 in.) More than 25 cm. (10 in.) Location of load at start or end of lift Between hip and shoulder height Between knee and hip height Below knee level or above shoulder height Asymmetry Shoulders turned up to 20º, uses 2 hands Shoulders turned 20-45º Shoulders turned more than 45º, uses 1 hand Size and shape of Small compact load Object > 50 cm. (20 in.) wide, object > 30 cm. (12 in.)long, or has any two dimensions (such as height, width, or depth) adding up to > 75 cm. (30 in.) Load condition Dry, predictable, moderate temperature Slippery, wet, extremes of temperature (cold/hot), unpredictable Weight distribution Stable, solid load Top-heavy load, liquid, of load shifting centre of gravity, or unbalanced Hand coupling Hand wraps easily around the object, hand holds are optimal in location and size Hand is able to flex 90º around the object, handles or hand holds are less than optimal No handles, surface of load is non-rigid or irregular in shape, or sharp resulting in poor grip Seated lifting or Less than 1 kg. (2 lb.) 1-5 kg. (2-11 lb.) More than 5 kg. (11 lb.) lowering Carry Carries 8 kg or more less than 3 m. (10 ft.) Carrries 8 kg or more 3-9 m. (10-30 ft.) Carries 8 kg or more greater than 9 m. (30 ft.) Frequency Less than 1 lift, lower or carry per minute 1-5 lifts, lowers, or carries per minute More than 5 lifts, lowers, or carries per minute Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift % of shift Exposure Pattern Occasional (not daily) Daily intermittent Daily - continuous Subtotal * NIOSH, Snook tables or Mital tables can also be used for a more detailed assessment.
27 Corresponding score Distance travelled Force Force Required - Pushes or Pulls Objects Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Enter scores below Pushes or pulls 9 kg. Or Pushes or pulls 9 kg or Pushes or pulls 9 kg or more more less than 2 m. (7 ft.) more 2-60 m. (7-197 more than 60 m. (197 ft.) ft.) Less than 9 kg. (20 lb.) of force required, no difficulty initiating movement Handle height Variable height with respect to user. Worker able to keep elbow bent between º Floor surface Smooth, less than 10% slope Asymmetry Arms in front of body, uses 2 hands 9-23 kg. (20-50 lb.) of force required such as moving a shopping cart loaded with 200lbs of groceries. Uses 1 hand in front of body, but body is not twisted More than 23 kg. (50 lb.) of force required, difficult to initiate movement such as moving a 2 drawer full file cabinet across a carpeted floor Height too high - worker s arms elevated, or height too low worker stooped or twisted Uneven, cluttered surface, > 10% slope reaches behind body is twisted uses 1 hand pushes/pulls across the front of the body Poorly maintained Condition of Well maintained equipment equipment such as well lubricated castors Stability of load Stable and well balanced Unstable, unpredictable, Design of equipment Space considerations Suitable for the task sondiering size and weight of load, travel distance,e tc. Open space - no restriction shifting centre of gravity Equipment not suitable for task Small space, standing close to load, difficult for worker to get enough leverage to start the load moving 1 push or pull every 6 seconds Frequency 1 push or pull every 8 hours Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift % of shift Exposure Pattern Occasional (not daily) Daily intermittent Daily - continuous Subtotal
28 Work Postures Risk Factor Parameters Neck Posture Also refer to Aspects of the Layout and Condition of the Workplace or Workstation and Environment worksheets Trunk Posture Also refer to Aspects of the Layout and Condition of the Workplace or Workstation worksheets Shoulder Posture Also refer to Aspects of the Layout and Condition of the Workplace or Workstation worksheets Wrist Posture Also refer to Aspects of the Layout and Condition of the Workplace or Workstation worksheets Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Enter corresponding scores below Bent forward 0-10º Bent forward Bent forward more Bent back 0-10º 10-30º than 30º Side bending 0-10º Bent back 10- Bent back more than Twisting 0-10º 20º 20º Side bending Side bending more 10-30º than 30º Twisting 10-20º Twisting more than 20º Forward bending 0-20º Backward bending 0-10º Twisting 0-20º Side bending 0-10º Arm raised from shoulder in front of body 0-45º Arm raised to side of body 0-45º Arm behind body 0-10º Wrist bent towards palm 0-15º Wrist bent backwards 0-25º Wrist bent towards pinkie 0-15º Wrist bent towards thumb 0-5º Forward bending 20-45º Backward bending 10-20º Twisting 20-45º Side bending 10-20º Arm raised from shoulder in front of body 45-90º Arm raised to side of body 45-90º Arm behind body 10-20º Wrist bent towards palm 15-30º Wrist bent backwards 25-40º Wrist bent towards pinkie 15-20º Wrist bent towards thumb 5-10º Forward bending more than 45º Backward bending more than 20º Twisting more than 45º Side bending more than 20º Squatting or kneeling Arm raised from shoulder in front of body more than 90º Arm raised to side of body more than 90º Arm behind body more than 20º Wrist bent towards palm more than 30º Wrist bent backwards more than 40º Wrist bent towards pinkie more than 20º Wrist bent towards thumb more than 10º Subtotal
29 Work Postures continued Risk Factor Parameters Forearm Posture Low Risk Score = 1 Forearm not rotated or forearm turned so palms face inwards Moderate Risk Score = 2 Fingers In line with hand Bent somewhat backwards Seated Knee Knee angle between 95 Posture and 120º when seated High Risk Score = 3 Forearm rotation or forearms turned so palms face all the way up or down Bent extremely backwards Knee angle < 95º or > 120ºs when seated or kneeling Ankle posture <85º or >95º Ankle Posture Ankle posture between 85º and 95º Frequency Shoulder: less than 2.5 Shoulder:more than repetitions per minute if 2.5 repetitions per performed for 60 minute performed minutes continuously less than 60 minutes Elbow, Forearm and continuously Wrist: less than 10 Elbow, Forearm repetitions per minute if and Wrist: more performed for 60 than 10 repetitions minutes continuously per minute Fingers: less than 100 performed less than repetitions per minute if 60 minutes performed for 60 continuously minutes continuously Fingers: more than Any: posture held less 100 repetitions per than 5 seconds at once minute performed Any: repeated less than less than 60 minutes 60 minutes continuously continuously Any: posture held for more than 5 seconds but less than 30 seconds at once Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift % of shift Exposure Pattern Shoulder: more than 2.5 repetitions per minute if performed for 60 minutes or more continuously Elbow, Forearm and Wrist: more than 10 repetitions per minute if performed for 60 minutes or more continuously Fingers: more than 100 repetitions per minute performed for 60 minutes or more continuously Any: posture held for more than 30 seconds at once Occasional (not daily) Daily intermittent Daily - continuous Enter corresponding scores below Subtotal
30 Aspect of Layout and Condition of Workplace or Workstation Risk Factor Parameters Standing Work Height Also determine neck, shoulder, or trunk posture Seated Work Height Also determine neck, shoulder, or trunk posture Standing Horizontal Reach Also determine shoulder, wrist or trunk posture Sitting Horizontal Reach Also determine shoulder, wrist or trunk posture Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Precision task: cm. or 4-6 cm above worker s elbow height Light work (e.g. assembly) cm or 5-10 cm below worker s elbow height Heavy work (downward force) task: cm. or cm below worker s elbow height. Precision work (highly visual): cm. Light work (e.g. assembly) cm. Computer work: cm. Heavy work (downward force) task: cm. One hand reach <46 cm. Two hand reach <36 cm. Side reach <46 cm. No reaching behind the body Frequent forward reach <30 cm. Frequent side reach <40 cm. Occasional forward reach <75 cm. Occasional side reach <80 cm Infrequent forward reach <50 cm. Infrequent side reach <60 cm. Work heights are within guidelines (left) but awkward postures of the neck, shoulder or trunk still occur. Work heights are not within guidelines (right) but awkward postures of the neck, shoulder, or trunk do not occur. Work heights are within guidelines (left) but awkward postures of the neck, shoulder or trunk still occur. Work heights are not within guidelines (right) but awkward postures of the neck, shoulder, or trunk do not occur. Horizontal reach distance within guidelines (left) but awkward posture of the neck, shoulder or posture occurs Horizontal reach distances not within guidelines (right) but no awkward neck, shoulder or trunk postures Horizontal reaches within guidelines (left) but awkward trunk or shoulder postures occur. Horizontal reaches not within guidelines (right) but no awkward trunk or shoulder postures occur. Precision task: < 95 or >120 cm. Light work <85 or >110 cm. Heavy work task: <65 or >95cm. Precision work (highly visual): <80 or >110 cm. Light work (e.g. assembly): <63 or >76 cm. Computer work: <55 or >75 cm. Heavy work (downward force) task: <66 or >72 cm. One hand reach >46 cm. Two hand reach >36 cm. Side reach >46 cm. Any reaching behind the body Frequent forward reach >30 cm. Frequent side reach >40 cm. Occasional forward reach >75 cm. Occasional side reach >80 cm Infrequent forward reach >50 cm. Infrequent side reach >60 cm. Enter correspondin g scores below
31 Risk Factor Parameters Chair or Seating Work Area Characteris tics Aspect of Layout and Condition of Workplace or Workstation continued Low Risk Score = 1 Lumbar support is adjustable and tilts. Seat pan tilts, has a waterfall design and is covered with breathable material. Easily height adjustable and has a 5-star base. Open area Work postures are not confined Moderate Risk Score = 2 Lumbar support is not adjustable and backrest does not tilt. Seat pan is covered with breathable material but does not tilt. Height adjustable with tools with 5-star base. Moderately sized work pace with minimal clutter. Worker occasionally needs to accommodate posture due to restriction in work space. High Risk Score = 3 No lumbar support. Seat pan is hard and does not tilt. Not height adjustable or does not have 5-star base support. Small tight work space. Worker needs to get into awkward posture to perform task. Highly cluttered area, worker needs to work around or over obstacle. Enter corresponding scores below Floor Surfaces Pedals or Knee/Foot Controls Stands/walks on anti-fatigue mat. Stands using footrests regularly Ankle remains between 85 and 95º No exertion required to actuate Stands with foot-rest occasionally. Stands/walk on mat (not anti-fatigue) occasionally Ankle posture less than 85º or more than 95º but not near extreme joint range of motion Some exertion to actuate Stands or walks on non-resilient floor, no foot-rest Ankle posture near extreme joint range of motion Requires standing on one leg to operate. Ankle inverted (foot turned in to actuate) Noticeable exertion to actuate Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift % of shift Exposure Pattern Occasional (not daily) Daily intermittent Daily - continuous Subtotal
32 Risk Factor Parameters From an object Workers report little pressure is exerted on the skin Tool has rounded handle Uses hand or body part to impact From kneeling or resting body weight Local Contact Stress Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Enter scores below Workers report some pressure is exerted on the skin Tool has contoured handle Hand or body part impacts soft or rounded object Cushioning used regularly Leaning on semi-hard surface without cushioning Occurs occasionally (every 10 to 60 minutes) Marks or depressions left on the skin, or high pressure/force is exerted Tool has sharp edges Tool butts into base of hand Tool has ringed handles (scissors) Hand or body part impacts hard object Leans on hard surface without cushioning Frequency Occurs infrequently (more than 60 minutes passes) Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift % of shift Occurs frequently (every 10 minutes or less) Exposure Pattern Occasional not daily Daily intermittent Daily - continuous Subtotal
33 Risk Factor Parameters Lighting conditions Ambient temperature Temperature of objects handled Noise level under usual conditions (i.e. with hearing protection if usually worn) Stands or sits on a vibrating surface (ISO 2631/1985) Appropriate lighting for task. Worker can assume comfortable position to see task. Environmental Conditions Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Enter score below Occasional lighting Low light level, worker changes result in worker hunching over OR high light using awkward posture. level, worker avoiding glare Working temperature is comfortable and unnoticeable Comfortably warm objects are handled and hands are not exposed to uncomfortably cold temperatures Noise level is comfortable and unnoticeable Vibration dampened or comfortable Working temperature is occasionally uncomfortable Object temperature and hand temperature are between those described for 1 and 3 Noise levels are occasionally uncomfortable and distracting Vibration is present and noticeable by changing work position. Working temperature is frequently uncomfortable The object is very cold or there is cold exhaust on hands Noise levels are frequently annoying, distracting or producing hearing loss Vibration is measured as excessive, is annoying or uncomfortable Exposure Pattern Occasional not daily Daily intermittent Daily continuous Shift Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift More than 50% of shift Subtotal
34 Risk Factor Parameters Work-recovery cycles Task variability Work Organization Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Enter scores below Consistent, conspicuous Frequent pauses No regular pauses pauses Variety of tasks performed allowing for use of different body parts/muscle groups Work rate No difficulty keeping pace Self paced Exposure Pattern Tasks are repetitive for short periods and somewhat variable troughout the entire workday Slow or steady motions Monotonous or repetitive use of the same body parts using the same muscle groups for long periods of time Rapid steady motion and/or difficulty keeping up Incentive pay or fast maching pacing Occurs infrequently (more than 60 minutes Occurs occasionally (every 10 to 60 minutes) Occurs frequently (every 10 minutes or less) passes) Duration Up to 25% of shift 26-50% of shift % of shift Subtotal
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