1 Neonatal Resuscitation Program 2011: Changes and Controversies Myra H. Wyckoff, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
2 Disclosures I am not on any speakers bureaus I do not intend to discuss unapproved uses of a commercial product I received a manikin from Laerdal for cardiac compression research I have a translational research grant funded by Ikaria
3 Achieving Consensus on Resuscitation Science Australian Resuscitation Council The American Academy of Pediatrics, under the auspices of its relationship with the American Heart Association, participates with other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) for a complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years.
4 Evolution of the Scientific Document 33 questions assigned to a minimum of two experts for in-depth literature review Each expert worked independently to create a detailed worksheet for the assigned topic Worksheets followed a strictly defined format Search Strategy Number of articles identified Reasons for any rejections of papers Classification of the quality of the study Level of Evidence
5 Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines available online October 18, 2010 Printed Guidelines supplement published November 2, 2010 in Circulation and Pediatrics Can be downloaded at:
6 NRP 6 th Edition Released May 2011 Major Changes in Required Equipment Major Changes in the Algorithm Major Changes in how NRP is taught Content Knowledge learned independently On line Exam prior to Instructor time Course time with Instructor focused on skills, simulation and debriefing
7 Effective Positive Pressure Ventilation Devices Self-inflating bag with pressure monometer Flow-inflating Bag T-piece Resuscitator
8 Pulse Oximetry Replaces Assessment of Color Pulse Oximetry should be used for evaluation of oxygenation because assessment of color is very unreliable.
9 O 2 Saturation at Which Newborn is Pink O Donnell et al. ADC 2007.
10 Pulse Oximetry in the Delivery Room Every delivery area should have an oximeter readily available Use an oximeter Whenever resuscitation is anticipated When positive pressure ventilation is administered for more than a few breaths When cyanosis is persistent When supplemental oxygen is administered All infants 32 wks OB EGA How to use the oximeter Tun machine on Probe on right hand or wrist of baby Connect probe to pulse ox as final step For fastest signal
11 Must Have Ability to Blend Oxygen
12 Respiratory Equipment on a Stick
13 Laryngeal Mask Airway: An Alternative to Endotracheal Intubation
14 NRP 5 th Edition Algorithm
15 6 th Edition Algorithm
16 6 th Edition NRP Algorithm Although the provider must know whether meconium is present in order to set up equipment appropriately, the mere presence of meconium does not drive the decision pathway.
17 6 th Edition NRP Algorithm
18 Provision of Warmth Affects Ventilation and Newborn Transition! Cold Stress Increases Apnea Decreases Surfactant Function Increases metabolic acidosis, lowers ph and thus may reduce pulmonary artery relaxation
19 Strategies to Provide Warmth For all newborns Environmental Temperature at least 25 C (77 F) Warm Blankets for Drying Hats For newborns requiring resuscitation Radiant Warmer Warm, humidified gases?
20 Humidified and Heated Air During Stabilization at Birth Improves Temperature in Preterm Infants Cool, dry gas in DR Warm, humidified gas in DR Te Pas et al. Pediatrics 2010
21 Strategies to Provide Warmth For all newborns Environmental Temperature at least 25 C (77 F) Warm Blankets for Drying Hats For newborns requiring resuscitation Radiant Warmer Warm, humidified gases? For Preemies Polyethylene Occlusive wrapping Heated (NaAcetate) Mattresses
22 6th Edition NRP Algorithm Put down your bulb syringe and catheters! Suctioning should be reserved for babies who have obvious air way obstruction or those who require PPV.
23 Position to Open the Airway Position on back or side Slightly extend neck Sniffing position Aligns posterior pharynx, larynx and trachea
24 Stop the Attack of the Blue Bulb!
25 Only If Needed: Suction to Clear the Airway ONLY IF REALLY NEEDED!! Apneic, copious secretions, Suction with a bulb syringe Mouth before Nose M comes before N May use a suction catheter attached to mechanical suction (negative pressure should read ~100 mmhg) but Easy to induce vagal response due to laryngeal reflex (laryngospasm, profound bradycardia, apnea, cough)
28 Tactile Stimulation Inappropriate Slapping the back Squeezing the rib cage Forcing thighs onto the abdomen Dilating the anal sphincter Using hot or cold compresses or baths Shaking Appropriate
29 6th Edition NRP Algorithm After the initial steps, further actions are based on simultaneous evaluation of heart rate and respiratory effort.
30 Heart Rate Remains The Most Important Vital Sign Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume X Heart Rate Stroke Volume Does not Change Significantly in the Newborn Therefore, Heart rate determines the output to the lungs
31 What about Respiratory Distress in the Delivery Room? After the initial steps, heart rate and respiratory effort are adequate but there is increased work of breathing or a perception of cyanosis then CPAP can be considered
32 Role of CPAP in the Delivery Room CPAP may help establishment of functional residual capacity CPAP can be delivered with a flow-inflating bag or a T-piece resuscitator, but NOT a selfinflating bag.
33 CPAP for Term Newborns in the Delivery Room No evidence to support or refute the use of CPAP in term infants with respiratory distress in the delivery room Key though to note that CPAP should only be considered for the spontaneously breathing newborn with an adequate heart rate
34 CPAP for Preterm Newborns in the Delivery Room 2 Multi-centered RCT looked at weeks EGA newborns on CPAP vs intubated in DR: Almost 2000 preterm infants randomized No difference in outcomes of death or BPD Reduced the rates of intubation and mechanical ventilation, surfactant use, and duration of ventilation. Increased rates of pneumothorax with CPAP 8 cm H2O but not with CPAP 5 cm H2O Morley et al NEJM 2008 Finer et al NEJM 2010
35 6th Edition NRP Algorithm
36 Effective Positive Pressure Ventilation is Still the KEY PPV is THE most important step in newborn resuscitation! Count out loud to maintain a rate of breaths per minute Do a Texas Waltz with your counting
37 Additional Emphasis on Ventilation Extra time period for assuring optimization of ventilation
38 Techniques for Achieving Mnemonic for remembering the six steps for improving efficacy Ventilation of positive-pressure Effective ventilation (MR. SOPA) Copyright 2010 American Academy of Pediatrics
39 Poor Mask Seal Often Inhibits Effective Ventilation 48% demonstrated significant mask leak Majority were corrected with repositioning of the mask Some required changing the way mask was held Schmolzer et al. ADC 2011
40 Inappropriate Position Often Inhibits Effective Ventilation 25% demonstrated significant airway obstruction Majority corrected with repositioning the infant in the open airway position Schmolzer et al. ADC 2011
41 Techniques for Achieving Mnemonic for remembering the six steps for improving efficacy of positive-pressure Effective Ventilation ventilation (MR. SOPA) Copyright 2010 American Academy of Pediatrics
43 ETCO2 Detection: Confirmation of Endotracheal Intubation
44 Laryngeal Mask Airway: An Alternative to Endotracheal Intubation STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4
45 Laryngeal Mask as an Alternative Airway in Newborns Laryngeal Mask Bag Mask (n=205) (N=164) P value 203 (99%) 138 (84%) <0.001 Response Time (sec) 16 ± 8 18 ± Ventilation Time (sec) 36 ± ± 35 <0.001 Successful Resuscitation Zhu et al. Resuscitation 2011
46 6th Edition NRP Algorithm
47 NRP Recommendations regarding Oxygen Use in Neonatal Resuscitation During resuscitation and when a baby is cyanotic, it is important to deliver as close to 100% oxygen as possible, without allowing it to mix with room air. AAP-AHA Neonatal Resuscitation Program, Edition 3, % oxygen is recommended for assisted ventilation; however, if supplemental oxygen is unavailable, positive pressure ventilation should be initiated with room air. Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation. Pediatrics 106:e29,2000. The standard approach to resuscitation is to use 100% oxygen. Some clinicians may begin resuscitation with an oxygen concentration of less than 100%, and some may start with no supplementary oxygen (ie, room air). Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation. Pediatrics 117:e989,2006.
48 Meta Analysis: 100% O2 vs Room Air During Delivery Room Resuscitation Davi s et al
49 Evidence in Support of Room Air Resuscitation 6 RCTs individually showed no outcome difference but meta-analysis showed decreased mortality with room air Babies resuscitated with room air resumed spontaneous respirations earlier Some biochemical evidence of oxidant injury in those resuscitated at birth with high FiO2 Room air resuscitation might reduce length of stay and chronic lung disease
50 Evidence Against Room Air Resuscitation Majority of subjects were from developing country Majority of studies not blinded Infants with MAS, infection, apparent stillbirths were excluded Relatively small proportion of the 1474 subjects likely to have had significant asphyxia (type 2 statistical error) Animal studies suggest advantage of oxygen in reducing anaerobic metabolism; improving pulmonary blood flow and V:Q match; stabilizing cerebral perfusion
51 Other Potential Harm? Naumburg et al. Supplementary oxygen and risk of childhood lymphatic leukemia. Acta Paediatr 2002;91: (Sweden) Prospective association between any oxygen exposure in the DR and childhood acute lymphatic leukemia 2.5X the risk of ALL ( ) > 3 minutes of O2 with BMV 3.54X the risk of ALL ( )
52 O2 Saturations Start Low and Gradually Increase Dawson et al. Pediatrics 2010;125:e1340 e1347
53 Normal SpO2 Values Following Birth at Term While Breathing Room Air
54 What Oxygen Concentration Should we use for Premature Infants? weeks (n-41) 21% vs 100% FiO2 Adjusted to match term goals Wang, et al, 2008 < 29 wks (n=42) Started with 30% vs 90% Adjusted to match term goals Escrig, et al, 2008
55 Summary of Oxygen Studies Routine 100% oxygen exposure is unnecessary and possibly harmful for the term newborn Increasing evidence that preterm infants can be successfully and safely stabilized in the DR with less than 100% O2 Increasing evidence that term infants can be successfully and safely resuscitated with less than 100% O2 Pulse Oximetry in the DR is very helpful in optimizing O2 delivery
56 6th Edition NRP Recommendations Use of Oxygen and Oximeter Have an oximeter, blender, and compressed air immediately available at every delivery Begin PPV in term babies with 21% Attach oximeter early Have someone available to connect an oximeter if PPV or supplemental oxygen is used Blend O2 and air as needed to match SpO2 to that of healthy term babies Connect an oximeter and blend oxygen as needed when stabilizing any preterm baby
58 2011 NRP Cardiac Compression Guidelines Compress to depth of 1/3 AP diameter of chest Compress the lower 1/3 of the sternum Use 2-thumb technique rather than 2-finger technique 3:1 compressions to ventilation ratio for asphyxial arrest Coordinate compressions and ventilations to avoid simultaneous delivery Avoid frequent interruptions in compressions
59 Use Two-Thumb Method Rather than Two-Finger Method for Neonatal Cardiac Compressions?? 2 small human neonate case series (3 infants) Two-Thumb Method achieved superior MAP, DBP 2 randomized animal trials Two-Thumb Method achieved superior MAP, CPP 3 manikin studies-only one using NRP Guidelines Two-Thumb superior depth of compression with less fatigue
60 Depth and Variability During 3:1 Compression:Ventilation CPR for 2 min 1. Depth of Compression (mm) 2. Variability in Compression Depth (CV) Two Thumb (n=21) Two Finger (n=21) p value 29.6± ± ± ±3.2 < Number of Compressions per min 193±28 198±33 NS Coefficient of Variation (CV) = standard deviation/mean *100 20/21 subjects achieved greater depth of compression with the Two Thumb Method vs Two Finger Method (p= ) 20/21 subjects achieved less variability with the Two Thumb Method vs Two Finger Method (p= ) Cristman et al. ADC 2011
61 # of subjects Proper Finger Placement with Two-Thumb vs Two-Finger * *P <0.001 TT vs TF Proper Placement Cristman et al. ADC 2011
62 Sounds good but.. Won t the two-finger technique be needed at least briefly so that the compressors hands are not blocking access to the umbilical cord for emergent umbilical venous line placement?
63 Head of Bed Compressions Allows Continuous Two-thumb Technique Once an airway is established and secured, move the provider giving compressions to head of bed Potential Advantages: Arms are in a more natural position Umbilical access is more readily available while continuing Two-thumb technique More space for person giving meds at the patient s side
64 # of Subjects Compressing Compressor Drop-off Minutes *p=0.016
65 Representative Tracing of Coronary Perfusion Pressure Generated by CCC vs 30:2 CC+V in an Adult V-fib Model Continuous 30:2 CC+V Ewy GA et al. Circulation 2007
67 2011 NRP Epinephrine Guidelines Epinephrine (1:10,0000 solution) should be administered intravenously at 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg per dose. Umbilical line placement should be a priority if epinephrine is needed as endotracheal delivery is unreliable. While access is being obtained, a higher dose (0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg) of endotracheal epinephrine may be given but the safety and efficacy of this practice have not been evaluated.
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