Backyard Beauty. Bees, beetles, flies, butterflies, and birds are common visitors to these species:

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1 Backyard Beauty Planting native species of plants has many benefits, including preventing the spread of invasive species and providing food and habitat for native wildlife. Bees, beetles, flies, butterflies, and birds are common visitors to these species: Luna moth resting on a branch. Luna moths are large, nocturnal insects. Luna moth caterpillars rely on the leaves of many trees for food, but the adult moths do not eat. Redbud Roughleaf Dogwood Red Buckeye Azalea Yellow Jessamine American Beautyberry White Fringetree Butterfly Weed Wild Bergamot Passion Flower Partridge Pea Cardinal Flower Trumpet Creeper Coral Honeysuckle Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

2 Key to Symbols HABIT Herb Small Large Tree/Shrub Tree LEAVES Simple Simple <5 cm long >5 cm long Compound Compound <5 cm long >5 cm long FLOWERS <1 cm 1-5 cm >5 cm Distribution maps for species are based on the PLANTS Database, USDA, NRCS (http://plants.usda.gov) National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC. Photo Credits: M. Alford, M. Huneycutt, H. Sullivan, L. Wallace

3 Redbud Cercis canadensis Identifying Features Heart-shaped leaves Clusters of purple-pink flowers Grows in sunny and shady areas Attracts bees B A C A: bark; B: Leaves; C: Cluster of flowers Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

4 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What does a redbud tree use its leaves for? 2. Why do plants have flowers? Grades 3-5: 1. What does redbud need to grow? 2. What traits makes redbud different than other backyard beauty species? Grades 6-8: 1. How could redbud be beneficial to bees in ecosystems where it grows? 2. How are seeds produced in a redbud? 3. What is needed for redbud to maintain stable population sizes? Grades 9-12: 1. How do pollinators get into the flowers of redbud? 2. Does redbud have a specialized or generalist pollination system? How do you know? 3. The process of natural selection allows species to evolve. What clues can you take from the redbud s identifying features that indicate it is adapted to environments where it grows? Project Magnolia grandiflora

5 Roughleaf Dogwood Cornus drummondii Identifying Features Elliptic leaves that are fuzzy on the underside Clusters of small white flowers Grows in shady areas Attracts bees, butterflies A B A: flowers; B: fruits; C: eaves C Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

6 Questions Grades K-2: 1. Why do plants have flowers? 2. What other organisms in its environment would dogwood interact with? Grades 3-5: 1. What does dogwood need to grow? 2. What would a young dogwood seedling look like the same or different than an adult plant? Grades 6-8: 1. What types of insects do you think would visit the flowers of dogwood? 2. What is needed for dogwood to maintain stable population sizes? Grades 9-12: 1. Given that dogwood is a native species in Mississippi, do you think it would grow better or worse than a non-native species? 2. Does dogwood have a specialized or generalist pollination system? How do you know? 3. How could the rough texture of this dogwood species leaves be adaptive? Project Magnolia grandiflora

7 Red Buckeye Aesculus pavia Identifying Features Compound leaves with 5 leaflets in a hand-like pattern Long clusters of red tubular flowers Grows in shady areas Attracts hummingbirds A B A: habit; B: flower clusters; C: compound leaves C Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

8 Questions Grades K-2: 1. Why do plants have leaves? 2. What kind of environment does buckeye grow in? Grades 3-5: 1. What does buckeye need to grow? 2. What do flowers provide for pollinators? Grades 6-8: 1. What types of insects would visit the flowers of buckeye? 2. What is needed for buckeye to maintain stable population sizes? Grades 9-12: 1. Given that buckeye is a native species in Mississippi, do you think it would grow better or worse than a non-native species? 2. Does buckeye have a specialized or generalist pollination system? How do you know? 3. How could plants with compound leaves be better adapted to living in the understory of a forest than species with simple leaves? Project Magnolia grandiflora

9 Azalea Rhododendron spp. Identifying Features Small, elliptic, leathery leaves Large, star-shaped pink, purple, or red flowers Grows in shady areas with acidic soils Attracts butterflies, hummingbirds 5 species in Mississippi A Present Absent B A: R. canescens flowers; B: leaves Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

10 Questions Grades K-2: 1. How does this plant grow as a tree, vine, or small herb? 2. What kind of habitat does azalea grow in swamp, forest or open areas? Grades 3-5: 1. Are azaleas evergreen or deciduous? 2. How are producers, such as azalea, different than consumers? Grades 6-8: 1. What does azalea provide in return for pollination by insects that visit flowers? 2. What is needed for azalea to maintain stable population sizes? Grades 9-12: 1. How many species of azalea grow naturally in Mississippi? Do they have similar or different habitats and distributions? 2. How could having evergreen leaves be adaptive? 3. What are the habitat requirements of azaleas? Project Magnolia grandiflora

11 Yellow Jessamine Gelsemium sempervirens Identifying Features Climbing vine Sword-shaped leaves Bright yellow tubular flowers Grows in sunny areas Attracts bees A Present Absent B A: flowers; B: leaves Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

12 Questions Grades K-2: 1. How does this plant grow as a tree, vine, or small herb? 2. What kind of habitat does jessamine grow in? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. How are producers, such as jessamine, different than consumers? Grades 6-8: 1. What does jessamine provide for bees in return for pollination? 2. What is needed for jessamine to maintain stable population sizes? Grades 9-12: 1. Jessamine grows in similar areas as wisteria, an invasive species. Why isn t jessamine an invasive species? 2. Explain how a vining habit is adaptive. Is it adaptive in all kinds of habitats? 3. Jessamine is an evergreen species throughout much of Mississippi. How is it able to survive freezing temperatures in the winter? Project Magnolia grandiflora

13 American Beautyberry Callicarpa americana Identifying Features Large, toothed elliptic leaves Clusters of light pink flowers that turn into purplish colored fruits Grows in sunny to shady areas Attracts bees, butterflies, hummingbirds A B A: leaves and flowers; B: fruits Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

14 Questions Grades K-2: 1. How does this plant grow as a tree, vine, or small herb? 2. What kind of habitat does beautyberry grow in? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. How are producers, such as beautyberry, different than consumers? Grades 6-8: 1. What does beautyberry provide in return for pollination by insects that visit flowers? 2. What is needed for beautyberry to maintain stable population sizes? Grades 9-12: 1. What is an advantage and disadvantage of having brightly colored fruits? 2. How could having opposite leaves be adaptive? 3. What are the habitat requirements of beautyberry? Project Magnolia grandiflora

15 White Fringetree Chionanthus virginicus Identifying Features Elliptic leaves Clusters of white flowers with ribbon-like petals Grows in sunny to shady areas Attracts bees, butterflies A B A: flowers; B: leaves Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

16 Questions Grades K-2: 1. How does this plant grow as a tree, vine, or small herb? 2. What does a plant use its leaves for? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. How would a fringetree seedling look different than an adult tree? Grades 6-8: 1. What does fringetree provide in return for pollination by insects that visit flowers? 2. What other animals might interact with fringetree and why? Grades 9-12: 1. What is an advantage and disadvantage of having white flowers? 2. How is growing as a tree adaptive? 3. What are the habitat requirements of fringetree? Project Magnolia grandiflora

17 Butterfly Weed Asclepias tuberosa Identifying Features Linear leaves Clusters of small, yellow-orange starshaped flowers Grows in open areas Attracts butterflies; the leaves are eaten by Monarch caterpillars, but are harmful to many other animals A B A: flowers with a pollinator; B: habit Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

18 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What parts of this plant are alive? How do you know? 2. What does this plant use its leaves for? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. How would a butterfly weed seedling look different than an adult plant? Grades 6-8: 1. What does butterfly weed provide in return for pollination by insects that visit flowers? 2. How do other animals interact with butterfly weed and why? Grades 9-12: 1. What is an advantage and disadvantage of having orange flowers? 2. What would happen to Monarch butterflies if butterfly weed went extinct? 3. Explain how Monarch butterflies and butterfly weed evolved together to rely upon each other. Project Magnolia grandiflora

19 Wild Bergamot Monarda fistulosa Identifying Features Short, sword-shaped leaves on a square stem Round clusters of small, tubular purple flowers at the tops of stems Grows in open, sunny areas Attracts hummingbirds, butterflies Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

20 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What parts of this plant are alive? How do you know? 2. What does this plant use its stems for? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. What does bergamot need to grow? Grades 6-8: 1. How do pollinators aid in the development of seeds in bergamot? 2. How do other animals interact with bergamot and why? Grades 9-12: 1. What is an advantage and disadvantage of having purple flowers? 2. Are the flowers of bergamot generalist or specialized for pollinators? How do you know? 3. What limits population sizes of bergamot such that it has not become an invasive species? Project Magnolia grandiflora

21 Passion Flower Passiflora incarnata Identifying Features Climbing vine Three-lobed leaves Single large purple flowers with fringe inside the petals Grows in open areas; easily spreads Attracts bees and butterflies; the leaves are food for Gulf Fritillary caterpillars A B C A: flower; B: fruits: C: leaves Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

22 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What parts of this plant are alive? How do you know? 2. What does this plant use its leaves for? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. Why is passionflower able to grow in sunny and shady areas? Grades 6-8: 1. What does passionflower provide in return for pollination by insects that visit flowers? 2. How do other animals interact with passionflower and why? Grades 9-12: 1. What is an advantage and disadvantage of growing as a vine? 2. What would happen to Gulf Fritillary butterflies if passionflower went extinct? 3. Explain how Gulf Fritillary butterflies and passionflower evolved together to rely upon each other. Project Magnolia grandiflora

23 Partridge Pea Chamaecrista fasciculata Identifying Features Compound leaves with many small leaflets Open, yellow flowers with brown or red inside Grows in open areas; increases nitrogen in soils Attracts bees, ants A B C A: compound leaves; B: close up of flowers; C: leaf gland with nectar Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

24 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What parts of this plant are alive? How do you know? 2. What does this plant use its roots for? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. How would a partridge pea seedling look different than an adult plant? Grades 6-8: 1. What does partridge pea provide in return for pollination by insects that visit flowers? 2. How do other animals interact with partridge pea and why? Grades 9-12: 1. How does partridge pea benefit other plants growing with it? 2. Explain the mutualistic relationship between partridge peas and ants. What does each partner get from living together that they don t get living separately? 3. Partridge pea plants growing in some areas have a lot of hair on their stems and leaves. How could this be an adaptive trait? Project Magnolia grandiflora

25 Cardinal Flower Lobelia cardinalis Identifying Features Narrow, elliptic leaves Clusters of scarlet red tubular flowers with fringed petals Grows in shady, wet areas Attracts hummingbirds, butterflies, bees A B A: habit: B: close-up of flowers Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

26 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What parts of this plant are alive? How do you know? 2. What does this plant use its leaves for? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. How would a cardinal flower seedling look different than an adult plant? Grades 6-8: 1. Why would hummingbirds like to visit cardinal flowers? 2. How do other animals interact with cardinal flower and why? Grades 9-12: 1. Cardinal flowers appear in the late summer. What is an advantage of this timing of flowering versus species that flower in the spring or early summer? 2. How do pollinators manipulate cardinal flowers? What are they searching for? How do they move pollen from one flower to another? 3. What other species grow in similar habitats as cardinal flowers? Project Magnolia grandiflora

27 Trumpet Creeper Campsis radicans Identifying Features Climbing vine Compound leaves with toothed leaflets Red-orange tubular flowers Grows in shady to sunny areas; readily spreads Attracts hummingbirds A B A: flowers; B: compound leaves; C: fruits C Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

28 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What parts of this plant are alive? How do you know? 2. What does this plant use its stems for? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. How would a trumpet creeper seedling look different than an adult plant? Grades 6-8: 1. Why would hummingbirds like to visit trumpet creeper flowers? 2. Given that trumpet creeper is a vine, how does it interact with other plants in its environment? Grades 9-12: 1. How do pollinators manipulate trumpet creeper flowers? What are they searching for? How do they move pollen from one flower to another? 2. What adaptations allows trumpet creeper to grow so easily in Mississippi? 3. What adaptations of the fruit or seeds permit them to be dispersed? Project Magnolia grandiflora

29 Coral Honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens Identifying Features Climbing vine Elliptic leaves opposite on the stem Red-orange tubular flowers with yellow inside Grows in sunny areas Attracts hummingbirds A B A: leaves and flowers; B: close-up of flowers Present Absent Project Magnolia grandiflora wwww.mississippiplants.org

30 Questions Grades K-2: 1. What does this plant use its leaves for? 2. What does this plant need to grow? Grades 3-5: 1. What do flowers provide for pollinators? 2. Honeysuckle is a producer. What does this mean? What does it make? Grades 6-8: 1. Why would hummingbirds like to visit honeysuckle flowers? 2. How do other animals interact with honeysuckle and why? Grades 9-12: 1. How could growing as a vine be adaptive relative to other herbaceous plants? 2. How do pollinators manipulate honeysuckle flowers? What are they searching for? How do they move pollen from one flower to another? 3. Japanese honeysuckle is invasive. Why do you think it is a better competitor than coral honeysuckle? Project Magnolia grandiflora

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