GDM 101 MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

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1 GDM 101 MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS Session No.05 Part I Motivation and Teamwork Motivation Senior Lecturer: Mrs J.S.Senevirathne Department of Business Administration Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce University of Sri Jayewardenepura

2 Learning Outcomes Define motivation. Explain the process of motivation. Describe content theories and process theories of motivation. Understand the innovative ideas for employee motivation. 2

3 Definitions of Motivation A process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals. (Scott Cited in Griffin, 2010) The way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings, needs, direct control or explain the behavior of human beings. (McFarland Cited in Griffin, 2010) The forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. (Daft,2012) Work Motivation The willingness to exert high level of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort s ability to satisfy some individual need. 3

4 A Simple Model of Motivation (Source: Daft.L.R., New Era of Management,Indian Edition,2012)

5 Theories of Motivation Content Theories Abraham Maslow s hierachy of needs theory Fedric Herztberg s two factor theory Clayton Alderfer s ERG theory David McClelland s three forces / acquired needs theory Douglas McGregor s theory X & theory Y Process Theories Goal setting theory Equity theory Expectancy theory Reinforcement theory Social learning theory 5

6 Content Perspectives on Motivation Focus on the needs that motivate behavior. Needs motivate people and it translates into an internal drive that motivates behavior. If managers understand employees needs, they can design appropriate reward systems. 6

7 Abraham Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs (Source: Daft.L.R., New Era of Management,Indian Edition,2012) 7

8 ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Existence needs the needs for physical well-being Relatedness needs the needs for satisfactory relationships with others Growth needs the needs that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth Frustration-regression principle: failure to meet a high-order need may cause a regression to an already satisfied lower-order need 8

9 Herzberg s Two Factors Theory (Source: Daft.L.R., New Era of Management,Indian Edition,2012)

10 Relationship among Herzberg s two factor theory, Maslow s and Alderfer s motivational theories Herzberg s Two Factor Theory Motivators Hygiene Factors Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Self-actualization Needs Esteem Social Safety Physiological Needs ERG Theory Growth Relatedness Existence (Griffin, 2010) 10

11 Acquired Needs Theory (David McClelland) Need for Achievement : The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation: The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. 11

12 Theory X and Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal. 12

13 Process Perspectives on Motivation How people select behavioral actions to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful. Goal-Setting Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory 13

14 Goal Setting Theory (Edwin Locke & Gary Latham) Proposes that managers can increase motivation and enhance performance by setting specific, challenging goals, then helping people track their progress towards goals achievement by providing timely feedback. Goal Specificity Goal Difficulty Goal Acceptance Feedback 14

15 Equity Theory (J. Stacy Adams) Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. Common methods for reducing a perceived inequity are : Change work effort Change outcomes Change perceptions Leave the job 15

16 Expectancy Theory (Victor Voom ) Motivation depends on individuals expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards. E P: putting effort into a given task will lead to high performance P O: successful performance of a task will lead to the desired outcome Valence the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome (Source: Daft.L.R., New Era of Management,Indian Edition,2012) 16

17 Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation Reinforcement theory is based on the relationship between behavior and its consequences. Behavior modification is the set of techniques used to modify human behavior. Law of effect asserts that behavior that is positively reinforced tends to be repeated and unreinforced or negatively reinforced behavior inhibited. Reinforcement is anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited. 17

18 Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation (Cont ) The reinforcement tools are; Positive Reinforcement Pleasant and rewarding consequences following a desired behavior. Avoidance Learning (negative reinforcement) Removal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved, thereby encouraging and strengthening the desired behavior. Punishment The imposition of an unpleasant outcome following an undesirable behavior. Extinction Withholding positive rewards and essentially ignoring undesirable behavior. 18

19 Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation (Cont ) 19

20 Social Learning Theory Individual s motivation can result not just from direct experience of rewards and punishments but also from the person s thoughts, beliefs, and observations of other people s behavior. Vicarious learning observational learning from seeing others behaviors and rewards Self-reinforcement motivating yourself by reaching goals and providing positive reinforcement for yourself Self-efficacy belief about your own ability to accomplish tasks 20

21 Innovative Ideas for Motivating Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs Employees receive information about company performance Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals Employees have the power to make substance decisions Employees are rewarded based on company performance Organizing the workplace in a way that employees feel a sense of engagement (meaningfulness, connection and growth). 21

22 Questions or Clarifications

23 THANK YOU

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