Administration and Management in Criminal Justice. Chapter 6: Motivation

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1 Administration and Management in Criminal Justice

2 Work Motivation Defined Set of forces, internal and external to an individual, that drive the person to behave in a certain manner (presumably, meeting organizational needs) (pg. 165) Two general approaches to studying work motivation Content/need theories Process theories

3 Content/Needs Theories Address what people want their needs that motivate them to behave in a certain way Theories Maslow s hierarchy of needs Alderfer s Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) theory Herzberg s motivation-hygiene theory McClelland s theory of learned needs

4 Maslow s Needs Hierarchy Self-actualization: fulfill one s potential Belonging need: desire for friendship, interaction, affection, love Esteem needs: develop self image and social esteem Safety/security needs: personal safety, job security Physiological needs: survival needs including food, water, and shelter

5 Maslow s Needs Hierarchy (cont d) Satisfaction-progression process Lowest unmet need in hierarchy is primary motivator Once met, the next unmet need becomes the motivator Once individual s self-actualize, they want more rather than less Questions Do needs cluster this nicely? Not necessarily Is there empirical support for this model? Not necessarily Example: A police officer is willing to keep silent on a colleague s misconduct (belonging needs) but, in doing so, risks his own job (security needs are sacrificed)

6 Alderfer s ERG Theory Existence-Relatedness-Growth Existence needs: physiological and security needs for material things Relatedness needs: need for interpersonal security and belongingness Growth needs: development of human potential Operation Satisfaction-progression process (like Maslow) Frustration-regression sequence: if goals are routinely frustrated or blocked, the person might regress back to the next lower category.

7 Herzberg s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Motivators: Produce motivation and job satisfaction Hygiene factors: Reduce job dissatisfaction but do not produce motivation

8 Herzberg s Motivator-Hygiene Theory (cont d) Motivators: satisfy growth and esteem needs Responsibility Achievement Personal growth Hygiene factors: if not attended to, will create dissatisfaction; will not produce job satisfaction/motivation Pay Benefits Working conditions Relationship with supervisors

9 McClelland s Theory of Learned Needs Some needs are learned or reinforced through experience Three types of needs Achievement Workers want to achieve goals independently They set moderate (challenging but reachable) goals They require feedback to know what they have accomplished

10 McClelland s Theory of Learned Needs (cont d) Power Personalized: power for own sake; status Socialized: power for good of others; to improve society Affiliation Desire approval and reassurance from others Conform to wishes of others whose friendships they value Interest in feelings of others

11 Summary of Content Theories People have internal and learned needs and are motivated by unmet needs Manager motivates by communicating that certain behaviors will allow workers to meet these needs

12 Process Theories Link the needs identified in the different needs theories to actual worker behavior Theories Expectancy theory Equity theory Procedural justice theory Reinforcement theory

13 Expectancy Theory Parts of the theory Valence: how desirable are the outcomes? An officer may not be motivated to participate in the promotional process because the extra pay is not worth the extra responsibilities Instrumentality: will work result in outcome? An officer does not attend community meetings because it is not valued by supervisor; work will not likely lead to valued outcomes Expectancies: does a person have opportunity and ability to complete the work? An officer does not attend community meetings because she is overwhelmed by the number of 911 calls; she lacks opportunity

14 Expectancy Theory (cont d) Operates in a multiplicative fashion For motivation to be highest, all three factors must be high. Individual must value rewards Individual must see connection between performance and outcomes Individual must have opportunity and ability to perform/achieve outcomes

15 Equity Theory Parts Inputs: effort required to do the job (expected) Outputs: outcome received for doing job (expected) Operation Worker compares own input/outcome ratio to others Inequity occurs when ratios are different Overpayment inequity: a person receives outputs given their inputs Underpayment inequity: a person receives fewer outputs given their inputs

16 Procedural Justice Theory Focuses less on the actual outcomes and more on the procedures used to arrive at those outcomes Workers will be motivated if procedures to resolve disputes, measure performance, etc. are fair, regardless of outcome Treatment of workers with honesty, courtesy, etc. Transparency and objectiveness in process

17 Reinforcement Theory People repeat rewarding behavior and avoid unpleasant behavior Techniques of reinforcement Positive reinforcement: reward behavior Escape or avoidance reinforcement: painful or unpleasant consequences will be removed upon completion of task Repeated non-reinforcement: eliminates undesirable behaviors Punishment: present unpleasant consequence to remove undesirable behavior

18 Workplace Design Can the job be designed so that accomplishment meets individual and organizational needs? Job design Scientific management: use less effort to accomplish task; experience greater outcomes (extrinsic motivation) Job enlargement: increasing the number of tasks associated with the job (horizontal job loading) Job enrichment: give workers supervisor-type responsibilities (vertical job loading)

19 More Workplace Design Job Characteristics Model Created in 1970s by Hackman and Oldham Jobs with certain characteristics are self-motivating, self-rewarding (intrinsically motivating) Core job dimensions Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback

20 More Workplace Design Goal setting Elements Goal: a target or desired end result accomplished through one s behavior and actions (pg. 187) Goal characteristics Specificity: can be measured objectively Difficulty: more difficulty = higher levels of effort Management by objectives (MBO)

21 Performance Evaluations Evaluate workers input in order to distribute rewards (outcomes) Fits within process theories of motivation Expectancy theory: workers know what is valued Equity theory: workers receive outcomes consistent with inputs Procedural justice theory: evaluation process is fair/transparent

22 Performance Appraisal Issues Types Formal: detailed, less frequent, determined in advance Informal: more general, more frequent, ad hoc What factors are included in evaluations? Traits Behaviors Results

23 Who Should Conduct the Appraisals? Self appraisal Worker evaluates himself/herself Peer appraisal Coworkers perform evaluation (conflicts of interest?) Subordinate appraisal Evaluations by those working under supervisor Customer/client appraisal Provided by outsiders who have contact with the organization 360 degree appraisal Multiple sources are used and aggregated

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