Preventing further overpopulation in developing nations while dealing with its already existing effects

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1 Committee: Issue: Student Officer: ECOSOC Preventing further overpopulation in developing nations while dealing with its already existing effects Farida Soliman (ECOSOC Chair) I- Introduction The current global population is approximately 7 billion. However by 2050 it is expected to be approximately 9.1 billion. The rapid increase of population over the last century is alarming. In addition, overpopulation has been a cause to several issues, including water scarcity, food shortage, unemployment, pollution, deforestation, and depletion of natural resources. Therefore it is extremely crucial that such an issue is dealt with due to its importance and severity. It has also been found that the developing nations are inhabited by 80% of the world s population, in addition to accounting for 95% of global population increase. Developing nations also use potentially hazardous techniques in agriculture and in the industry, these methods damage the environment and eventually their surrounding ecosystems. Therefore most solutions should be aimed at improving overpopulation and its impacts in the developing nations. II- Involved Countries and Organizations China China s Involvement China has the greatest population in the world with approximately 1,343,239,923 citizens (around 21% of the world population). In China the population increases approximately 8-10 million people per year, which is extremely alarming for both China and the world. Currently, China is able to produce food for approximately half of its population. China is suffering both socially and economically due to the increase in their population that leads to numerous internal problems such as water scarcity, pollution, and food shortage. China also suffers due to its population pyramid, which shows that the citizens around the age of are more than the working or able class. China s Population Control Policy China is famous for its controversial one child per family policy, which states that the citizens would be offered special benefits if they agreed to have only one child and that families that had more than one child would be severely taxed up to 50% of their income. Other than the one child per family policy China s other attempts to restrict population growth came through birth control programs and campaigns. Despite the one child per family policy, China s population continued to grow due to falsified reports and underreporting the number of births by approximately 25% in

2 India India s involvement Following China, India is ranked second in terms of population, with a population of 1,205,073,612. Overpopulation has been an obstacle for India as it hinders its growth and causes more domestic and internal problems. At roughly 1.2 billion inhabitants, India's population is projected to grow to 1.8 billion before stabilizing around the middle of this century. It is already six times Brazil's current 200 million, a figure that is stable and likely to begin descending in years ahead. Not surprisingly, Brazil's per capita GDP is more than three times that of India. However, unlike most countries, overpopulation has more benefits in India including a massive and young working force. More than a quarter of the world's supply of new workers in the next decade will come from India, according to the United Nations. However, it will take significant efforts in public education and health care, among other needs, if the country is to take full advantage of this demographic dividend. India s Population Control Policy Coercive governmental measures like decreasing benefits to a family with more than one child (as are being enacted in India (Reuters) can result in discrimination against female children if there are cultural pressures to produce boys, which also exist in India. This discrimination ranges to depriving girls of food, education, and health services, to aborted female fetuses and female infanticide (ENN, Earthtimes). Other coercive measures have been attempted in India. In , former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi created sterilization camps and forced vasectomies (Deutsche Presse-Agentur,), causing population-control policies to be met with strong resistance and fear, stagnating progress significantly (Earthtimes Dec. 23). More recently, the government has considered using injection birth-control methods, which have been alleged to have significant negative side effects and recall the coercive measures of the 70s (The Hindu 2001). Indonesia With a population of 248,645,008 citizens, Indonesia ranks fourth in terms of population. Even though Indonesia's growth rate had decreased over the decades since independence, the population continued to grow and population density increased significantly, particularly on the main islands. In July 1992, Indonesia's population had reached 195,683,531, with an annual growth rate of 1.7 percent, according to United States estimates. The Indonesians themselves claimed 179,322,000 in their 1990 census and various foreign estimates for 1992 ranged between 183 million and 184 million, with a 1.7 percent growth rate. Population growth placed enormous pressures on land, the education system, and other social resources, and was closely linked to the dramatic rise in population mobility and urbanization. At such rates of growth, the population was expected to double by 2025 United Nations Population Fund Population and development strategies As the world population edged to 7 billion people in 2011 (up from 2.5 billion in 1950), it has had profound implications for development. Governments need to gather adequate information about population dynamics and trends to create and manage sound policies and generate the political will to address both current and future human needs. UNFPA supports governments in these tasks, including censuses, surveys and population and development-related research and analysis. Recent Goals Radically increase financial support and political commitment to ensuring that rights-based family planning is available to all who want it, when they want it, and that services, supplies and information are of high quality. Promote family planning as a right, the exercise of which enables the attainment of a whole range of other rights. Integrate voluntary family planning into broader economic and social development because family planning enhances both. 2

3 Eliminate economic, social, logistical and financial obstacles to voluntary family planning so that everyone who chooses to use it has access to it. Reduce the number of unintended pregnancies and abortions by increasing availability, reliability and quality of family planning supplies and services. Make family planning programmes available to the full range of users, including adolescents, unmarried people, and all others who need it. Include emergency contraception in the range of supplies available through family planning programmes. 1 World Health Organization The United Nations began tackling the issue of overpopulation through organizations such as the WHO. The WHO has been active in several issues, including population growth and family planning. The WHO has also been aiming to improve education and raise awareness in developing nations. III- Focused Overview of the Issue The issue of overpopulation is a controversial issue, some believe that when the population increases the work force increases and provides the ability to rise in the economy, the military, and the industry. However others believe that overpopulation is a major issue that must be prevented because the earth can no longer sustain and provide a massive population of 7 to 9 billion. One of the most prominent figures to believe that overpopulation would lead to the collapse of the world is Thomas Malthus. In 1798 Thomas Malthus, an eighteenth century British economist, predicted that the world s population would eventually be larger than the production of food. The lack of food would then lead to a massive collapse, starting wars, collapsing governments, and causing a worldwide state of chaos

4 Overpopulation is mostly an issue in developing nations for numerous reasons such as, lack of education, ignorance, and religious beliefs. That is why the organizations in charge of overpopulation target the developing countries, specifically the uneducated. In developed countries families increase the amount of children they have in order to have a source of income, because most developing countries do not have laws on child labor. Another reason the amount of children is increased is because developing nations rely on agriculture, as a source of income, therefore having more children would allow them to have a bigger working force. Despite the fact that, currently, the population growth rate is not as high as it used to be, the amount of people already on earth is alarming. This is because for years now poverty, water scarcity, food shortages, and pollution have increased, while job opportunities and resources have decreased. 1) Population and Pollution Overpopulation causes many problems; one of the most important would be pollution as it affects the environment, global warming, and a numerous amount of issues. List of most polluted areas on earth Linfen, China Tianying, China Sukinda, India Vapi, India La Oroya, Peru Dzerzhinsk, Russia Norilsk, Russia Chernobyl, Ukraine Sumgayit, Azerbaijan Kabwe, Zambia It is with no surprise that we realize there is a direct correlation between the population and the pollution. It is evident that the top 4 polluted areas in the world are in the top 2 populated countries in the world. 4

5 2) Population and Water Stress Overpopulation is not the direct cause for water scarcity, however overpopulation does increase the WSI (water stress indicator) of a country. Water scarcity increases when the population increases because the resources are usually not enough and the sanitary water is rare. IV- Key Vocabulary Contraceptive: Methods of preventing pregnancy. Population Density: Often mistaken for overpopulation, population density is the land in relation to the citizens. V- Failed Solution Attempts 1. Contraceptive methods have, previously, been ignored due to religious beliefs. 2. The uneducated and impoverished citizens in developing nations do not have access to contraceptive methods and are not given incentives or access by the government. 3. There are different reasons for high birth rates; religious reasons, ignorance, attempts to ensure reproductive success, and attempts to create a family labor pool. 4. Falsified reports have often been created to avoid punishment from government when harsh policies are applied, for example one child per family policy. 5

6 VI- Possible Solutions 1. Raising awareness 2. A creative way to limit the amount of children per family, such as providing incentives, without neglecting the rights of the people. 3. Educating developing nations on the importance of the matter 4. Tackling the sub issues such as food shortage, waste management, pollution, water scarcity, depletion of natural resources. VII- Useful Links E66CEE.jahia billion-by-2050/

7 VIII- Works Cited "China's Concern Over Population Aging and Health." China's Concern Over Population Aging and Health. 24 Aug "Chinas Response To Overpopulation Essays and Term Papers." Chinas Response To Free Essays 1. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug Overpopulation "Country Comparison Population TOP 100." Population. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "EcoFuture." EcoFuture (TM) Environmental Resources. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Highest Unemployment Rates in the World." Aneki.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "India's Growth Held Back by Overpopulation." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Indonesia - Population." Indonesia - Population. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Overpopulation in Asia." Overpopulation in Asia Downloads RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Overpopulation in India." Overpopulation in India. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Overpopulation Major Problem." Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Population Control and Consequences in China." Population Control and Consequences in China. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Population Distribution / Density / Change." Population Distribution / Density / Change. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Report Lists Top Ten Countries at Risk of Water Shortages." The Ecologist. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "Report Lists Top Ten Countries at Risk of Water Shortages." The Ecologist. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "The Staggers." Top 10: The World's Most Overpopulated Countries. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Aug "The Staggers." Top 10: The World's Most Overpopulated Countries. 24 Aug "UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund." UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund. Web. 24 Aug

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