# Chapter 24. What will you learn in this chapter? Valuing an economy. Measuring the Wealth of Nations

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 24. What will you learn in this chapter? Valuing an economy. Measuring the Wealth of Nations"

## Transcription

1 Chapter 24 Measuring the Wealth of Nations 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education 1 What will you learn in this chapter? How to calculate gross domestic product (GDP). Why each component of GDP is important. What different approaches are used to calculate GDP. What the difference is between real and nominal GDP. How to calculate the GDP deflator, GDP per capita, and the real GDP annual growth rate. What limitations of GDP exist by McGraw-Hill Education 2 Valuing an economy Macroeconomics is the study of the economy on a broad scale, focusing on issues such as economic growth, unemployment, and inflation. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of the market values of all final goods and services produced in a country within a given period of time. GDP is the most common metric for measuring the value of a national economy by McGraw-Hill Education 3 1

2 Valuing an economy When constructing a measure of how much a nation can produce in a given year, there are two hurdles that must be overcome: How to add up unique goods and services into one measure of productivity. Not double counting intermediate goods and services that go into final goods and services. Simon Kuznets and Richard Stone came up with the national income accounting that resolves both of these issues by McGraw-Hill Education 4 Unpacking the definition of GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. Market value: Used so there are common units to add up goods and services. Final goods and services: Only count expenditures on goods and services sold to the consumer. Produced within a country: Goods and services are counted towards GDP in terms of location of production. Given period of time: Usually refers to an annual estimate by McGraw-Hill Education 5 Production = expenditure = income The size of an economy is referred to as either output or production. Circular Flow Diagram Land, labor, and capital Markets for the factors of production Purchased land, labor and capital Income Wages, rent, and profit Households Firms Spending Goods and services bought Markets for goods and services Revenue Goods and services to be sold Total output can be measured as total income. However, every transaction has a buyer and seller. Therefore, total output can also be measured as total expenditures. Value of Production = Expenditure = Income Flow of dollars Flow of goods 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education 6 and services 2

3 Measuring GDP: The expenditure approach The expenditure approach breaks expenditures down into four categories: Consumption is spending on goods and services by private individuals and households. Investment is spending on productive inputs, such as factories, machinery, and inventory changes. Inventory is the stock of goods that a company produces now but does not sell immediately. Government purchases is spending on goods and services by all levels of the government. Net exports is exports minus imports by McGraw-Hill Education 7 The expenditure approach The U.S. GDP for 2011 is broken down as follows. Trillions of dollars (\$) Government purchases (20.1%) Investment (12.7%) Consumption (71.1% of total GDP) The four categories in the expenditure approach: Consumption (C). Investment (I). Government purchases (G). Net exports (NX). Expenditure = C + I + G + NX = Production. 0 Net exports (-3.8%) 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education 8 The expenditure approach The following table categorizes each situation in GDP according to the expenditure approach. Situation GDP Category Why? Buying a new digital camera Consumption Purchasing a new good or service always counts toward GDP. Buying a used camera in ebay Not counted As a used good, the camera does not count toward GDP, as it was already counted when new. The fees paid to ebay for selling the camera count as consumption, though. Buying a new house Investment Since the house can increase or fall in value, it makes sense to think of it as an investment. Renting an apartment Consumption You are paying the owner of the house for a service, so it is counted as consumption. Apple makes a new batch of ipads but Investment Counted as part of investment, as Apple is holding doesn t sell them until next year these tablets as part of its inventory. Buying shares of General Motors stock Not counted Shares of stock are a transfer of money from one owner of the stock to another. Including stocks would cause a double-counting problem. TSA buys plastic bins for airport security Government Any consumption or investment purchases made by spending the government are counted in GDP as government spending. Babysitting for your neighbor Not counted In principle, it should be included in GDP, but such income is often not reported to the IRS so it can t be by McGraw-Hill Education included in official statistics. 3

4 Active Learning: Expenditure Approach For each of the following scenarios, categorize each GDP spending item using the expenditure approach. 1. Delta purchases an airplane built in Canada. 2. DELL builds a new computer. At the end of the year, the computer is not sold and is placed in storage. 3. The government pays a U.S. company for a new naval missile carrier. 4. Joe purchases Pearl Jam tickets in Denver, CO. 5. Sarah purchases a new VW car manufactured in Germany. 6. The government pays \$100 million to war veterans by McGraw-Hill Education 10 Measuring GDP: The income approach The income approach adds up the income earned by everyone (households and firms) in a country. This includes wages earned by workers, interest earned on capital investments, rents earned on land, and profits earned by firms. Income = Wages + Interest + Rental income + Profits by McGraw-Hill Education 11 Sold Expenditure vs. income approaches The income approach yields the same results as the expenditure approach in an economy without any imports or exports. Add net exports to equate the expenditure and income approaches. International Domestic Domestic C + I + G Exports Produced International Imports Foreign transactions C + I + G Foreign transactions Imports (subtracted out) 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education 12 GDP Exports (added in) 4

5 Measuring GDP: The value-added approach The value-added approach calculates the value that each transaction adds to the economy. This allows us to determine how much of the total amount paid was created at each step in the production process. This approach is helpful in avoiding doublecounting and calculating how the resale of existing goods contributes to GDP. The value-added, expenditure, and income approaches all yield the same calculation of GDP by McGraw-Hill Education 13 Active Learning: The value-added approach Suppose that a pair of pants has the following production process. Provide the value added at each process and the value of a pair of pants in GDP. Situation Value of Output Cotton \$2 Denim Fabric \$6 Jean Producer \$9 Jena Distributor \$10 Jean Retailer \$23 Value-added: Cotton: Denim Fabric: Jean Producer: Jean Distributor: Jena Retailer: What is the sum of the values added from all production processes to make the shirt? 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education 14 Using GDP to compare economies U.S. GDP increased from \$12.5 trillion in 2005 to \$14 trillion in Does this mean that people in the U.S. produced more goods and services in 2009 as compared to 2005? GDP is a function of both the quantity of goods and services produced (output) and their market value (prices). Often an increase in GDP is the result of growth in both quantity and market value by McGraw-Hill Education 15 5

6 Using GDP to compare economies In order to use GDP to compare economic growth over time or different economies to one another, we need to know how much of the growth is attributable to each factor. Nominal GDP: Goods and services are valued at current prices. Real GDP: Goods and services are valued at constant prices by McGraw-Hill Education 16 Nominal vs. real GDP To calculate nominal GDP: Multiply the quantity of each good in a given year by its price in that year. To calculate real GDP: Select a base year to fix prices. Multiply the quantity of each good in a given year by its base year price. Year Pizza Price of Spaghetti Price of Nominal Real GDP (millions) Pizza (\$) (millions) Spaghetti (\$) GDP in 2010 prices What s happening (millions of \$) (millions of \$) 2010 (5 x \$10)+ (5 x \$10)+ In the base year, (base year) (20 x \$8) = (20 x \$8)= nominal GDP and real GDP are equal \$210 \$210 by definition. When output rises (6 x \$10)+ (6 x \$10)+ and prices stay (22 x \$8) = (22 x \$8)= constant, nominal \$236 \$236 and real GDP rise at the same rate. When prices rise (6 x \$12)+ (6 x \$10)+ and output stays (22 x \$10)= (22 x \$8)= constant, nominal \$292 \$236 GDP rises but real GDP does not. When both output (7 x \$13)+ (7 x \$10)+ and prices rise, (25 x \$11)= (25 x \$8)= nominal and \$366 \$270 real GDP rise at different rates by McGraw-Hill Education 17 Active Learning: Calculating nominal and real GDP Calculate nominal and real GDP given a base year of Year Quantity of Apples Quantity of Oranges Price of Apples (\$) Price of Oranges (\$) Year NGDP RGDP Education 2014 by McGraw-Hill 18 6

7 The GDP deflator The GDP deflator is a measure of the overall change in prices in an economy using the ratio between real and nominal GDP. GDP deflator = Nominal GDP X 100 Real GDP Provides the ratio between the base-year value of current output and the current-year value of current output. Helps summarize how prices have changed over the entire economy by McGraw-Hill Education 19 The GDP deflator Inflation describes how fast the overall level of prices is changing. Inflation can be calculated by looking at the percentage change in the GDP deflator between any two years. Year Nominal GDP (millions of \$) Real GDP (millions of \$) Deflator Inflation \$210 x 100 = 100 \$210 \$236 x 100 = 100 \$236 \$292 x 100 = 123 \$236 ( )/100= 0% ( )/100= 23% \$366 x 100 = 136 \$270 ( )/123= 10.6% 2014 by Education 20 McGraw-Hill Active Learning: Calculating the GDP deflator Calculate the GDP deflator for below. Year NGDP RGDP GDP Deflator 2012 \$7 \$ \$11 \$ \$25 \$ by McGraw-Hill Education 21 7

8 Using GDP to assess economic health In 2011, GDPs around the world varied substantially. Country Rank United States 1 China 2 Japan 3 Germany France Brazil United Kingdom Italy India Russian Federation Denmark Zambia Eritrea The U.S. has the largest economy, followed by China. Does not consider population Trillions of current U.S. dollars 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education 22 GDP per capita GDP per capita is calculated as: GDP per capita = GDP / population. Knowing the GDP per capita for different countries suggests a lot about differences in life and well-being between countries. GDP per capita does not provide information about the distribution of income or the cost of living within a country by McGraw-Hill Education 23 GDP per capita GDP per capita around the world varies as well. Does not consider income inequality. Does not consider how far a dollar goes in each country by McGraw-Hill Education 24 8

9 Active Learning: GDP deflator and GDP per capita Use the following information to calculate real GDP per capita. Year Nominal GDP (millions of \$) Real GDP (millions of \$) Population (millions of people) Real GDP per capita by McGraw-Hill Education 25 GDP growth rates The change in the economy can be estimated over time. GDP GDP GDP X 100 where t is the current year and t-1 is last year. Growth rates can track the business cycle. A recession is a period of significant economic decline Negative GDP growth rate. A depression is a particularly severe or extended recession by McGraw-Hill Education 26 GDP growth rates Since 1960, the U.S. has had eight periods of recession, even though real GDP grew significantly and steadily over the same period. Trillions of dollars Recession by McGraw-Hill Education Year 27 9

10 Global GDP per capita GDP growth around the world. Growth is more rapid in lesser developing nations. High growth rates are not necessarily associated with high total GDP or GDP per capita by McGraw-Hill Education 28 Limitations of GDP measures GDP calculations leave out some important types of economic activity. Home production Environmental externalities The underground economy Green GDP is an alternative measure of GDP that subtracts the environmental costs of production from the positive outputs normally counted by McGraw-Hill Education 29 GDP vs. well-being GDP tells much about living standards and can be compared with other measures of well-being. Country Norway GDP per capita (Current U.S. \$) 79,089 (4) Literacy rate (% of population over 15) Life expectancy at birth (Years) 80.5 (13) Child mortality (Deaths per 1,000 under age 5) 4 (8) Life satisfaction index (0 to 10) 8.1 (6) United States 45,989 (12) 78 (36) 8 (37) 7.8 (10) Equatorial Guinea 15,397 (44) 93 (49) 50.1 (172) 167 (189) Brazil 8,230 (61) 90.0 (63) 72.2 (102) 29 (109) 7.6 (24) Bulgaria 6,423 (69) 98.3 (28) 72.7 (94) 12 (61) 4.4 (111) China 3,744 (103) 93.7 (43) 72.7 (95) 26 (102) 5.2 (94) Mali 691 (160) 26.2 (130) 50 (184) 193 (195) 3.7 (120) Value 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education (country rank) 30 10

11 Summary GDP is one of the most commonly used tools in macroeconomics and gives a measure of the size of an economy. GDP is the sum of the market values of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. There are three approaches used to calculate GDP: The expenditure approach classifies and adds up spending on all goods and services produced in an economy and subtracts spending on imports. The income approach adds up income earned by everyone in a country. The value-added approach accounts for the value that is added to the economy at each production stage by McGraw-Hill Education 31 Summary GDP per capita allows comparisons over time and across countries. However, it does not provide the full picture of an economy s health and quality of life. Additionally, the overall price level can be calculated using nominal GDP and real GDP, called the GDP deflator by McGraw-Hill Education 32 11

### Measuring the Wealth of Nations

Measuring the Wealth of Nations Chapter 24 LEARNING OBJECTIVES LO 24.1 LO 24.2 LO 24.3 LO 24.4 LO 24.5 LO 24.6 Justify the importance of using the market value of final goods and services to calculate

### Chapter 8. GDP : Measuring Total Production and Income

Chapter 8. GDP : Measuring Total Production and Income Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics Related Economic Terms Macroeconomics:

### Unit 4: Measuring GDP and Prices

Unit 4: Measuring GDP and Prices ECO 120 Global Macroeconomics 1 1.1 Reading Reading Module 10 - pages 106-110 Module 11 1.2 Goals Goals Specific Goals: Understand how to measure a country s output. Learn

### GDP: Measuring Total Production and Income

Chapter 7 (19) GDP: Measuring Total Production and Income Chapter Summary While microeconomics is the study of how households and firms make choices, how they interact in markets, and how the government

### Exam 1 Review. 3. A severe recession is called a(n): A) depression. B) deflation. C) exogenous event. D) market-clearing assumption.

Exam 1 Review 1. Macroeconomics does not try to answer the question of: A) why do some countries experience rapid growth. B) what is the rate of return on education. C) why do some countries have high

### MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH CHAPTER

MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH CHAPTER Objectives After studying this chapter, you will able to Define GDP and use the circular flow model to explain why GDP equals aggregate expenditure and aggregate

### Tracking the Macroeconomy

chapter 7(23) Tracking the Macroeconomy Chapter Objectives Students will learn in this chapter: How economists use aggregate measures to track the performance of the economy. What gross domestic product,

### Households Wages, profit, interest, rent = \$750. Factor markets. Wages, profit, interest, rent = \$750

KrugmanMacro_SM_Ch07.qxp 11/9/05 4:47 PM Page 87 Tracking the Macroeconomy 1. Below is a simplified circular-flow diagram for the economy of Micronia. a. What is the value of GDP in Micronia? b. What is

### Macroeconomics: GDP, GDP Deflator, CPI, & Inflation

HOSP 2207 (Economics) Learning Centre Macroeconomics: GDP, GDP Deflator, CPI, & Inflation Macroeconomics is the big picture view of an economy. Microeconomics looks at the market for a specific good, like

### Reference: Gregory Mankiw s Principles of Macroeconomics, 2 nd edition, Chapters 10 and 11. Gross Domestic Product

Macroeconomics Topic 1: Define and calculate GDP. Understand the difference between real and nominal variables (e.g., GDP, wages, interest rates) and know how to construct a price index. Reference: Gregory

### The Data of Macroeconomics

CHAPTER 2 The Data of Macroeconomics Modified for ECON 2204 by Bob Murphy 2016 Worth Publishers, all rights reserved IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN:... the meaning and measurement of the most important

### CHAPTER 5: MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

CHAPTER 5: MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH Learning Goals for this Chapter: To know what we mean by GDP and to use the circular flow model to explain why GDP equals aggregate expenditure and aggregate

### MEASURING A NATION S INCOME

10 MEASURING A NATION S INCOME WHAT S NEW IN THE FIFTH EDITION: There is more clarification on the GDP deflator. The Case Study on Who Wins at the Olympics? is now an FYI box. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: By the

### Economics 212 Principles of Macroeconomics Study Guide. David L. Kelly

Economics 212 Principles of Macroeconomics Study Guide David L. Kelly Department of Economics University of Miami Box 248126 Coral Gables, FL 33134 dkelly@miami.edu First Version: Spring, 2006 Current

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 7-1 In what ways are national income statistics useful? National income accounting does for the economy as a whole what private accounting does for businesses. Firms

### Chapter 5: GDP and Economic Growth

Chapter 5: GDP and Economic Growth Be Mean Green! Please consider the environment before printing this Chapter Outline. It ll be available online throughout the semester. For Firms private accounting measures

### Chapter 20. The Measurement of National Income. In this chapter you will learn to. National Output and Value Added

Chapter 20 The Measurement of National Income In this chapter you will learn to 1. Use the concept of value added to solve the problem of double counting when measuring national income. 2. Describe the

### Cosumnes River College Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 3 Due September 17, 2015

Cosumnes River College Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 3 Due September 17, 2015 Name: Solutions Fall 2015 Prof. Dowell Instructions: Write the answers clearly and concisely on these sheets in

### 11.1 Estimating Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Objectives

11.1 Estimating Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Objectives Describe what the gross domestic product measures. Learn two ways to calculate the gross domestic product, and explain why they are equivalent. 11.1

### INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMICS MIDTERM- SAMPLE QUESTIONS

INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMICS MIDTERM- SAMPLE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In May 2009, Ford Motor Company's sales

### Macroeconomics Instructor Miller GDP Practice Problems

Macroeconomics Instructor Miller GDP Practice Problems 1. Gross domestic product in the economy is measured by the A) total number of goods and services produced in the economy. B) dollar value of all

### Summer 2014 Week 3 Tutorial Questions (Ch2) Solutions

Chapter 2: Q1: Macroeconomics P.52 Numerical Problems #3 Q2: Macroeconomics P.52 Numerical Problems #6 Q3: Macroeconomics P.53 Numerical Problems #7 Q4: Macroeconomics P.53 Numerical Problems #9 Q5: Macroeconomics

### I. Measuring Output: GDP

University of California-Davis Economics 1B-Intro to Macro Handout 3 TA: Jason Lee Email: jawlee@ucdavis.edu I. Measuring Output: GDP As was mentioned earlier, the ability to estimate the amount of production

### MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH*

Chapter 5 MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH* Gross Domestic Product Topic: GDP 1) Gross domestic product is the total produced within a country in a given time period. A) market value of all final and

### Measuring the Aggregate Economy

CHAPTER 25 Measuring the Aggregate Economy The government is very keen on amassing statistics... They collect them, add them, raise them to the n th power, take the cube root and prepare wonderful diagrams.

### Measuring GDP and Economic Growth

20 Measuring GDP and Economic Growth After studying this chapter you will be able to Define GDP and explain why GDP equals aggregate expenditure and aggregate income Explain how Statistics Canada measures

### Name: Date: 3. Variables that a model tries to explain are called: A. endogenous. B. exogenous. C. market clearing. D. fixed.

Name: Date: 1 A measure of how fast prices are rising is called the: A growth rate of real GDP B inflation rate C unemployment rate D market-clearing rate 2 Compared with a recession, real GDP during a

### Macroeconomia Capitolo 7. Seguire l andamento della macroeconomia. What you will learn in this chapter:

Macroeconomia Capitolo 7 Seguire l andamento della macroeconomia PowerPoint Slides by Can Erbil 2006 Worth Publishers, all rights reserved What you will learn in this chapter: How economists use aggregate

### Chapter 5 Macroeconomic Measurement: The Current Approach Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.)

Chapter 5 Macroeconomic Measurement: The Current Approach Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter Overview In this chapter, you will be introduced to a fairly standard examination of the National

### ECONOMIC GROWTH* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 5 MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH* Key Concepts Gross Domestic Product Gross domestic product, GDP, is the market value of all the final goods and services produced within in a country in a given

### Lecture 1: Gross Domestic Product

Lecture 1: Gross Domestic Product August 28, 2014 Prof. Wyatt Brooks MEASURING A NATION S INCOME 0 Structure of the Course First Part of the Class: The macroeconomy in the long run Why are countries rich

### A. GDP, Economic Growth, and Business Cycles

ECON 3023 Hany Fahmy FAll, 2009 Lecture Note: Introduction and Basic Concepts A. GDP, Economic Growth, and Business Cycles A.1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) de nition and measurement The Gross Domestic

### NATIONAL INCOME AND PRODUCT ACCOUNTING MEASURING THE MACROECONOMY

NATIONAL INCOME AND PRODUCT ACCOUNTING MEASURING THE MACROECONOMY 1. NIPA: GNP and GDP 2. Saving and Wealth 3. Prices and Inflation 4. Unemployment 5. Problems with Measuring the Macroeconomy There are

### Chapter 12: Gross Domestic Product and Growth Section 1

Chapter 12: Gross Domestic Product and Growth Section 1 Key Terms national income accounting: a system economists use to collect and organize macroeconomic statistics on production, income, investment,

### Chapter 15: Spending, Income and GDP

Chapter 15: Spending, Income and GDP By the end of this chapter, you will be able to: Define GDP Calculate GDP by: adding up value added of production. adding up expenditure. adding up income. Distinguish

### Big Concepts. Measuring U.S. GDP. The Expenditure Approach. Economics 202 Principles Of Macroeconomics

Lecture 6 Economics 202 Principles Of Macroeconomics Measuring GDP Professor Yamin Ahmad Real GDP and the Price Level Economic Growth and Welfare Big Concepts Ways to Measure GDP Expenditure Approach Income

### Problem Set for Chapter 10(Multiple choices)

Problem Set for Chapter 10(Multiple choices) 1. Because every transaction has a buyer and a seller, a. GDP is more closely associated with an economy s income than it is with an economy s expenditure.

### Lesson 3 - National Income Accounting

Lesson 3 - National Income Accounting Acknowledgement: Ed Sexton and Kerry Webb were the primary authors of the material contained in this lesson. Section 1 - National Income Accounting History of National

### Practice Problems on NIPA and Key Prices

Practice Problems on NIPA and Key Prices 1- What are the three approaches to measuring economic activity? Why do they give the same answer? The three approaches to national income accounting are the product

### Chapter 2 The Measurement and Structure of the National Economy

Chapter 2 The Measurement and Structure of the National Economy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The three approaches to measuring economic activity are the (a) cost, income, and expenditure approaches. (b)

### Real vs. Nominal GDP Practice

Name: Real vs. Nominal GDP Practice Period: Real verse Nominal Values Prices in an economy do not stay the same. Over time the price level changes (i.e., there is inflation or deflation). A change in the

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Suvey of Macroeconomics, MBA 641 Fall 2006, Final Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Modern macroeconomics emerged from

### 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Key Concepts Aggregate Supply The aggregate production function shows that the quantity of real GDP (Y ) supplied depends on the quantity of labor (L ),

### Chapter 11: Activity

Economics for Managers by Paul Farnham Chapter 11: Measuring Macroeconomic Activity 11.1 Measuring Gross Domestic Product (GDP) GDP: the market value of all currently yproduced final goods and services

### GDP: Does It Measure Up? May 2013. Classroom Edition. An informative and accessible economic essay with a classroom application.

PAGE ONE Economics the back story on front page economics NEWSLETTER GDP: Does It Measure Up? May 2013 Classroom Edition An informative and accessible economic essay with a classroom application. Includes

### Macroeconomics. 2.1 Economic Activity

Macroeconomics McGee textbook Pages 249-264 Pages267-271 Pages 299-303 Readings 2 Online resources http://www.dineshbakshi.com/ib-economics www.econclassroom.com Khan Academy 3 Vocab 4 Learning Objectives

### Measuring the Macroeconomy

Measuring the Macroeconomy CHAPTER 2 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 2.1 Explain how economists use gross domestic product (GDP) to measure total production and

### Douglas, Spring 2008 February 21, 2008 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam.

, Spring 2008 February 21, 2008 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Midterm 1 1. What will happen to the equilibrium price of hamburgers

### Topic 4: Different approaches to GDP

Topic 4: Different approaches to GDP PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS Dr. Fidel Gonzalez Department of Economics and Intl. Business Sam Houston State University Three different approaches to measure the GDP

### Econ 202 Section 4 Final Exam

Douglas, Fall 2009 December 15, 2009 A: Special Code 00004 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Section 4 Final Exam 1. Oceania buys \$40

### Chapter 4 Measuring GDP and Economic Growth

Chapter 4 Measuring GDP and Economic Growth 1 Gross Domestic Product 1) Gross domestic product is the total produced within a country in a given time period. A) market value of all final and intermediate

### The level of price and inflation Real GDP: the values of goods and services measured using a constant set of prices

Chapter 2: Key Macroeconomics Variables ECON2 (Spring 20) 2 & 4.3.20 (Tutorial ) National income accounting Gross domestic product (GDP): The market value of all final goods and services produced within

### HW 2 Macroeconomics 102 Due on 06/12

HW 2 Macroeconomics 102 Due on 06/12 1.What are the three important macroeconomic goals about which most economists, and society at large, agree? a. economic growth, full employment, and low interest rates

### Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run

Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics Aggregate Expenditure (AE)

### Chap 11 & 12. Measuring the Cost of Living THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX

Chap 11 & 12 Chap 10: Measuring a Nation s Income: GDP, Nominal GDP, Real GDP, and GDP Deflator Next topic: Chap 11: Measuring the Cost of Living: CPI GDP from an whole economy point of view CPI from a

### CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY

CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY Learning goals of this chapter: What forces bring persistent and rapid expansion of real GDP? What causes inflation? Why do we have business cycles? How

### Gross Domestic Product, the Business Cycle, and the Fed s goals for the Macroeconomy SMART Lesson

Lesson by Julie Kornegay, Senior Economic and Financial Education Specialist, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Birmingham Branch Lesson description In this lesson, students explore gross domestic product

### The Keynesian Cross. A Fixed Price Level. The Simplest Keynesian-Cross Model: Autonomous Consumption Only

The Keynesian Cross Some instructors like to develop a more detailed macroeconomic model than is presented in the textbook. This supplemental material provides a concise description of the Keynesian-cross

### 2 Macroeconomics LESSON 2 ACTIVITY 11 Answer

2 Macroeconomics LESSON 2 ACTIVITY 11 Answer Measuring Broad Economic Goals Part A Measuring Employment The unemployment rate (UR) is defined as number of unemployed UR = x 100 labor force The labor force

### Introduction to Macroeconomics. TOPIC 1: Introduction, definition, measures

TOPIC 1: Introduction, definitions, measures Annaïg Morin CBS - Department of Economics August 2013 What is macroeconomics about? Understanding the behavior of an economy as a whole. studying aggregated

### Professor Christina Romer. LECTURE 17 MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES AND ISSUES March 17, 2016

Economics 2 Spring 2016 Professor Christina Romer Professor David Romer LECTURE 17 MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES AND ISSUES March 17, 2016 I. MACROECONOMICS VERSUS MICROECONOMICS II. REAL GDP A. Definition B.

### Economics 101 Multiple Choice Questions for Final Examination Miller

Economics 101 Multiple Choice Questions for Final Examination Miller PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAMINATION FORM. 1. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Real GDP is the total market value

### Chapter 12. National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments. Slides prepared by Thomas Bishop

Chapter 12 National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments Slides prepared by Thomas Bishop Preview National income accounts measures of national income measures of value of production measures

### Econ 202 Final Exam. Table 3-1 Labor Hours Needed to Make 1 Pound of: Meat Potatoes Farmer 8 2 Rancher 4 5

Econ 202 Final Exam 1. If inflation expectations rise, the short-run Phillips curve shifts a. right, so that at any inflation rate unemployment is higher. b. left, so that at any inflation rate unemployment

### 2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N CLEP O F F I C I A L S T U D Y G U I D E. The College Board. College Level Examination Program

2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N CLEP O F F I C I A L S T U D Y G U I D E College Level Examination Program The College Board Principles of Macroeconomics Description of the Examination The Subject Examination in

### Preparation course MSc Business & Econonomics- Macroeconomics: Introduction & Concepts

Preparation course MSc Business & Econonomics- Macroeconomics: Introduction & Concepts Tom-Reiel Heggedal Economics Department 2014 TRH (Institute) Intro&Concepts 2014 1 / 20 General Information Me: Tom-Reiel

### Econ 102 Measuring National Income and Prices Solutions

Econ 102 Measuring National Income and Prices Solutions 1. Measurement of National Income and Decomposing GDP This question is designed to see if you understand how Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is measured.

### [03.03] Guidelines for the User Cost Method to calculate rents for owner occupied housing. International Comparison Program

International Comparison Program [03.03] Guidelines for the User Cost Method to calculate rents for owner occupied housing Global Office 3 rd Technical Advisory Group Meeting June 10-11, 2010 Paris, France

### Lecture 3: National Income Accounting Reference - Chapter 5. 3) The Income Approach

Lecture 3: National Income Accounting Reference - Chapter 5 3) The Income Approach The income approach defines GDP in terms of the income derived or created from producing final goods and services. Net

### EC201 Intermediate Macroeconomics. EC201 Intermediate Macroeconomics Problem Set 1 Solution

EC201 Intermediate Macroeconomics EC201 Intermediate Macroeconomics Problem Set 1 Solution 1) Given the difference between Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Product for a given economy: a) Provide

### EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02)

EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02) Print Your Name: ID Number: Multiple Choice (32 questions, 2.5 points each; 80 points total). Clearly indicate (by circling) the ONE BEST response to each

### Econ 202 Section 2 Midterm 1

Douglas, Fall 2009 September 29, 2009 A: Special Code 0000 21 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Section 2 Midterm 1 1. What will happen

### Macroeconomics 2301 Potential questions and study guide for exam 2. Any 6 of these questions could be on your exam!

Macroeconomics 2301 Potential questions and study guide for exam 2 Any 6 of these questions could be on your exam! 1. GDP is a key concept in Macroeconomics. a. What is the definition of GDP? b. List and

### Week 4 Tutorial Question Solutions (Ch2 & 3)

Chapter 2: Q1: Macroeconomics P.52 Numerical Problems #3 part (a) Q2: Macroeconomics P.52 Numerical Problems #5 Chapter 3: Q3: Macroeconomics P.101 Numerical Problems #5 Q4: Macroeconomics P102 Analytical

### Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis

Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics In the short run, real GDP and

### Macroeconomics Machine-graded Assessment Items Module: Macroeconomic Measures of Performance

Macroeconomics Machine-graded Assessment Items Module: Macroeconomic Measures of Performance Machine-graded assessment question pools are provided for your reference and are organized by learning outcome.

### April 4th, 2014. Flow C was 9 trillion dollars, Flow G was 2 trillion dollars, Flow I was 3 trillion dollars, Flow (X-M) was -0.7 trillion dollars.

Problem Session I April 4th, 2014 Reference: Parkin, Introduction to economics, 2011 1. The rm that printed your Introduction to economics textbook bought the paper from XYZ Paper Mills. Was this purchase

### 14.02 Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 1 Fall 2005 ***Solution***

Part I. True/False/Uncertain Justify your answer with a short argument. 14.02 Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 1 Fall 2005 ***Solution*** Posted: Monday, September 12, 2005 Due: Wednesday, September

### Econ 202 Final Exam. Douglas, Spring 2006 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam.

, Spring 2006 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Final Exam 1. When the government spends more, the initial effect is that a. aggregate

### Refer to Figure 17-1

Chapter 17 1. Inflation can be measured by the a. change in the consumer price index. b. percentage change in the consumer price index. c. percentage change in the price of a specific commodity. d. change

### The World is Flat and Beckoning

The World is Flat and Beckoning Albert J. Simone President Convocation Remarks May 26, 2006 In the recent book The World Is Flat, it is pointed out that people, governments, and institutions are globally

### Free-response/problem

Free-response/problem Explain why an economy s income must equal its expenditure. 0 23 Measuring a Nation s Income P R I N C I P L E S O F ECONOMICS F O U R T H E D I T I O N N. G R E G O R Y M A N K I

### 2. With an MPS of.4, the MPC will be: A) 1.0 minus.4. B).4 minus 1.0. C) the reciprocal of the MPS. D).4. Answer: A

1. If Carol's disposable income increases from \$1,200 to \$1,700 and her level of saving increases from minus \$100 to a plus \$100, her marginal propensity to: A) save is three-fifths. B) consume is one-half.

### Lesson 7 - The Aggregate Expenditure Model

Lesson 7 - The Aggregate Expenditure Model Acknowledgement: Ed Sexton and Kerry Webb were the primary authors of the material contained in this lesson. Section : The Aggregate Expenditures Model Aggregate

### The Circular Flow of Income and Expenditure

The Circular Flow of Income and Expenditure Imports HOUSEHOLDS Savings Taxation Govt Exp OTHER ECONOMIES GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS Factor Incomes Taxation Govt Exp Consumer Exp Exports FIRMS Capital

### CONCEPT OF MACROECONOMICS

CONCEPT OF MACROECONOMICS Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that studies economic aggregates (grand totals):e.g. the overall level of prices, output and employment in the economy. If you want to

### ASSIGNMENT 1 ST SEMESTER : MACROECONOMICS (MAC) ECONOMICS 1 (ECO101) STUDY UNITS COVERED : STUDY UNITS 1 AND 2. DUE DATE : 3:00 p.m.

Page 1 of 13 ASSIGNMENT 1 ST SEMESTER : MACROECONOMICS (MAC) ECONOMICS 1 (ECO101) STUDY UNITS COVERED : STUDY UNITS 1 AND 2 DUE DATE : 3:00 p.m. 19 MARCH 2013 TOTAL MARKS : 100 INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

### Measuring GDP. A Precise Definition of GDP

Measuring GDP 131 the U.S. economy. BEA releases are eagerly awaited throughout the economy. Top officials at the White House (including the president) find these data so important that they ensure that

### A HOW-TO GUIDE: UNDERSTANDING AND MEASURING INFLATION

A HOW-TO GUIDE: UNDERSTANDING AND MEASURING INFLATION By Jim Stanford Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2008 Non-commercial use and reproduction, with appropriate citation, is authorized. This guide

### Econ 202 Section 2 Final Exam

Douglas, Fall 2009 December 17, 2009 A: Special Code 0000 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Section 2 Final Exam 1. The present value

### LECTURE NOTES ON MACROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES

LECTURE NOTES ON MACROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES Peter Ireland Department of Economics Boston College peter.ireland@bc.edu http://www2.bc.edu/peter-ireland/ec132.html Copyright (c) 2013 by Peter Ireland. Redistribution

### FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 15 FISCAL POLICY* Key Concepts The Federal Budget The federal budget is an annual statement of the government s expenditures and tax revenues. Using the federal budget to achieve macroeconomic

### GDP Measuring Output and Income Part II. Alternative Measures Real World Approximations. Reading: RJB for lecture 5

GDP Measuring Output and Income Part II Alternative Measures Real World Approximations Reading: RJB for lecture 5 GDP: Statistical Approximations The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) provides both annual

### Data on selected insurance markets

Data on selected insurance markets Economic Research Munich, March 205 Germany CAGR* 2004 204: 2.6% CAGR* 2004 204:.% Macroeconomics & wealth, 204 Asset classes as % of gross financial assets, 204 82.7mn

### THREE KEY FACTS ABOUT ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS

15 In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions: What are economic fluctuations? What are their characteristics? How does the model of demand and explain economic fluctuations? Why does the

### National Income Accounting

: A set of rules and definitions for measuring economic activity in the aggregate economy (The economy as a whole.) As we noted earlier, the main measure of aggregate economic activity are GDP and GNP

### TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN THE NATIONAL ACCOUNTS This text accompanies the material covered in class.

TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN THE NATIONAL ACCOUNTS This text accompanies the material covered in class. 1 Definition of some core variables Imports (flow): Q t Exports (flow): X t Net exports (or Trade balance)

### 1 Multiple Choice - 50 Points

Econ 201 Final Winter 2008 SOLUTIONS 1 Multiple Choice - 50 Points (In this section each question is worth 1 point) 1. Suppose a waiter deposits his cash tips into his savings account. As a result of only