Understanding and educating students with ADHD in the EFL classroom. Thalia Hatzigannoglou, PhD

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1 Understanding and educating students with ADHD in the EFL classroom Thalia Hatzigannoglou, PhD

2 This presentation focuses on: What is ADHD? What does it look like? What can be done?

3 What are the three types of ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Primarily Inattentive Type. Children who have this type are inattentive and distractible. Even though the word Hyperactivity is included in the label, there is no hyperactivity. This type is commonly called ADD.

4 What are the symptoms of ADD? Children with ADD have six or more of the following symptoms, some of which start before they reach 7 years of age: Forgetful in daily activities Poor attention to details and careless mistakes in schoolwork or homework. Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. Trouble sustaining attention. Loses things necessary for tasks or activities. Dislikes sustained mental effort. Does not follow through in instructions and fails to finish chores and schoolwork. Difficulty organizing tasks and activities. Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.

5 What are the three types of ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Primarily Hyperactive-Impulsive Type. Children with this disorder are overactive and impulsive. This type is most often called ADHD.

6 What are the symptoms of ADHD? Children with ADHD have 6 or more symptoms, some of which start before they reach 7 years of age: Talks excessively. Fidgets or squirms in seat. On the go or acts as if driven by a motor. Leaves seat when expected to remain seated. Runs or climbs when it is inappropriate. Difficulty playing quietly Interrupts or intrudes on others. Blurts out answers before questions are complete. Difficulty waiting for turn. Expulsion from preschool is the first indicator of ADHD.

7 What are the three types of ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type. These children are inattentive and distractible, as well as hyperactive and impulsive. This type is also referred to as ADHD.

8 Remember Symptoms must be present for a minimum of 6 months and must be seen in more than one setting. The symptoms are most commonly seen at home and school but surely be displayed in restaurants, grocery stores, movie theatres, and any place where it is not acceptable to be loud and active.

9 Statistics Individuals with ADHD constitute 3-5% of the schoolaged population. Therefore, in a class of children, it is likely that at least one student will have the condition. The estimate incidence of ADHD in boys is about 10% while dropping to 4% in girls. Many children have both ADD and LD, ranging from 30-80% (Osman, 1997). Up to 2/3 of children who are diagnosed with ADHD suffer from a wide range of mental disorders (e.g. depression or an anxiety disorder.)

10 Statistics 30-50% may be retained in a grade in school at least once. 35% fail to finish senior high school. For half of these children social relationships are seriously impaired. For 60% defiant behavior leads to misunderstandings and resentment by siblings, frequent scolding and punishment, and a greater potential for delinquency and substance abuse later on.

11 Causes Biological contributions are the largest factor in the expression of the disorder (Barkley & Murphy, 2006). The likelihood of inheriting ADHD is about 80%. More than 1/3 of fathers who had ADHD during their own childhood had a child who met the criteria for ADHD. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Premature delivery, significantly low birth weights and postnatal injury to the prefrontal regions of the brain. Environmental toxins (especially for children exposed to very high levels of lead before 6 years of age)

12 What can be done? Be consistent with rules and consequences Break down large tasks into small tasks. Place the child at the front of the room. Avoid placing the child with ADHD at tables with multiple children. This could maximize distractibility. Use colors and shapes to help him/her organize. Provide a quiet study area, free from distraction, when seat work is required.

13 What can be done? Try to work within the child s attention span. Keep changing the type of work frequently so that the child can continue to work productively. Many of these children are visual learners. Try to make things more visual or tactile and they may grasp them better. Do not worry if you are frustrated. Do not take the child s behavior as personally directed and do not vent your frustration on the children. Encourage creativity.

14 The business of teaching

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16 Resources

17 Resources

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