STAFF DEVELOPMENT in SPECIAL EDUCATION

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1 STAFF DEVELOPMENT in SPECIAL EDUCATION Learning Disabilities AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 1 of 7

2 Objectives To understand what is a learning disability To learn about the IDEA definition of a learning disability To understand how common learning disabilities are in the general population To understand what causes learning disabilities To learn about the signs and characteristics of a learning disability To understand the types of learning disabilities To learn about detecting learning disabilities in children To understand the treatment of learning disabilities in children What is a Learning Disability? Learning disability is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math. Learning disabilities (LD) vary from person to person. One person with LD may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with LD. One person may have trouble with reading and writing. Another person with LD may have problems with understanding math. Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying. Researchers think that learning disabilities are caused by differences in how a person's brain works and how it processes information. Children with learning disabilities are not "dumb" or "lazy." In fact, they usually have average or above average intelligence. Their brains just process information differently. The definition of "learning disability" just below comes from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The IDEA is the federal law that guides how schools provide special education and related services to children with disabilities. There is no "cure" for learning disabilities. They are life-long. However, children with LD can be high achievers and can be taught ways to get around the learning disability. With the right help, children with LD can and do learn successfully. The IDEA definition of a Learning Disability Our nation's special education law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, defines a specific learning disability as... "... a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia." AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 2 of 7

3 However, learning disabilities do not include, " learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage." How common are Learning Disabilities? Very common! As many as 1 out of every 5 people in the United States has a learning disability. Almost 3 million children (ages 6 through 21) have some form of a learning disability and receive special education in school. In fact, over half of all children who receive special education have a learning disability (Twenty-fourth Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, 2002). What are the Causes of Learning Disabilities Researchers in the field stress that since no one knows what causes learning disabilities, it doesn't help parents to look backward to search for possible reasons. Finding the exact causes are probably futile since there is much disagreement in the field about the etiology (cause). Once, scientists thought that all learning disabilities were caused by a single neurological problem. But research has helped us see that the causes are more diverse and complex. New evidence seems to show that most learning disabilities do not stem from a single, specific area of the brain, but from difficulties in bringing together information from various brain regions. Another possible cause is that learning disabilities may be genetically transmitted. According to one study, the risk that a child will have a reading problem is increased from four to thirteen times if one of the parents has a similar problem. This tendency for learning disabilities to run in families has been confirmed by numerous studies. However, this pattern does not necessarily prove that there is a genetic factor to learning disabilities since the ability of the child to speak the native language of the house also runs in families and this has no genetic connection. Some researchers feel that prenatal conditions might contribute to a learning disability. Learning disabilities may be caused by illness or injury during or before birth. Learning disabilities may also be caused by the use of drugs and alcohol during pregnancy, RH incompatibility with the mother (if untreated), premature or prolonged labor or lack of oxygen or low weight at birth. Today, a leading theory is that learning disabilities stem from subtle disturbances in brain structures and functions. Some scientists believe that, in many cases, the disturbance begins before birth. AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 3 of 7

4 What are the Signs of a Learning Disability? There is no one sign that shows a person has a learning disability. Experts look for a noticeable difference between how well a child does in school and how well he or she could do, given his or her intelligence or ability. There are also certain clues that may mean a child has a learning disability. We've listed a few below. Most relate to elementary school tasks, because learning disabilities tend to be identified in elementary school. A child probably won't show all of these signs, or even most of them. However, if a child shows a number of these problems, then parents and the teacher should consider the possibility that the child has a learning disability. When a child has a learning disability, he or she: may have trouble learning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters to their sounds; may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often; may not understand what he or she reads; may have real trouble with spelling; may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly; may struggle to express ideas in writing; may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary; may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words; may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm; may have trouble following directions; may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar; may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation; may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener; may confuse math symbols and misread numbers; may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third); or may not know where to begin a task or how to go on from there. If a child has unexpected problems learning to read, write, listen, speak, or do math, then teachers and parents may want to investigate more. The same is true if the child is struggling to do any one of these skills. The child may need to be evaluated to see if he or she has a learning disability. Types of Learning Disabilities By the late 1960s, the present model of learning disabilities was established. This model distinguishes four stages of information processing used in learning: input, integration, memory, and output. Input is the process of recording in the brain information that comes from the senses. Integration is the process of interpreting this information. Memory is its storage for later retrieval. Output of information is achieved through language or motor (muscular) activity. Learning disabilities can be classified by their effects at one or more of these stages. Each child has individual strengths and weaknesses at each stage. AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 4 of 7

5 Input The first major type of problem at the input stage is a visual perception disability. Some students have difficulty in recognizing the position and shape of what they see. Letters may be reversed or rotated; for example, the letters d, b, p, q, and g might be confused. The child might also have difficulty distinguishing a significant form from its background. People with this disability often have reading problems. They may jump over words, read the same line twice, or skip lines. Other students have poor depth perception or poor distance judgment. They might bump into things, fall over chairs, or knock over drinks. The other major input disability is in auditory perception. Students may have difficulty understanding because they do not distinguish subtle differences in sounds. They confuse words and phrases that sound alike for example, "blue" with "blow" or "ball" with "bell." Some children find it hard to pick out an auditory figure from its background; they may not respond to the sound of a parent's or teacher's voice, and it may seem that they are not listening or paying attention. Others process sound slowly and therefore cannot keep up with the flow of conversation, inside or outside the classroom. Suppose a parent says, "It's getting late. Go upstairs, wash your face, and get into your pajamas. Then come back down for a snack." A child with this disability might hear only the first part and stay upstairs. Integration Integration disabilities take several forms, corresponding to the three stages of sequencing, abstraction, and organization. A student with a sequencing disability might recount a story by starting in the middle, going to the beginning, and then proceeding to the end. The child might also reverse the order of letters in words, seeing "dog" and reading "god." Such children are often unable to use single units of a memorized sequence correctly. If asked what comes after Wednesday, they have to start counting from Sunday to get the answer. In using a dictionary, they must start with "A" each time. The second type of integration disability involves abstraction. Students with this problem have difficulty in inferring meaning. They may read a story but not be able to generalize from it. They may confuse different meanings of the same word used in different ways. They find it difficult to understand jokes, puns, or idioms. Once recorded, sequenced, and understood, information must be organized integrated into a constant flow and related to what has previously been learned. Students with an organization disability find it difficult to make bits of information cohere into concepts. They may learn a series of facts without being able to answer general questions that require the use of these facts. Their lives in and outside of the classroom reflect this disorganization. AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 5 of 7

6 Memory Disabilities also develop at the third stage of information processing, memory. Short-term memory retains information briefly while we attend to it or concentrate upon it. For example, most of us can retain the 10 digits of a long distance telephone number long enough to dial, but we forget it if we are interrupted. When information is repeated often enough, it enters longterm memory, where it is stored and can be retrieved later. Most memory disabilities affect short-term memory only; students with these disabilities need many more repetitions than usual to retain information. Output At the fourth stage, output, there are both language and motor disabilities. Language disabilities almost always involve what is called "demand language" rather than spontaneous language. Spontaneous language occurs when we initiate speaking select the subject, organize our thoughts, and find the correct words before opening our mouths. Demand language occurs when someone else creates the circumstances in which communication is required. A question is asked, and we must simultaneously organize our thoughts, find the right words, and answer. A child with a language disability may speak normally when initiating conversation but respond hesitantly in demand situations pause, ask for the question to be repeated, give a confused answer, or fail to find the right words. Motor disabilities are of two types: poor coordination of large muscle groups, which is called gross motor disability; and poor coordination of small muscle groups, which is called fine motor disability. Gross motor disabilities make children clumsy. They stumble, fall, and bump into things; they may have difficulty in running, climbing, riding a bicycle, buttoning shirts, or tying shoelaces. The most common type of fine motor disability is difficulty in coordinating the muscles needed for writing. Children with this problem write slowly, and their handwriting is often unreadable. They may also make spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. Detecting Learning Disabilities in Children There are several early clues to the presence of a learning disability. In preschool children we look for failure to use language in communication by age three, or inadequate motor skills (buttoning, tying, climbing) by age five. In school-age children, we observe whether they are learning the skills appropriate to their grade. Schools and families should always consider the possibility of a learning disability before assuming that a child who has been doing poorly in school is lazy or emotionally disturbed. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Public Law (P.L.) formerly known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA), P.L requires public school systems to evaluate children who are at risk for a learning disability. Evaluations can also be performed by professionals in private practice, beginning with family doctors. Attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other problems should always be considered as well and evaluated by qualified professionals with expertise with these conditions. It is important to distinguish between emotional, social, and family problems that are causes and those that are consequences of academic difficulties, because they require different treatments. AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 6 of 7

7 The psychological assessment may include a neuropsychological or a clinical psychological evaluation. The intelligence of the child should be determined to learn whether the child is performing below potential. Discrepancies in performance between different sections of the IQ (intelligence quotient) test will help to clarify learning strengths and weaknesses. Other tests may be used to assess perception, cognition, memory, and language abilities. Current academic skills are judged by achievement tests. Both IQ and achievement tests help to clarify discrepancies between potential and actual ability. There are also specific tests that help to uncover learning disabilities. A speech pathologist, occupational therapist, or other professional may contribute further information, as can parents. Treating Learning Disabilities in Children Special education is the treatment of choice for learning disabilities in school. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires that school personnel, in conjunction with the child's parents, develop an individualized education program (IEP) for each student with learning disabilities who is eligible for special education. This plan is revised every year to take into account each eligible student's present skills and learning disabilities and abilities. The specific instruction students receive will vary depending upon their needs and capabilities. Some children need specific related services as well: a notetaker (for a student with a fine motor disability), word processors, laptop computers, books on tape, or extra time for tests. The IDEA requires schools to provide these special education and related services at no cost to families. It's encouraging to know that a lot of research has been done to find out how to help students with learning disabilities succeed at school and elsewhere. Parents must also try to understand the nature of their children's problems. Like classroom teachers, they must build on the child's strengths while compensating for or adjusting to the child's needs without exposing them unnecessarily. A child with a visual motor disability, for example, might find it hard to load a dishwasher but could carry out the trash. The same child might have difficulty catching or throwing a ball, but no trouble swimming. Parents must think ahead about these matters to minimize their child's stress and to maximize his or her chance to experience success, make friends, and develop self-esteem. Treatment that affects only school work will not succeed, because learning disabilities are life disabilities. It is essential to recognize learning disabilities and related problems as early as possible. Without recognition and help, children may become increasingly frustrated and distressed as they persistently fail. By the time they reach high school, they may give up. On the other hand, children whose special needs are recognized early and treated appropriately can overcome or learn to compensate for their disabilities. AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 7 of 7

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