MAIN CHALLENGES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN AGED 6-12

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MAIN CHALLENGES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN AGED 6-12"

Transcription

1 MAIN CHALLENGES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN AGED 6-12 For the last 15 years it has become a European standard to introduce foreign languages, especially English, in primary schools and kindergartens. Not only did the average age of starting learning foreign languages change but also the amount of hours devoted to a particular language a week in the student`s schedule. The studies show that teaching English to younger learners has a lot of positive aspects. Most of all, younger students are much more motivated to learning foreign languages and do not present negative attitudes towards learning as it is often seen in case of teenagers. (Pilar, Mayo, Lecumberri 2003: 77-79) However, there are some important challenges to be faced by any teacher who works with a group of children aged 6 to 12. First of all, one should be aware of the fact that teaching English as a foreign language in primary schools can mean different things across European and non-european countries. For some, the major purpose of English classes would be developing linguistic skills, whereas for others the objective would be building general linguistic awareness, or creating positive approach to foreign languages. Additionally, an English teacher has to take into account developing the sense of citizenship, cultural and European awareness. Considering all these competing aims, an English teacher has a challenging task to cope with. (Ellis, McCartney 2011: 64-65) One of the biggest challenges that any primary English teacher has to face is differentiation. Presently, in the age of globalization, more and more often primary school classes are composed of children coming from different cultural, linguistic and socioeconomic backgrounds. This process puts a requirement on teachers to cater for the needs of all students understood as individuals. (Bearne 1996: 1-2) Working with a new group of students an English teacher should take into account that both linguistic level and ability to learn foreign languages can vary between children what is an inevitable challenge for a primary school teacher. There are many reasons of differences in linguistic development of a child. One of them can be the fact that children come from different kindergartens and some of them have already started learning English

2 whereas for others an English lesson in the primary school will be the first contact with this language. What is more, an English teacher may encounter children from bilingual families in the classroom whose level of English at age of 6-12 is already very good. Furthermore, not every child is equally gifted in learning languages. Some children seem to have a special talent for learning languages similar to a musical, spatial or logical talents. For defining the linguistic talent factors of great significance are verbal fluency, verbal memory, IQ, vocabulary skill, ability to learn code systems, etc. Such children will learn faster than those who are talented in other areas, for example mathematics or sports. The teacher`s task is to organize the lesson in this manner that all children can benefit from it without feeling marginalized. (Dogil, Reiterer 2009: 3) It should be remembered that every child is different, not only in the level of linguistic progress and talent for learning languages, but also in case of their strong and weak points as English learners. Students usually are divided into those who gain best results when visual, auditory or kinesthetic styles of learning are adopted. The fact that a child is not doing well on reading and is very good at listening can be an indicator that this child learns most effectively in an auditory style. Thus, a good English teacher should focus on a student`s strong sides and try to adjust the teaching methods to his or her abilities so as to ensure equal chances for every child to learn in the most appropriate way. In this manner, while developing the strengths, weaknesses will be improving as well. (Lobb 2003: 112) Additionally, individualization of teaching means taking into consideration a possibility that students in the same classroom may be undergoing a bit different phase of human development. Although developmental psychology defines that a child should have acquired a set of abilities when being at a particular age, in reality the skills of the children in the same grade may differ. For instance, there is no certainty that every child in the second grade will know the alphabet perfectly and be fully literate which has an effect on the speed of learning reading and writing in English. (Reed, Shaffer, Kipp: 1-3) Moreover, a teacher should bear in mind that some students may experience specific learning difficulties, to give an example - dyslexia. Dyslectic children, while being very good at speaking and listening, may be subjects to serious problems concerning reading and

3 writing. Consequently, they may encounter difficulty in English words spelling. It is essential for a teacher to identify the problem the soonest possible and to develop the individual approach towards such learners. (Hall 2009: I) When it comes to cognitive disorders differences in human development and the learning process may be bigger. They have an impact not only on cognition and learning but also language, and consequently social interaction. Examples of disorders characterizing specific learning difficulties are autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Both of these cognition problems are a difficult challenge for a teacher. As for ADHD, one has to be prepared that it is almost impossible to stop such a child from moving, for example from fidgeting with hands or unexpected leaving their place. However, sometimes ADHD may take a form of inattention. In such a case, a child finds it difficult to concentrate on one thing and gets bored very easily. They are very sensitive to the sounds and signs from the environment. Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, in turn, are likely to have problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, that is the core of any English classes. They are either over- or undersensitive to the sensory stimuli. When it comes to any rules governing the conversation, their ways of communicating are much unconventional. All these examples of behavior disorganize the lesson. It is worth remembering when preparing lesson plans of English classes. Therefore, a teacher should gain broad knowledge on the subject of behavioral disorders before starting to work in any primary school. (Hulme, Snowling 2009: 1-3, 245, ) Not always are the roots of student`s inappropriate behavior in mental disorders. Very often it is a result of the fact that children in a classroom come from different families presenting higher and lower levels of socioeconomic status. The situation at home, that is aggression, alcoholism, divorce, may affect a child`s behavior at school. If a teacher does not take this factor into account, no English lesson will be fully effective. Only good cooperation with parents, a child, and sometimes other psychological units, can result in creating a student-friendly environment in the classroom. It also requires a teacher to

4 acquire not only methodology of teaching English, but also gain a solid psychological preparation. (Dean 2009: ) Another problem of an English teacher is related to the Berstein`s theory of linguistic codes. He argued that the children of representatives of people on different levels of the social ladder use two codes according to which they are judged by teachers. Restricted code is used by children who come from the working class and elaborated code is used by students coming from the higher classes. Restricted code is characterized by short, unfinished and often ungrammatical sentences and elaborated code is famous for more correct grammar and longer sentences. The difference in the code used by a child will have an impact on English learning since for some children who use restricted code in the mother tongue it will be difficult to develop more complex structures in a foreign language. (Brain, Mukherji 2006: 106) Many researchers seem to agree that younger children have better chances to become proficient in pronunciation and intonation of English whereas grammatical accuracy is believed to be gained best at the age of adolescence. (Hood, Tobutt 2009: 9) Therefore, a teacher should focus on showing children how to pronounce words correctly rather than forcing them to understand complex grammatical structures. During this period of education it is essential for students to gain the ability to link simple phonemes with spellings. (Ellis, McCartney: 69) However, some children may suffer from speech impediments like stuttering, cluttering, stammering, rhotacism, etc. which may have a negative impact on children`s ability to pronounce new English words in a correct way. To illustrate the problem, stammering consists in uttering words in a hesitating way, sometimes mispronouncing particular letters, as in rhotacism (letter r ) or lisping (letters s and z ). In turn, stammering means habitual, interrupted articulation as a result of muscles spasms. (Still 2006: ) Identifying such speech disorders at the early stage of education in the primary school and adopting a therapy with the speech-language pathologists are vital for a child in order to become a successful English speaker in the future.

5 From the psychological point of view, one has to remember that when using foreign language in a group of students may encounter so called language anxiety. Although being more out-going, even some younger learners experience some frustration when they have to speak out loud in the presence of their peers. Therefore, some researchers as Komorowska and Smith suggest silent period in the early stages of language teaching, that is exposing children to a foreign language and letting them listen and absorb its cadences. Speaking part, as it is advised by these linguists, should take place only when children start to produce speech spontaneously (Ellis, McCartney: 69) Additionally, an English teacher should think of developing a supporting environment, sometimes called "incorporative classrooms", thanks to which no child feels marginalized and learning atmosphere is more cooperative than competitive. (Doye, Hurrell 1997: 56) In conclusion, there is strong evidence coming from research that the linguistic education of children aged 6 to 12 is beneficial and has a lot of advantages. Mainly, children are naturally eager to learn at this age and do not present some negative attitudes towards learning as their older, adolescent friends. However, as it was shown above, there are some vital challenges to overcome by any primary English teacher. Preparing English lesson plans one has to take into account many factors, for example: the age, the phase of cognition development, hobbies, talents, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds children come from. Choosing right teaching methods should be also influenced by taking into account children with special learning difficulties, such as ADHD, autism and dyslexia, or having motor skills disorders (e.g. manual or speech impediments). All in all, I believe that any English teacher who is open to learning new skills will become successful at facing these challenges.

6 Bibliography: 1. Bearne E Differentiation and Diversity in the Primary School. New York: Routledge. 2. Brain, Ch., Mukherji, P Understanding Child Psychology. United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes Ltd. 3. Dean, J Organising Learning in the Primary School Classroom. New York: Routledge. 4. Dogil, G., Reiterer, S. M Language Talent and Brain Activity. Berlin: Mouton degruyter. 5. Doye, P. and Hurrell, A Foreign Language Learning in Primary Schools: Age 5-6 to Strasbourg: Council of Europe. 6. Ellis, S., McCartney, E Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Hall, W Dyslexia in the Primary Classroom. London: Sage Publications Ltd. 8. Hood, P., Tobutt, K Modern Languages in the Primary School. Cornwall: TJ International Ltd. 9. Hulme, Ch., Snowling, M. J Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition. United Kingdom: TJ International Ltd. 10. Lobb, N Learning Strategies For School, Home, And Work. Portland: J. Weston Walch. 11. Pilar, M., Mayo, G., Lecumberri, M. L. G Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language. Clevedon: Cromwell Press Ltd. 12. Shaffer, D.R, Kipp, K Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence. California: Wadsworth. 13. Still, A.T Osteopathy: Research and Practice. Germany: JOLANDOS ek.

Practice Test for Special Education EC-12

Practice Test for Special Education EC-12 Practice Test for Special Education EC-12 1. The Individualized Educational Program (IEP) includes: A. Written evaluation B. Assessment tests C. Interviews 2. Learning disabilities include: A. Cerebral

More information

Differentiated Strategies to Promote Inclusion

Differentiated Strategies to Promote Inclusion Differentiated Strategies to Promote Inclusion By Adewunmi Payne-Akinhanmi At The Bett Show EXCEL London UK Thursday 22 nd January 2015 What is differentiation? Differentiation- Differentiation is a combination

More information

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING Лю Пэн COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING Effective Elementary Reading Program Effective approach must contain the following five components: 1. Phonemic awareness instruction to help children learn

More information

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY I. DEFINITION "Specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself

More information

Chapter 4: Eligibility Categories

Chapter 4: Eligibility Categories 23 Chapter 4: Eligibility Categories In this chapter you will: learn the different special education categories 24 IDEA lists different disability categories under which children may be eligible for services.

More information

Teaching Methodology Modules. Teaching Skills Modules

Teaching Methodology Modules. Teaching Skills Modules 3.3 Clarendon Park, Clumber Avenue, Nottingham, NG5 1DW, United Kingdom Tel: +44 115 969 2424. Fax: +44 115 962 1452. www.ilsenglish.com. Email: frances@ilsenglish.com Teacher Development Modules for Teachers

More information

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES (SLD)

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES (SLD) Together, We Can Make A Difference Office 770-577-7771 Toll Free1-800-322-7065 www.peppinc.org SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES (SLD) Definition (1) Specific learning disability is defined as a disorder

More information

Linking Language & Learning Communication

Linking Language & Learning Communication Linking Language & Learning Communication 2 nd Lecture Dr. Alfadil Altahir Alfadil Guiding questions What do you want to be able to DO with English? In what ways is the classroom a good place to learn

More information

3030. Eligibility Criteria.

3030. Eligibility Criteria. 3030. Eligibility Criteria. 5 CA ADC 3030BARCLAYS OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness Title 5. Education Division 1. California Department

More information

CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP)

CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) Research has shown that students acquire a second language in the same way that they acquire the first language. It is an exploratory

More information

DSM-5. Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D.

DSM-5. Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D. DSM-5 Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D. Introduction Lifespan approach to diagnosis Diagnoses occurring in children

More information

Understanding and educating students with ADHD in the EFL classroom. Thalia Hatzigannoglou, PhD

Understanding and educating students with ADHD in the EFL classroom. Thalia Hatzigannoglou, PhD Understanding and educating students with ADHD in the EFL classroom Thalia Hatzigannoglou, PhD This presentation focuses on: What is ADHD? What does it look like? What can be done? What are the three types

More information

The Thirteen Special Education Classifications. Part 200 Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, Section 4401(1)

The Thirteen Special Education Classifications. Part 200 Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, Section 4401(1) The Thirteen Special Education Classifications Part 200 Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, Section 4401(1) Student With a Disability: A student as defined in section 4401(1), who has not attained

More information

STAFF DEVELOPMENT in SPECIAL EDUCATION

STAFF DEVELOPMENT in SPECIAL EDUCATION STAFF DEVELOPMENT in SPECIAL EDUCATION Learning Disabilities AASEP s Staff Development Course LEARNING DISABILITIES Copyright AASEP (2006) 1 of 7 Objectives To understand what is a learning disability

More information

Asset 1.6 What are speech, language and communication needs?

Asset 1.6 What are speech, language and communication needs? 1 of 5 The National Strategies Asset 1.6 What are speech, language and needs? a) Summary of key points Taken from the Primary and Secondary Inclusion Development Programme (IDP): Dyslexia and speech, language

More information

Interpreting Psychological Reports. Stephanie Verlinden, PsyD May 4, 2015

Interpreting Psychological Reports. Stephanie Verlinden, PsyD May 4, 2015 Interpreting Psychological Reports Stephanie Verlinden, PsyD May 4, 2015 Interpreting Psychological Reports Why Psychological reports? What do they say? What do they mean? What should be in them? How do

More information

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in, the effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology

More information

Categories of Exceptionality and Definitions

Categories of Exceptionality and Definitions 7. CATEGORIES and DEFINITIONS of EXCEPTIONALITIES Purpose of the standard To provide the ministry with details of the categories and definitions of exceptionalities available to the public, including parents

More information

Comprehensive Reading Assessment Grades K-1

Comprehensive Reading Assessment Grades K-1 Comprehensive Reading Assessment Grades K-1 User Information Name: Doe, John Date of Birth: Jan 01, 1995 Current Grade in School: 3rd Grade in School at Evaluation: 1st Evaluation Date: May 17, 2006 Background

More information

Special Education Coding Criteria 2012/2013. ECS to Grade 12 Mild/Moderate (including Gifted and Talented) Severe

Special Education Coding Criteria 2012/2013. ECS to Grade 12 Mild/Moderate (including Gifted and Talented) Severe Special Education Coding Criteria 2012/2013 ECS to Grade 12 Mild/Moderate (including Gifted and Talented) Severe Special Education Coding Criteria 2012/2013 ISSN 1911-4311 Additional copies of this handbook

More information

Common Learning Disabilities in the Classroom. 1/20/2011 Lea Howell School Psychologist LCUSD and Foothill SELPA

Common Learning Disabilities in the Classroom. 1/20/2011 Lea Howell School Psychologist LCUSD and Foothill SELPA Common Learning Disabilities in the Classroom 1/20/2011 Lea Howell School Psychologist LCUSD and Foothill SELPA Why might a child be having educational difficulties? Needs Special Education Services -Has

More information

Learning Support Policy

Learning Support Policy Learning Support Policy 1 School and student profile Learning support philosophy The ISUtrecht has a personalised approach to learning, and this is achieved through our communicative and proactive staff

More information

Speech and Language Support in the Classroom / for 5 11s

Speech and Language Support in the Classroom / for 5 11s Elklan Training Course Speech and Language Support in the Classroom / for 5 11s Background The Elklan Training Course Speech and Language Support in the Classroom / for 5 11s has been run three times at

More information

DR. PAT MOSSMAN Tutoring

DR. PAT MOSSMAN Tutoring DR. PAT MOSSMAN Tutoring INDIVIDUAL INSTRuction Reading Writing Math Language Development Tsawwassen and ladner pat.moss10.com - 236.993.5943 tutormossman@gmail.com Testing in each academic subject is

More information

The Relationship between Spelling, Writing, Reading and Comprehension

The Relationship between Spelling, Writing, Reading and Comprehension DISCLAIMER The information contained within this document does not constitute medical advice or diagnosis and is intended for education and information purposes only. It was current at the time of publication

More information

The Psychology Behind Learning. Factors Affecting Second Language Learning

The Psychology Behind Learning. Factors Affecting Second Language Learning The Psychology Behind Learning Factors Affecting Second Language Learning The Good Language Learner Are there personal characteristics that make one pupil more successful than another? In your experience

More information

There are many reasons why reading can be hard. This handout describes

There are many reasons why reading can be hard. This handout describes Understand the problems a child may be having with reading, and target what you can do to help! Look inside for practical, research-based information for parents and teachers about: Phonological and Phonemic

More information

French Policy. Rationale:

French Policy. Rationale: Rationale: As the UK is becoming an increasingly multicultural society, we have a duty to provide our children with an understanding of other cultures and languages. From September 2014 all KS2 children

More information

Recommended Practices For Assessment, Diagnosis and Documentation of Learning Disabilities

Recommended Practices For Assessment, Diagnosis and Documentation of Learning Disabilities LEARNING DISABILITIES ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO Recommended Practices For Assessment, Diagnosis and Documentation of Learning Disabilities Diagnosis of Learning Disabilities Accurate diagnosis of learning

More information

English Syllabus for Grades 1-4. Desktop/ Files Returned by Experts August 2008 / English cover, content & introduction Grades 1-4 cv2

English Syllabus for Grades 1-4. Desktop/ Files Returned by Experts August 2008 / English cover, content & introduction Grades 1-4 cv2 Desktop/ Files Returned by Experts August 2008 / English cover, content & introduction Grades 1-4 cv2 Table of Contents Rationale... Topic flow charts for Grades 1-4... Minimum Learning Competencies for

More information

Cognitive Fitness within Every Child s Reach

Cognitive Fitness within Every Child s Reach Cognitive Fitness within Every Child s Reach The Fit Learning Method culminates from over 15 years of work with over 1,500 learners. We have a vast understanding of how to produce profound learning gains

More information

EDUCATING THE STUDENT WITH ASPERGER SYNDROME

EDUCATING THE STUDENT WITH ASPERGER SYNDROME EDUCATING THE STUDENT WITH ASPERGER SYNDROME Persons with Asperger syndrome (AS) share some of the same characteristics as individuals with autism, and there is debate on whether AS is an independent diagnostic

More information

Squirrel Hayes First School. MFL Policy

Squirrel Hayes First School. MFL Policy Squirrel Hayes First School Policy Reviewed on Feb 2016 Policy Owner Signature Mrs A. Stockton Policy adopted by the Governing Body on Chair of Govs/Committee Signature Policy Reviewed Date March 2016

More information

Progress Report Spring 20XX

Progress Report Spring 20XX Progress Report Spring 20XX Client: XX C.A.: 7 years Date of Birth: January 1, 19XX Address: Somewhere Phone 555-555-5555 Referral Source: UUUU Graduate Clinician: XX, B.A. Clinical Faculty: XX, M.S.,

More information

Second language acquisition

Second language acquisition Second language acquisition Children vs. adults in second-language acquisition Who do you think is better at 2 nd language acquisition? Why? 2 factors involved in 2 nd language acquisition: 1.psychological

More information

Auditory Cohesion Problems. What is central auditory processing? What is a disorder of auditory processing?

Auditory Cohesion Problems. What is central auditory processing? What is a disorder of auditory processing? 1 Auditory Cohesion Problems Auditory cohesion skills - drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems - require heightened auditory processing and

More information

SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES. Category Checklists March 2009

SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES. Category Checklists March 2009 SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES Category Checklists March 2009 Mild Intellectual Disabilities Student base funding allocation (Revised September, 2004) 1701 Code K assessment documentation shows the student

More information

Office of Disability Support Service 0106 Shoemaker 301.314.7682 Fax: 301.405.0813 www.counseling.umd.edu/dss. A Guide to Services for Students with a

Office of Disability Support Service 0106 Shoemaker 301.314.7682 Fax: 301.405.0813 www.counseling.umd.edu/dss. A Guide to Services for Students with a Office of Disability Support Service 0106 Shoemaker 301.314.7682 Fax: 301.405.0813 www.counseling.umd.edu/dss A Guide to Services for Students with a Learning Disability (Revised 4.28.14) Do I Have A Learning

More information

Interview for Adult ADHD (Parent or Adult Questionnaire)

Interview for Adult ADHD (Parent or Adult Questionnaire) Interview for Adult ADHD (Parent or Adult Questionnaire) (client s name here) is undergoing evaluation for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). You have been identified as someone who could

More information

In this Study Resource for the CertTESOL, we will have a closer look at:

In this Study Resource for the CertTESOL, we will have a closer look at: Trinity Certificate in TESOL Trinity TESOL Study Resource no 6: Lesson Planning When teaching, whether we are working from a course book or designing a lesson from scratch, we need a thorough plan of where

More information

Stamford Green Primary School Spanish Curriculum Map. September 2014

Stamford Green Primary School Spanish Curriculum Map. September 2014 Stamford Green Primary School Spanish Curriculum Map September 2014 Contents Page Essential characteristics of linguists Page 3 Aims of the National Curriculum Page 4 Early Years Page 5 Year 1 Expectation

More information

Assessing speaking in the revised FCE Nick Saville and Peter Hargreaves

Assessing speaking in the revised FCE Nick Saville and Peter Hargreaves Assessing speaking in the revised FCE Nick Saville and Peter Hargreaves This paper describes the Speaking Test which forms part of the revised First Certificate of English (FCE) examination produced by

More information

Modern foreign languages

Modern foreign languages Modern foreign languages Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment targets (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007

More information

Getting Familiar with Theories of Second Language Acquisition

Getting Familiar with Theories of Second Language Acquisition Getting Familiar with Theories of Second Language Acquisition Second Language Acquisition Theories/Methods/Model a. Critical Period Hypothesis b. Monitor c. Concurrent Translation d. BICS (Basic Interpersonal

More information

There are basically three options available for overcoming barriers to learning:

There are basically three options available for overcoming barriers to learning: COGNITIVE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Parent Introduction Determining Your Child s Weaknesses (Excerpts from article by Dr. Ken Gibson, Founder and CEO of LearningRx) Has your child ever struggled to understand

More information

Language, learning, the links

Language, learning, the links Language, learning, and anxiety understanding the links Dr Robin Harvey OAM, MAPS Developmental and Educational Psychologist Milestones Clinic Key developmental tasks for a young child Developing effective

More information

CALIFORNIA S TEACHING PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS (TPE)

CALIFORNIA S TEACHING PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS (TPE) CALIFORNIA S TEACHING PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS (TPE) The Teaching Performance Expectations describe the set of knowledge, skills, and abilities that California expects of each candidate for a Multiple

More information

There are basically three options available for overcoming barriers to learning:

There are basically three options available for overcoming barriers to learning: COGNITIVE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Teacher Introduction Determining Your Students Weaknesses (Excerpts from article by Dr. Ken Gibson, Founder and CEO of LearningRx) Do you have students who struggle to understand

More information

MFL Policy 2014. Policy confirmed by the Governing Body of Our Lady Immaculate Roman Catholic Primary School on: Date: 23.9.14

MFL Policy 2014. Policy confirmed by the Governing Body of Our Lady Immaculate Roman Catholic Primary School on: Date: 23.9.14 MFL Policy 2014 Policy confirmed by the Governing Body of Our Lady Immaculate Roman Catholic Primary School on: Date: 23.9.14 Signature: (Chair of Governors) To be reviewed on: Rationale for Teaching Languages

More information

College of Education and Human Services Exceptional Student & Deaf Education Course Descriptions

College of Education and Human Services Exceptional Student & Deaf Education Course Descriptions CATALOG 2010-2011 Graduate Information College of Education and Human Services Exceptional Student & Deaf Education Course Descriptions ASL6215: Advanced American Sign Language Conversational Skills Prerequisites:

More information

Modern Foreign Languages (MFL)

Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Fordcombe C.E. Primary School Reviewed & Approved by the Full Governing Body: Jan 2013 Next Review due Jan 2016 Signed:. Name (print) Mrs Sarah Finch Position: Chair of Governors

More information

Tips for Working With ELL Students

Tips for Working With ELL Students Session One: Increasing Comprehensibility One goal for every teacher working with ELL students is to increase comprehensibility. In other words, to increase understanding or make course content more intelligible.

More information

AP PSYCHOLOGY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP PSYCHOLOGY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Savannah is a junior in high school and is preparing for an exam in her beginning Japanese course. The exam will consist of both written and spoken portions. Although

More information

An Analysis of the Eleventh Grade Students Monitor Use in Speaking Performance based on Krashen s (1982) Monitor Hypothesis at SMAN 4 Jember

An Analysis of the Eleventh Grade Students Monitor Use in Speaking Performance based on Krashen s (1982) Monitor Hypothesis at SMAN 4 Jember 1 An Analysis of the Eleventh Grade Students Monitor Use in Speaking Performance based on Krashen s (1982) Monitor Hypothesis at SMAN 4 Jember Moh. Rofid Fikroni, Musli Ariani, Sugeng Ariyanto Language

More information

Discriminating between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Developmental Dyslexia: Differential Diagnosis and Interventions.

Discriminating between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Developmental Dyslexia: Differential Diagnosis and Interventions. Discriminating between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Developmental Dyslexia: Differential Diagnosis and Interventions. James Vincent, Ph.D. & Pat Purvis, Ph.D. Children often have

More information

M. Luz Celaya Universidad de Barcelona mluzcelaya@ub.edu

M. Luz Celaya Universidad de Barcelona mluzcelaya@ub.edu María del Pilar García Mayo and María Luisa García Lecumberri, eds. 2003: Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. M. Luz Celaya Universidad de Barcelona

More information

Learning Styles and Memory

Learning Styles and Memory Learning Styles and Memory Sandra E. Davis Auburn University Abstract The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between learning styles and memory. Two learning styles were addressed in

More information

Special features. Teaching English to young learners: the challenges and the benefits. Jayne Moon

Special features. Teaching English to young learners: the challenges and the benefits. Jayne Moon Teaching English to young learners: the challenges and the benefits Jayne Moon In October 2005, a conference entitled First Steps to Success was held in Lisbon. Jointly organised by APPI (Associação Portuguesa

More information

General Therapies for Individuals with Autism

General Therapies for Individuals with Autism General Therapies for Individuals with Autism Speech and Language Pathology Speech- language therapy entails the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and helping to prevent speech, language, cognitive, communication,

More information

62 Hearing Impaired MI-SG-FLD062-02

62 Hearing Impaired MI-SG-FLD062-02 62 Hearing Impaired MI-SG-FLD062-02 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: General Information About the MTTC Program and Test Preparation OVERVIEW OF THE TESTING PROGRAM... 1-1 Contact Information Test Development

More information

Discourse Markers in English Writing

Discourse Markers in English Writing Discourse Markers in English Writing Li FENG Abstract Many devices, such as reference, substitution, ellipsis, and discourse marker, contribute to a discourse s cohesion and coherence. This paper focuses

More information

Special Education Process

Special Education Process Special Education Process Special education is intended to provide services to students who have disabilities, and who, because of those disabilities, need help to make progress in the general education

More information

Age is Only a Number: Evaluating and Modernising Dated EFL Materials Andrzej Cirocki, Gdansk University, Poland

Age is Only a Number: Evaluating and Modernising Dated EFL Materials Andrzej Cirocki, Gdansk University, Poland Age is Only a Number: Evaluating and Modernising Dated EFL Materials Andrzej Cirocki, Gdansk University, Poland Language teachers, apart from regular teaching and designing classroom materials, are also

More information

Phonics Instruction Page 1 c2s5_13phonicsinstruc

Phonics Instruction Page 1 c2s5_13phonicsinstruc Phonics Instruction Page 1 Phonics Instruction Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken

More information

1 Rationale for Teaching Languages at KS2

1 Rationale for Teaching Languages at KS2 Nikki Bailey MFL Lead 2014 1 Rationale for Teaching Languages at KS2 1.1 As the UK is becoming an increasingly multicultural society, we have a duty to provide our children with an understanding of other

More information

Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270]

Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270] I.B. SPECIFIC TEACHING FIELDS Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270] STANDARD 1 Curriculum The competent early childhood teacher understands and demonstrates the central

More information

Special Education Coding Criteria 2014/2015. ECS to Grade 12 Mild/Moderate Gifted and Talented Severe

Special Education Coding Criteria 2014/2015. ECS to Grade 12 Mild/Moderate Gifted and Talented Severe Special Education Coding Criteria 2014/2015 Mild/Moderate Gifted and Talented Severe Special Education Coding Criteria 2014/2015 ISBN 978-1-4601-1902-0 (Print) ISBN 978-1-4601-1903-7 (PDF) ISSN 1911-4311

More information

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND BEST PRACTICES MANUAL Speech-Language Pathology in the Schools

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND BEST PRACTICES MANUAL Speech-Language Pathology in the Schools I. Definition and Overview Central Consolidated School District No. 22 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND BEST PRACTICES MANUAL Speech-Language Pathology in the Schools Speech and/or language impairments are those

More information

Using an Audio Recorder in Lessons for New English Learners Who are Blind or Have Low Vision by Sylvie Kashdan

Using an Audio Recorder in Lessons for New English Learners Who are Blind or Have Low Vision by Sylvie Kashdan Using an Audio Recorder in Lessons for New English Learners Who are Blind or Have Low Vision by Sylvie Kashdan An audio recorder is one of the important tools that should be used in every lesson for new

More information

Languages MFL) Policy

Languages MFL) Policy 1 January 2015 Modern Foreign Languages MFL) Policy BALLADEN CPS LINDEN LEA, RAWTENSTALL, ROSSENDALE, LANCASHIRE, BB4 6DX Contents... 0 Rationale for Teaching Languages at KS2... 2 As the UK is becoming

More information

Talking about ADHD. INTSP/IN/ADHD/13/0080a October 2013

Talking about ADHD. INTSP/IN/ADHD/13/0080a October 2013 Talking about ADHD Please note, the content of this programme is advisory only and not a substitute for professional and/or medical advice. If you would like any further advice or have any concerns regarding

More information

Auditory: may be bothered by different frequencies of sound; may consistently misunderstand what is being said

Auditory: may be bothered by different frequencies of sound; may consistently misunderstand what is being said Lee Reynolds, MD Child & Adolescent Psychiatrist 4KidHelp Center for Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 6513 Frank Ave NW North Canton, OH 44720 (330) 433 1300 www.4kidhelp.com 1 1 What it feels like to have

More information

DEMYSTIFYING THE DEFINITIONS: Differentiating the Definitions of Learning Disability the diagnosis, the Exceptionality, and the ISA Profile in Ontario

DEMYSTIFYING THE DEFINITIONS: Differentiating the Definitions of Learning Disability the diagnosis, the Exceptionality, and the ISA Profile in Ontario DEMYSTIFYING THE DEFINITIONS: Differentiating the Definitions of Learning Disability the diagnosis, the Exceptionality, and the ISA Profile in Ontario Dr. A. Lynne Beal, Psychologist October, 2003 What

More information

PRE AND POST TEST TO SEE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN YEARS OF ANIMATED LITERACY AND KNOWLEDGE OF LETTERS STEPHANIE, BUCK. Submitted to

PRE AND POST TEST TO SEE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN YEARS OF ANIMATED LITERACY AND KNOWLEDGE OF LETTERS STEPHANIE, BUCK. Submitted to Animated Literacy 1 RUNNING HEAD: Years of Animated Literacy Letters PRE AND POST TEST TO SEE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN YEARS OF ANIMATED LITERACY AND KNOWLEDGE OF LETTERS By STEPHANIE, BUCK Submitted to

More information

The Role of the SLP in Schools. A Presentation for Teachers, Administrators, Parents, and the Community 1

The Role of the SLP in Schools. A Presentation for Teachers, Administrators, Parents, and the Community 1 The Role of the SLP in Schools A Presentation for Teachers, Administrators, Parents, and the Community 1 Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) Are Specially Trained Professionals Who Have Earned: A master

More information

DISCUSSING THE QUESTION OF TEACHING FORMAL GRAMMAR IN ESL LEARNING

DISCUSSING THE QUESTION OF TEACHING FORMAL GRAMMAR IN ESL LEARNING DISCUSSING THE QUESTION OF TEACHING FORMAL GRAMMAR IN ESL LEARNING Savitskaya T.N. Siberian State Aerospace University named after Reshetnev M.F., Krasnoyarsk, Russia В статье автор обобщает точки зрения

More information

Second Language Acquisition in Elementary Aged Students. Florida International University

Second Language Acquisition in Elementary Aged Students. Florida International University Second Language Acquisition in Elementary Aged Students Florida International University Second Language Acquisition in Elementary Aged Students Abstract Second language acquisition is the process by which

More information

Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Nursery & Primary School. Modern Foreign Language Policy

Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Nursery & Primary School. Modern Foreign Language Policy Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Nursery & Primary School Modern Foreign Language Policy September 2014 Review Date: September 2016 INTRODUCTION This subject policy is one in a series that makes up the Whole

More information

The Current Situation and Future Prospects of Japanese English Teaching

The Current Situation and Future Prospects of Japanese English Teaching The Current Situation and Future Prospects of Japanese English Teaching YAMAOKA Kenji 1. The Dichotomy between Grammar-translation and Communication 1.1 Grammar-translation Methods for the Examinations.

More information

Test at a Glance. About this test

Test at a Glance. About this test English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) Test at a Glance Test Name English to Speakers of Other Languages Test Code 0360 Time 2 hours, with a 30-minute listening section Number of Questions 120,

More information

Case Study: Jane Dhillon. 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability?

Case Study: Jane Dhillon. 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability? Case Study: Jane Dhillon 1. Background information on Jane Dhillon 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability? Three issues in this course that relate to Jane: 3. Memory 4. Peer relationships

More information

SPEECH, LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION Pocketbook

SPEECH, LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION Pocketbook SPEECH, LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION Pocketbook By Victoria Mason & Emela Milne Cartoons: Phil Hailstone Contents Page Introduction to SLCN Defining SLCN, typical language development, who has SLCN?, prevalence,

More information

Department Of Psychology/ Psychological Counseling

Department Of Psychology/ Psychological Counseling Department Of Psychology/ Psychological Counseling Admission Requirements To join the Department of psychology and counseling, (Dept. code #1( Psychology,5 counseling), a student must successfully complete»»

More information

What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development?

What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development? What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development? Supporting social interaction is an important piece of the student s educational plan, as increasing social interaction and competency are vital

More information

, Review: Applied Linguistics: Elsner & Kessler (2013)

, Review: Applied Linguistics: Elsner & Kessler (2013) 24.4586, Review: Applied Linguistics: Elsner & Kessler (2013) EDITOR: Daniela Elsner EDITOR: Jörg U. Keßler TITLE: Bilingual Education in Primary School SUBTITLE: Aspects of Immersion, CLIL, and Bilingual

More information

Special Education Program Descriptions School-Based Program Delivery Model

Special Education Program Descriptions School-Based Program Delivery Model Special Education Program Descriptions School-Based Program Delivery Model Resource Room Services Resource Room Services, available in all MCPS schools, provide students with disabilities with the support

More information

What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners?

What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners? Jan/Feb 2007 What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners? By Suzanne Irujo, ELL Outlook Contributing Writer As a classroom teacher, I was largely ignorant of, and definitely

More information

Courses Description. ELI 600 Second Language Acquisition 3

Courses Description. ELI 600 Second Language Acquisition 3 Courses Description ELI 600 Second Language Acquisition 3 This course introduces the students to the major theories and issues in second language acquisition, as well as the theories and assumptions that

More information

Tibiscus University of Timişoara, România. 1. Aspects of the Computer Assisted English Language Learning

Tibiscus University of Timişoara, România. 1. Aspects of the Computer Assisted English Language Learning The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Classes for English as a Second Language Ioana Iacob Tibiscus University of Timişoara, România ABSTRACT. The present study aims to evaluate the efficiency of the

More information

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The aim of this chapter is to describe the related references upon which

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The aim of this chapter is to describe the related references upon which CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The aim of this chapter is to describe the related references upon which the research hypothesis is built. In this chapter, there are some points to

More information

ARLINGTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND SERVICES

ARLINGTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND SERVICES ARLINGTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND SERVICES Introduction The Arlington Public Schools provides a comprehensive array of programs and services from pre-school through grades 12 designed

More information

Paterson Public Schools Bilingual /ESL Department 133 Ellison Street Paterson, NJ 07505

Paterson Public Schools Bilingual /ESL Department 133 Ellison Street Paterson, NJ 07505 ELEMENTARY BILINGUAL INSTRUCTIONAL SETTING English Language Learners (ELLs) participate in the following programs depending on school population and staffing. These programs, inclusive of the 90 minute

More information

Grammar Translation Method as an Indispensable Approach in Semi Urban and Rural Areas as Teaching Method

Grammar Translation Method as an Indispensable Approach in Semi Urban and Rural Areas as Teaching Method Grammar Translation Method as an Indispensable Approach in Semi Urban and Rural Areas as Teaching Method Dinesh Kumar Asstt. Prof. of English Dyal Singh College, Karnal Dineshkarnal1@gmail.com ABSTRACT

More information

G R A D E S K - I N S T R U C T I O N A N D A S S E S S M E N T

G R A D E S K - I N S T R U C T I O N A N D A S S E S S M E N T There are approximately six million English Language Learners, ELLs, in our country today. Exemplary Strategies has been designed for all teachers. Whether the students native language is English, Spanish

More information

IAC Ch 13, p.1. b. Oral communication.

IAC Ch 13, p.1. b. Oral communication. IAC Ch 13, p.1 282 13.28 (272) Minimum content requirements for teaching endorsements. 13.28(1) Agriculture. 5-12. Completion of 24 semester credit hours in agriculture and agriculture education to include:

More information

Adopted by the Board of Directors: November 12, 2002

Adopted by the Board of Directors: November 12, 2002 Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

More information

Language Based Learning Disabilities in School-Age Children

Language Based Learning Disabilities in School-Age Children Chapter 5 Language Based Learning Disabilities in School-Age Children COMD 326, Chapter 5 1 1 Language-Based Disabilities Language-based learning disabilities Traumatic brain injury induced Attention deficit

More information

Standards of Quality and Effectiveness for Professional Teacher Preparation Programs APPENDIX A

Standards of Quality and Effectiveness for Professional Teacher Preparation Programs APPENDIX A APPENDIX A Teaching Performance Expectations A. MAKING SUBJECT MATTER COMPREHENSIBLE TO STUDENTS TPE 1: Specific Pedagogical Skills for Subject Matter Instruction Background Information: TPE 1. TPE 1 is

More information

Universal Design for the Mathematics Classroom

Universal Design for the Mathematics Classroom Kat Blair & Emily Goins University of Arkansas Fayetteville Universal Design for the Mathematics Classroom Universal Design (UD) is a set of principles that allows for designing curriculum and creating

More information

13) In Piaget's theory, are psychological structures that organize experience. A) schemes B) accommodations C) assimilations D) equilibrations

13) In Piaget's theory, are psychological structures that organize experience. A) schemes B) accommodations C) assimilations D) equilibrations Review for Exam 2 1) When Roy first received a new toy, he played with it all the time. The longer he had it, the less he played with it. This change in Roy's behavior is an example of A) priming. B) habituation.

More information