1 Anxiety, Depression, and ADD/ADHD The Holistic Approach for Children in the Classroom
2 Anxiety Facts 20% of American children are diagnosed with a mental illness Nearly 5 million children are diagnosed with a mental illness Anxiety may be caused by genetics or environmental Anxiety is treatable
3 What does Anxiety look like? Cognitive Concentration Overreaction Memory problems Worry Irritability Perfectionism Rigid thinking Difficulties w/problem solving Depression Behavioral Shyness Withdrawal Need for sameness Rapid speech Excessive talking Restlessness Habit behaviors Impulsiveness
4 What does Anxiety look like? Trembling or shaking Increased heart rate Lots of perspiration Shortness of breathe Dizziness Chest pain Flushing of the skin Nausea Muscle tension Physical (con t)
5 Interventions Play therapy Behavioral therapy Family therapy Pharmacological therapy Secret ingredient
6 Depression Facts According to the National Institute of Mental Health 2.5% of American children under the age of 18 years old are depressed. About 1.8 million American children are depressed
7 What Does Depression Look Like? Toddlers/Pre K Cranky Delay in development Irritability Aggressive behaviors Clinginess Isolation Lack of appetite Poor concentration Nightmares Anger Unsettled sleep Not listening Bedwetting Anxiety
8 Interventions Play therapy Family therapy Pharmacological therapy Writing Center Arts/Crafts Center Dramatic Play Center Secret ingredient
9 Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Attention Deficit Disorder is a persistent pattern of inattention, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivityimpulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development (Salend & Rohena, 2003, p. 260).
10 ADD/ADHD Facts Millions of American children have been diagnosed with ADD One of the most frequently diagnosed disorders in childhood Perhaps affecting as much as 20% of school age children (Erk, 1995)
11 ADD/ADHD Facts (con t) Most common neurological disorder of childhood (Erk, 1997) 3.4 % of adolescent girls have ADHD 7.3 % of adolescent boys have ADHD (McCleary, 2003)
12 ADD/ADHD Myths ADHD is equally common among boys and girls, and at all ages. ADHD is usually outgrown Children with ADHD are less intelligent Faulty parenting is the primary cause of ADHD
13 ADD/ADHD Myths (con t) Sugar ingestion is a primary cause of ADHD Due to the increase in prevalence rates and rise in prescriptions, ADD is highly over-diagnosed ADHD symptoms often do not show up in the preschool years Private school is a better option for ADHD children
14 What does ADD/ADHD Look Like? Inattentive to work or play activities Not listening when spoken to Not following directions at home or school Being distracted Moving or talking excessively Acting in an impulsive manner Having problems with organization
15 What does ADD/ADHD Look Like? (con t) Interrupting Failure to take turns in play or conversation Aggression Anger Anxiety Family problems
16 All or nothing A cluster of these behaviors must be present before the age of 7 And interfere with the individuals social, education, and occupational performance in two or more settings And not be related to other medical or psychiatric conditions (Salend & Rowena, 2003)
17 Causes of ADD/ADHD Neurological Biological Environmental Family/Cultural Malnutrition
18 Where are the strengths? Creative not only in arts but design like engineering Visualization Multi taskers Active Thomas Edison Pablo Picasso Friedreich Nietzsche Winston Churchill Florence Nightingale Charles Darwin (Armstrong, 1996
19 Holistic Interventions Cognitive use focusing and attention training techniques including biofeedback, organizational strategies, etc. Ecological limit television, use music and art, good diet Physical strong physical education program Emotional build self-esteem
20 Holistic interventions (con t) Behavioral immediate feedback, use contracting natural logical consequences, etc. Social teach effective communication skills, social skills, peer tutoring, cooperative learning, etc. Educational use computers, hand-on learning, develop creativity (Armstrong, 1996)
21 Secret Ingredients Classroom Environment Nap Time Relationship Strategies Battle vs War Communication
22 Classroom Environment Posted rules Reading time Chore list Timed centers Reading buddies Name plates Transition time
23 Nap time Space between cots Soothing music Patting Reading a book
24 Relationship Strategies Establish a connection Same teacher daily- secure and safe Trained substitute teachers Consistency in classroom structure Three Times Twenty-3 min, listen, ah ha Acceptance, Acknowledgement, and Accomplishment
25 Battles vs. War Activities Safety Self Esteem I need you to..
26 Communication Less is more Be firm Be clear Get on the child s level Pause Low voice I need
27 What About the Parents? Greetings- am & pm Positive vs. challenging reports Weekly reports Professional resources
28 Don t Forget, As you deal with children with special needs, take the advice of Sir Winston Churchill: NEVER, NEVER, NEVER GIVE UP!
29 Helpful web sites and references for additional answers to your questions. What is Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)? Barkley, R.A. (1990). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guildford Press. How can I help my child? Crock, W. (1991). Help for the hyperactive child. Jackson, TN: Professional Books. How can I help my child succeed in school? Parker, H.C. (1992). The ADD hyperactivity handbook for schools. Plantation, FL: Impact Publications. How can I help I be a better parent in order to help my entire family? Anderson, S. (2001). ADHD and the role of parents. Drug Benefit Trends, 13,
30 References Armstrong, T. (1996). A holistic approach to attention deficit disorder. Educational Leadership, 53(54), Church, K., Gottschalk, C. M. & Leddy, J.N. (2003). Enhance social and friendship skills. Intervention in School & Clinic, 38(5), Erk, R. R. (1995). The evolution of attention deficit disorders terminology. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 29(4), Erk, R. R. (1997). Multidimensional treatment of attention deficit disorder: A family oriented approach. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 19(1), Fell, B. & Pierce, K. (1995). Meeting the ADD challenge: A multimodal plan for parents, students, teachers and physicians. Intervention in School and Clinic, 30(4), Fouse, B & Morrison, J. A. (1997). Using children s books as an intervention for attention deficit disorder. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), Kemp K & Fister S (1995) Academic strategies for children with
31 References (continued) Mann, S. (1996). The ADD strategies worksheet. School Counselor, 44(2), Mathur, S. & Smith R. M. (2003). Collaborate with Families of Children with ADD. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(5), McCleary, L. (2002). Parenting adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Health and Social Work, 27(4), Ostoits, J. (1999). Reading strategies for students with ADD and ADHD in the inclusive classroom. Preventing School Failure, 43(3), Salend, S. J. & Rohena, E. (2003). Students with attention deficit disorders: An overview. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(5), Schwiebert, V. L. & Sealander, K. A. (1995). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An overview for school counselors. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 29(4), Turnbull R., Turnbull A., Shank, M., Smith, S., & Leal, D. (2002).