# Introduction to Economics

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1 Introduction to Economics Topic 7 (Macroeconomics): An aggregate supply-aggregate demand model Coordinator lecturer: Levi Pérez University of Oviedo (Spain, ES EU)

2 Overview 1. Aggregate demand 2. Aggregate supply 3. The determination of equilibrium: income and price level Goal: [1] How the AS-AD model is used to analyze economic fluctuations. [2] The importance of the multiplier, which determines the total change in aggregate output arising from a shift of the aggregate demand curve.

3 1. Aggregate demand: consumption, investment, public expenditure and net exports

4 The aggregate demand curve The aggregate demand curve shows the relationship between the aggregate price level and the quantity of aggregate output demanded by households, business, the government and the rest of the world. AD Ξ C + I + G + (X IM) The aggregate demand curve is downward-sloping

5 The aggregate demand curve P A movement down the AD curve leads to a lower aggregate price level and higher aggregate output AD Y

6 Consumption The planned aggregate spending in consumption is a function of disposable income, among others, C= f( Y d ) The households saving is the part of disposable income not spend on consumption S = Y d C S = f ( Y ) d

7 Some definitions The marginal propensity to consume, or MPC, is the increase in consumer spending when disposable income rises by 1. The marginal propensity to save, or MPS, is the increase in household savings when disposable income rises by 1. MPC C = > Y d 0 MPS S = > Y The average propensity to consume, or APC, is the proportion of income spent. The average propensity to save, or APS, is the proportion of disposable income which is saved. APC = C Y d APS = d S Y d 0

8 Some definitions MPC is lower than 1 (0<MPC<1) MPS is lower than 1 (0<MPS<1) Please, note that Y = C+ S Y = C+ S d C S 1= + 1= MPC+ MPS Y Y d d d

9 The keynesian function of consumption C= C0 + MPCY d Autonomous consumption (also exogenous consumption) is a term used to describe consumption expenditure that occurs when income levels are zero. C 0 >0 0 < MPC < 1 An example: C= Y d S= Y d In general terms S = C0 + (1 MPC) Y d S = C0 + MPSY d

10 The keynesian function of consumption C C = C0 + MPCY d C=f(Y d ) C 0 Y d

11 Investment spending It is the planned aggregate purchase of capital goods (IK) and the planned aggregate purchase of variable inputs (IE). Butwearegoingtofocusonlyontheplannedaggregatepurchase of capital goods(capital investment spending). It depends on - Business expectations - The cost of investment spending, so the interest rate (r) - Others (aggregate output level, price of capital goods, subventions, tax exemptions, ) r Quizz -What about expectations? I=f( r ) I

12 Government spending Government spending or government expenditure is classified into four main types: - Government acquisition of goods and services for current use (government final consumption expenditure). - Government acquisition of goods and services intended to create future benefits (government investment - gross fixed capital formation). - Government expenditures that are not acquisition of goods and services (transfer payments). - Public borrowing interests.

13 Net exportations It is the difference between exportations and importations: It depends on Net exports = X IM - Aggregate production and income of the rest of the world - The ratio between national good prices and foreign good prices - Exchange rate

14 The aggregate demand curve The aggregate demand curve shows the relationship between the aggregate price level and the quantity of aggregate output demanded by the economic agents (households, business, the government and the rest of the world). AD Ξ C + I + G + (X IM) The aggregate demand curve is downward-sloping Quizz -Why?

15 The aggregate demand curve If price decreases - The interest rate (the price of money) decreases, so investment spending increases (and consumption spending too). Then AD rises. - National goods are cheaper, so exports increases. Then AD rises.

16 2. Aggregate supply: determinants

17 The aggregate supply curve The aggregate demand curve shows the relationship between the aggregate price level and the quantity of aggregate output supplied.

18 The aggregate supply curve Simplifier hypothesis - Short-run aggregate supply curve - Both prices and wages are fixed - There is a high unemployment rate (so, the output level may be increased without changes costs of productions prices) The aggregate supply curve is then perfectly elastic until the full employment aggregate output level. Then it is perfectly inelastic.

19 The aggregate supply curve P AS P 0 Y f Y (full employment)

20 3. The determination of quilibrium: income and price level

21 The AS-AD model The economy is in short-run macroeconomic equilibrium when the quantity of aggregate output supplied is equal to the quantity demanded. AS = AD Y = C+ I+ G+ ( X IM)

22 The AS-AD model P E: OA = DA A: OA < DA B: OA > DA AS P 0 A E B (Y<AD) (Y>AD) AD Y Y 0 Y 1 Y 2 When aggregate production (Y) < (AD) aggregate output (viceversa)

23 The AS-AD model Changes in equilibrium P 0 P C ( C 0 ; PMC; T; TR) * AS I G (we will see this in Topic 10) E 0 E 1 X, IM) AD 1 AD 0 Y 0 Y 1 Y AD (vice versa) (*) Note that: C=f(Yd) where Y d =NI-T d +TR

24 The AS-AD model Changes in equilibrium: An example X (X-M) P AS AD P 0 E 0 E 1 AD 1 AD 0 Y 0 Y 1 Y

25 The multiplier The multiplier is the ratio of the total change in Y (real GDP) caused by an autonomous change in aggregate spending to the size of that autonomous change Multiplier = 1 / (1 MPC) = k Change in Y = k x Autonomous change in agg. spending

26 Introduction to Economics Topic 7 (Macroeconomics): An aggregate supply-aggregate demand model

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