# CALCULATIONS and FORMULAS GUIDE for PAINTS and COATINGS

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1 CALCULATIONS and FORMULAS GUIDE for PAINTS and COATINGS INDEX Page How to Specify Blasting.1 Abrasive / Profile Comparative Chart. 2 Reduction in Solids Content by Adding Thinner.. 3 Volume of Thinner Required to Thin % Shown 4 Wet Film Thickness Requirements.. 5 Theoretical Coverage in Square Feet.. 6 Coating Coverage Calculations 7 Abrasive Consumption per Hour 8 Examples of Abrasive Cleaning Rates. 9 Examples of Cleaning Production Rates 9 Pressure Loss in Air Line Commonly Used Formulas and Calculations. 12 Estimating Square Footage in Various Shapes E. Scott Ave. Wichita Falls, TX (940)

2 HOW TO SPECIFY BLASTING Your coating supplier will always designate the degree of surface preparation required for his materials. The three basic standards used to describe surface preparation are: Steel Structure Painting Council (SSPC) "Surface Preparation Specifications", the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standards (N.A.C.E.) and the Swedish Pictoral Standards. Their basic definitions are: SSPC NACE SWEDISH* DESCRIPTION SP 1, Solvent Cleaning N/A N/A SP 2, hand Tool Cleaning N/A St 2 Removal of oil, grease, dirt, soil and contaminants by cleaning with solvent, vapor, alkali, emulsion or steam. Removal of loose rust, loose mill scale and loose paint by hand chipping, scraping, sanding and wire brushing. SP 3, Power Tool Cleaning N/A St 3 Removal of loose rust, loose mill scale and loose paint by power tool chipping, descaling, sanding, wire brushing and grinding. SP 5, White Metal Blast Cleaning 1 Sa 3 Removal of all visible rust, mill scale, paint and foreign matter by blast cleaning. SP 6, Commercial Blast Cleaning 3 Sa 2 Blast cleaning until at least two thirds of each square inch is free of all visible residues. SP 7, Brush Off Blast Cleaning 4 Sa 1 Blast cleaning of all except tightly adhered residues of mill scale, rust and coatings. SP 8, Pickling SP 10, Near White Blast Cleaning 2 Sa 2½ Complete removal of rust and mill scale by acid pickling, duplex pickling or electrolytic pickling. Blast cleaning until at least 95% of each square inch is free of all visible rust, mill scale, paint and foreign matter. SP 11 87T, Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal N/A N/A Removal of all visible rust, mill scale, paint and foreign matter using power tools and producing a minimum profile of 1 mil.

3 ABRASIVE / PROFILE COMPARATIVE CHART The following chart should be used only for approximating the abrasive size required to obtain a specified anchor pattern. The standard metal used to obtain these results was hot rolled steel with tightly adhering mill scale. The resulting depth of anchor pattern will vary with the method used for measuring depths as well as any one of numerous other variables (type and hardness of steel, thickness of mill scale, degree of cleaning specified, etc.) This information can be used for centrifugal wheel as well as pressure blasting. Pressure blasting should be done using psi nozzle pressure. The depth of anchor pattern used in this chart is an average and not a minumum of maximum depth obtainable. Consult local abrasive suppliers for specific technical data. 1 Mil Profile 30/60 Mesh Silica Sand G 80 Steel Grit S 110 Steel Shot* 80 Mesh Garnet 100 Aluminum Oxide Clemtex #4 Black Beauty Mil Profile 16/35 Mesh Silica Sand G 40 Steel Grit S 230 Steel Shot* 36 Mesh Garnet 36 Grit Aluminum Oxide Clemtex #3 Black Beauty Mil Profile 16/35 Mesh Silica Sand G 50 Steel Grit S 170 Steel Shot* 36 Mesh Garnet 50 Grit Aluminum Oxide Clemtex #3 Black Beauty Mil Profile 8/35 Mesh Silica Sand G 40 Steel Grit S 280 Steel Shot* 16 Mesh Garnet 24 Grit Aluminum Oxide Clemtex #2 Black Beauty Mil Profile 8/20 Mesh Silica Sand G 25 Steel Grit S 330 or 390 Steel Shot* 16 Mesh Garnet 16 Grit Aluminum Oxide Clemtex #2 Black Beauty 1240 *Steel shot alone will not give a good angular pattern and should be used in combination with steel grit for best results.

4 REDUCTION IN SOLIDS CONTENT BY ADDING THINNER (THINNER ADDED) Original Solids Content of Material Before Adding Thinner % 2% 5% 7% 10% 12% 15% 17% 20% 25% 30% 35% Solids Content After Thinner

5 VOLUME OF THINNER REQUIRED TO THIN PERCENTAGE SHOWN 1 Gallon Kit 5 Gallon Kit % Oz. Liter % Oz. Liter Liter Kit 20 Liter Kit % Liter Oz. % Liter Oz

6 WET FILM THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS Required Dry Film Thickness (Mils) % Solids Content of Material After Thinning Wet Film Thickenss Required Example: Matl. = 70% Solids DFT = 6 mils Wet Film = mils Note: Dry film thicknesses are minimum. No allowance is made for evaporation of solvents during application.

7 THEORETICAL COVERAGE IN SQUARE FEET PER U.S. GALLON Required Dry Film Thickness Per Coat (Mils) Solids Content by Volume % Theoretical Coverage Per Gallon

8 COATING COVERAGE CALCULATIONS Theoretical Coverage (on smooth surface) ft² / U.S. gal = % SBV/100 x 1604 dft (mils) m² / 1 = % SBV/100 x 1000 dft (micronsn) Practical Coverage = Theoretical Coverage Theoretical Coverage x % Loss 100 Consumption = Area (ft² or m²) Practical Coverage (gallons or liters) Film Thickness Wet to Dry: wft x % SBV Dry to Wet: dft x % SBV % Solids by Volume and wet film thickness adjustments due to thinning W X Z A = 1 + Y = W A = adjusted WFT required for thinned material W = adjusted % solids by volume due to thinning X = original materials % solids by volume Y = % thinner added Z = required dry film thickness

9 ABRASIVE CONSUMPTION PER HOUR and AIR CONSUMPTION IN CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE Pressure at Nozzle Orifice Size 60 PSI 70 PSI 80 PSI 90 PSI 100 PSI 3/16" Air (CFM) (5mm) Sand (lb/hr) H.P.* 1/4" Air (6mm) Sand H.P. 5/16" Air (8mm) Sand H.P. 3/8" Air (10mm) Sand H.P. 7/16" Air (11mm) Sand H.P. 1/2" Air (13mm) Sand H.P. 5/8" Air (16mm) Sand H.P. 3/4" Air (19mm) Sand H.P. *Electric motor horsepower required to product indicated C.F.M.

10 EXAMPLES OF ABRASIVE CLEANING RATES¹ Abrasive Abrasive Production Consumption Rate Comments Silica Sand 1½ mil profile 2.6 lbs. / sq. ft. 275 ft² / hr. 16 / 40 Mesh dusty Crushed Flint 12 / 30 Mesh 3.6 lbs. / sq. ft. 161 ft² / hr. 3 mils Staurolite 1½ mil profile 3.1 lbs. / sq. ft. 291 ft² / hr. 50 / 100 Mesh smooth surface Coal Slag 16 / 40 Mesh Copper Slag 16 / 40 Mesh 3.2 lbs. / sq. ft. 3.1 lbs. / sq. ft. 230 ft² / hr. 262 ft² / hr. 2½ mil profile 2 mil profile *Garnet 36 1½ mil profile *3.6 lbs. / sq. ft. 213 ft² / hr. Grit very little dust *Aluminum 1½ mil profile *3.1 lbs. / sq. ft. 275 ft² / hr. Oxide 36 Grit very little dust *G 40 Steel 2½ mil profile *5.5 lbs. / sq. ft. 184 ft² / hr. Grit no dust *These abrasives are normally reused ¹Newly fabricated steel using a 3/8" I.D. orifice nozzle and 100 psi to a SSPC SP 10 near white condition. EXAMPLES OF CLEANING PRODUCTION RATES¹ Method Production Rate Abrasive Used 1. SSPC SP ft² / hour 1 gal / hour 2. SSPC SP ft² / hour 4 units / day 3. SSPC SP ft² / hour 2 units / day 4. SSPC SP ft² ¹ 10,000 lbs. 5. SSPC SP ft² ¹ 8,000 lbs. 6. SSPC SP ft² ¹ 7,000 lbs. 7. SSPC SP ft² ¹ 12,500 lbs. ¹Per a 3 person crew day on lightly rusted steel, using 30 / 40 mesh medium hardness abrasive, 3/8" orifice nozzle at 80 psi.

11 PRESSURE LOSS IN HOSE Lubrication Only at Tool - No Line Lubricator Hose Length cfm Line Pressure psig and Free Inside Diameter Air Feet 3/4" 50 Feet 1" 50 Feet 1¼" 50 Feet 1½"

12 PRESSURE LOSS IN HOSE - cont. Lubrication Only at Tool - No Line Lubricator Hose Length cfm Line Pressure psig and Free Inside Diameter Air Feet " Feet ½" Feet " Feet "

13 COMMONLY USED FORMULAS for CALCULATING SURFACE AREA Squares and Rectangles a The areas of a square and of a rectangle are obtained by multiplying the length of one side by the length of the other, i.e. square = a x a a rectangle = a x b b Cubes A cube has 6 sides that are all identical squares. To calculate the total surface area, multiply 6 by the a square of the length (a) of one of the sides i.e. a a 6 x a x a d Spheres The surface area of a sphere is multiplied by the square of the diameter i.e x d x d L d Pipes The surface area of a pipe is multiplied by the diameter (d) and by the length (L) i.e x d x L d L R Cylindrical Tanks The surface area consists of the cylindric shell plus the top and bottom area i.e x d x L + 2 x ( x R x R)

14 ESTIMATING SQUARE FOOTAGE IN VARIOUS SHAPES Cylinder a. Determine area of both ends of cylinder (circles) by multiplying times the radius (in feet) squared. b. Determine area of side of cylinder by multiplying circumference (in feet) times height (in feet). c. Add square feet of both ends to square feet of side for total square feet of cylinder. Cone a. Determine area of base by multiplying times the radius (in feet) squared. b. Determine the area of the side of the cone by multiplying circumference of base (in feet) times one-half of the slant height (in feet). c. Add the square foot area of the base to the square foot area of the cone side for total square foot area. Triangle Multiply the base measurement (in feet) times one-half the altitude (in feet). Circle To determine the square footage of the area of a circle, multiply times the radius (in feet) squared. Circumference To determine the circumference of a circle, multiply times the diameter (twice the radius).

15 Square or Rectangle Multiply the base measure (in feet) times the height (in feet). Estimating Square Footage from Tonnage Many times structures will have unusual shapes or be too difficult to accurately measure. In such instances, if the tonnage and thickness of the steel can be determined, fairly accurate estimates of area can be determined from the table below. Thickness of Steel (inches) 1/8 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/ /2 2 Square Foot Area Per Ton

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