1 1 Public Speaking 1. Getting Ready 2. Getting Started 3. Getting Through It 4. Getting Off
2 2 How to Communicate Effectively and Get Your Point Across Introductions - Purpose of this training (It is not about writing the content of a speech - it is about getting up to speak your mind and communicate effectively) Exercise A. Each person have a presentation (2 minutes) B. Each person goes to the podium and presents their brief presentation C. Congratulations - the hardest part of public speaking is over! The 4 Parts to Public Speaking (pass out materials) Getting Ready Audience, protocols (dress, style, etc.) Location and equipment available Preparing your presentation Get there early to scope out the place and relax Getting Started Breathe (practice with straw) Walk slowly to front and wait until firmly centered at podium Look around the room and make eye contact before saying anything Adjust microphone / find comfortable place to stand Get cards, script ready Take a breath Start Getting Through It Talk slowly
3 3 Find a friendly face or spot to look at your eye level and talk to it Share your personal experience - why you personally care about the issue If comfortable telling jokes and it is appropriate with the subject, go for it Don't rush Getting Off When finished with presentation, say thank you Look around the room once before turning to walk away Walk away slowly Questions and Answers Do Exercise again using the new techniques learned (will critique as we go) Final Comments Adjourn
4 4 35 IDEAS ON IMPROVING YOURSELF AS A PUBLIC SPEAKER 1. Project your voice. Speak from your diaphragm, not your throat. 2. Keep eye contact with different members of your audience as you speak. 3. Try to stand to the side of blackboards and flip charts while writing on them during your presentation. 4. Use the podium to your advantage. If you are about to make an important point, or want to create a "formal" atmosphere, step behind it. At more informal points of your talk, step out from behind the podium. 5. Dress according to audience expectations. When in doubt, overdress. Avoid dangling jewelry and spare change in your pockets. 6. Be natural. The best speaking tone is identical to conversational speech, only a bit louder. 7. Vary the speed of your voice for maximum effort. Slowing down, or even pausing, before important points will command audience attention. 8. State your main points at the outset of your talk. Then explain them and end with a summary of the same main points. 9. Systematically search out examples and anecdotes that illustrate the main points of your talk. Write them down, and use them in your talk. 10. Have reserve power. Don't say everything you know about the subject; instead leave something in reserve. Talk to your audience in terms they understand. If you re talking with students, talk about things they are concerned with.
5 5 11. Point out similarities between you and your audience. ("We are all concerned about the government cuts to Medicare") 12. Ask questions, request a show of hands, and otherwise include members of your audience in your presentation. 13. Use names of people in your talk. If you can, refer to members of the audience by name. 14. Get attention at the opening sentence with a striking statistic, metaphor, or story. 15. Find opportunities to practice speaking in public. 16. Never draw attention to negatives (for example, don't admit you are very nervous, or say "I'm really not an experienced speaker.") 17. Whenever possible, speak from your personal experience. 18. Set up a filing system for your talks. 19. Always prepare an opening and conclusion in advance. 20. If you use a microphone, don t get too close to it, and keep it between you and your audience at all times. Don't make side remarks the audience won't be able to hear. 21. Practice with a tape recorder or videotape recorder or in front of a mirror. You'll be able to correct many speech and body mannerisms. 22. Pick a few members of your audience to watch as barometers for your talk. Their facial expressions and body language will help you test how you re doing.
6 6 23. Study effective speakers. Ask yourself, What makes this speaker effective?" Then emulate that effective style. 24. Practice stories, jokes and quotations to make sure you can deliver them effectively. 25. When doing slide presentations, (or any audio-visual techniques that force you to lower the lights) speak louder than normal to keep audience attention. 26. If you are using special audio equipment, practice with it before your talk. 27. If you have to recapture control of the group, move to a flipchart or blackboard and begin writing. 28. Vary your pace. Alternate between lectures, questions, exercises, votes and other techniques. 29. If you use notes, don't check them during pauses. Instead, check them as you finish your previous point. Use pauses to establish eye contact with the audience. 30. Prepare teaser questions for an unresponsive audience. 31. Always find out the time limit for your speech and practice. Keep to your time limit. 32. Check the purpose of the organization and the meeting so that you can fit what you are saying to where they are at". 33. Use we to include the audience. 34. Keep 3 by 5 cards and a pencil by the bed and in your car so that you can jot down notes, thoughts, etc.
7 7 HOW TO HANDLE AUDIENCE QUESTIONS: 10 TIPS i 1. Keep your question/answer period brief. Too much time spent addressing individual concerns lowers the energy level of the larger group. Stop the questions and close when you see the energy sag. 2. Anticipate questions and try to prepare answers. If it s a tough presentation, practice answering questions with a colleague in advance. 3. In answering the question, try to reinforce key points you ve made in your talk. Avoid irrelevant tangents. 4. Don t be afraid to rephrase a question from a participant, or ask for more clarification. 5. If you don t know the answer, say so; then tell the questioner when you ll be able to get it to him/her. 6. If you want time to put together an answer, ask the questioner to repeat the question or even answer it him/herself. 7. If you still can t answer the question, ask it to other members of the audience. Say: That s a good question. How do you feel about it? 8. If a disruptive individual begins questioning you, s/he is probably looking for recognition. Give it! Say: That s a good point. Then suggest you meet after the talk to discuss it further. 9. Consider leaving out a key piece of information from your talk (say, the address of the agency), in anticipation of the question. Your answer will show you re well prepared, and your point will be much stronger. 10. If you put aside a question and answer period, make sure you leave time to summarize your main points after the questions.
8 8 Recruiting Clubs to Join Your Senior Coalition Prepare an Outreach Plan 1. Set realistic goals on # of groups you want to visit, # that might join, and time frame. 2. Recruit team of outreach volunteers to split up calls, make appointments, plan presentations, etc. Getting an Appointment 1. Determine who is responsible for recruiting speakers for the organization. If there is staff, it is often smart to start by calling them. If the organization has no staff, find out who the President is, or the head of the Program Committee. 2. Be clear about what you want to speak about, and how long. If you are going to introduce your organization to them, and invite them to participate, say that. If you are going to be talking about a particular issue, state that. 3. Learn as much about the organization as you can when you make the appointment. 4. Avoid speaking to a group during lunch or right before lunch or bingo. Most groups have business meetings with a program component. You will get the most attention at this time. 5. Once you get an appointment, be sure to agree on the time and location. Call the day before your appointment to confirm. Preparation for the Presentation 1. Outline your presentation before going. It is good to practice in advance (if you have family members or other committee members to practice with, that is even better). If you have been given a time frame (10 minutes), make sure that you have rehearsed before going and stick to your time. It is very frustrating to be cut off before you are done and get to the punch line. 2. Find out as much about your audience as you can before going. How many people will be there? Have they been involved with your group in the past? What issues do they care about?
9 9 3. Make sure you have sufficient materials. If you are going to be recruiting members, have membership forms and descriptive organizational brochures. If you are talking about a specific issue or project, bring fact sheets and appropriate flyers announcing upcoming events. At the Presentation 1. Dress for event. Wear something comfortable, and appropriate for the group. 2. Arrive early. This helps you settle down before you speak. If there are speakers or discussions before yours, it gives you a sense of your audience. 3. Be sure to start by saying hello and thanking the group for inviting you. You might also thank the person(s) who helped your arrange the meeting. 4. Make your presentation as you prepared. Try to look at the audience as you speak. 5. Leave time at the end of your presentation for questions from the audience. 6. If you are asking the group to join, be sure to ask that clearly and restate it before leaving. Let the group know that you will be contacting them soon to find out their decision. 7. If you are talking about a particular issue, involve the audience in your presentation. Ask how many people have experienced the problem you are discussing. Bring sign up sheets for events. 8. Relax, be yourself. Tell people why you are involved in the organization / issue. People want to relate to the speaker. You are the best salesperson for the organization. 9. Thank everyone for their attention before leaving the podium. 10. Send a follow up thank you to the group (or make a phone call).
10 10 Speech is Power. Speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel. Ralph Waldo Emerson Speak with Impactii
11 11 Tips To Increase Your Effectiveness Voice: Pace: Vary the speed at which you are talking Modulation: Allow your voice to change pitch often. End sentences (other than questions) with a downward inflection. For most people, a lower pitch sounds stronger and warmer. Projection: Use diaphragmatic breathing to send your voice to all parts of the room. Moderate contrasts of soft can be very effective when used appropriately. Avoid too many non-words: Urns, Ahs, you knows, etc. Take a breath instead. Pause to emphasize a point, and briefly when completing a sentence. Articulate clearly, Clarity gives your words power. Be sure to pronounce consonants at the end of the word. Body: Use body movement to support, not distract from your talk. Be deliberate, not unconscious, in the way you use your body. Use video feedback to increase awareness of any superfluous (nervous) movements, so they can be eliminated if they are distracting. Use larger gestures for larger groups. Keep hands down at sides, available, when not using them. Stay balanced, with your weight evenly distributed over both feet. If you walk do so deliberately, and then return to a balanced stance. Avoid pacing back and forth.
12 12 Eye Contact: Use eye contact with members of the audience to involve them more and to control your nervousness. Make eye contract with people in different parts of the room. Hold the eye contact for approximately three seconds, or through the completion of a thought.
13 13 Relaxation Training: Immediately Before Your Presentation Follow These Steps: 1. Close your eyes. 2. Take several deep breaths, and concentrate on relaxing your body. Pay particular attention to your neck and shoulders, an area where many people hold onto tension. 3. Imagine success; see yourself relaxed and completing the presentation successfully. 4. Do your presentation. If you notice any tension right before or during your talk, your relaxation practice will give you the control to calm down. Notes
14 14 Organization Formats Persuasion/Problem Solving Format Purpose: To cause change in attitude, to motivate to action, to propose a solution to a problem. Use the following format when organizing ideas: 1. State the problem clearly. Focusing as much as possible to the source of the problem. Example: Absenteeism has been on the increase since the consolidation announcement. Employees have reported increased stress and a sense of feeling left out of control. 2. State your idea of a solution, with any supporting evidence you can provide. Example: I suggest that we organize at least two structured gatherings a month to listen to employee input, share experiences and dispense information. When ABC Company went through a similar downsize, they found these types of meetings to be quite valuable in keeping stress levels down and morale higher during difficult times. 3. State the benefits of your idea. Example: If we institute these meetings, people will feel more in control. As a result, stress levels will decrease. And along with that, so will absenteeism. Information Reporting Format Purpose: To provide new information, educate or inform. Use the following format when organizing an informational talk: Subject: Briefly describe the subject, and state the purpose of the presentation. Background: Give all of the background necessary for everyone to have an overview of the subject. Information: Tell the audience what specific areas you plan to cover, then cover them, point by point. Recap: Summarize the information you have just told them. Meaning: Tell the listeners what you want them to do or understand as a result of your presentation.
15 15 Guidelines for Using Visuals Effectively Remember visual aids should always be a support, not a distraction 1. Use key words only, no more than five lines per visual, and no more than five words per line 2. Focus on the projector before your presentation. 3. Letters should be at least 1/2 inch high. 4. Keep it simple. 5. Use colors whenever possible. 6. When using an overhead, turn off the projector when you are talking about something else, or when there is no slide on the screen. 7. The screen should be to the left of the speaker. 8. When using a flip chart, don't talk while turning the paper over. When the Visual is being shown: Look at the visual to take in the information Touch or point to the part of the visual to which you are referring Turn to the audience and use eye contact Talk about what they are seeing, and then explain what it means. Notes
16 16 Question and Answer Skills 1. Listen to the entire question before you begin to formulate an answer. 2. Make eye contact with the questioner, then break eye contact and give the answer to the entire audience. 3. Avoid saying "The question is..." Repeat or rephrase the question when necessary. 4. Answer the question as succinctly as possible. 5. If possible, relate the answer back to an idea in your presentation. 6. Anticipate questions as part of your preparation. Know your subject, and know your audience. 7. Raise you hand to indicate you are ready to take more questions. 8. In an informal presentation, you may want to involve the audience by inviting them to ask questions when they think of them during the presentation. Notes
17 17 i How to Handle Audience Questions: 10 tips Adapted from Effective Business and Technical Presentations, 2 nd edition. George Morrisey, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA 1975 ii Speak with Impact Midge Costanza Communications,