7K Chip Q &A. How can I evaluate if genomic testing my females is correct for me?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "7K Chip Q &A. How can I evaluate if genomic testing my females is correct for me?"

Transcription

1 7K Chip Q &A The 7K SNP test; an economical and more reliable genomic test is now available to the industry. Given this development, a question often asked by producers is should I genomic test my females with the 7K chip? Of course this question inspires a rather extensive list of questions, so what awaits readers is a list of those most frequently asked: What happened to the 3K chip test? The 7K chip was designed as a replacement for the former 3K SNP test as it measures almost 7,000 SNPs, had better readability, and boosts reliability of by up to 5% over the 3K test. It also provides an increase in reliability over Parent Average, and more importantly is very accurate at parental discovery meaning that if an animals is misidentified, or NOT identified, the test will be able to tell you the Sire and Maternal Grandsire of that animal provided they are both sires that have been genotyped themselves.. Should I genomic test my females with the 7K chip? To properly answer this question, you must first ask yourself what you are going to do with the results. If you are going to use the results to manage, sort or breed your animals differently, then you should consider testing if that information will help you make a better decision. If you can t see how it makes a better decision, and creates more bottom line for your dairy today or in the future, then the investment is not worth it. Although the cost of the genomic test is now much more economical, it is still a substantial investment when multiplied over many animals! Investments have to pay off, and not only should the cost of the investment be considered, but also the opportunity cost, and potential return of investing those resources in other places. How can I evaluate if genomic testing my females is correct for me? Genomic testing your females offers the opportunity to more accurately predict and rank animals within your herd on their genetic potential. Ranking your herd can have some real advantages when it comes to a number of management decisions: 1) If you want to use sexed semen on the top portion of your herd, 2) If you want to cull the bottom end of your herd, 3) If you want to do embryo transfer work on extreme genetic outliers within the herd. What is the accuracy gain between unknown animals (UNK), parent average, 7K, 50K? How does this new technology compare to that currently used for AI bulls? With UNK, we have to assume each animal is average with basically 0% reliability. With parent average, we can assume ~38% reliability and with a 7K test we generally get ~65% reliability for an index like Net Merit, TPI, or one you create for your own dairy. The 50K test (which is currently used for all AI bulls) has a reliability of ~72% for indexes. What does that accuracy gain mean for genetic progress in my herd? Most farms breed every available animal back for a replacement if this is your practice, and you plan to continue this practice, then genomic testing will have no value for your dairy. If you plan to use the results to focus on generating replacements from the upper end of your herd, then genomic testing can have a positive impact in some situations especially if you have missing or inaccurate identification.

2 What will the genomic results look like if I do decide to test my animals? The results will look just like a bull proof. Animals will get predictions for traits like PTAM, PTAF, PTAP, PL, DPR, SCS, PTAT, UDC, FLC and all linear type traits. If you test a group of animals, you can put the results in a spreadsheet and sort them on an index such as TPI or Net Merit, a practice often done with bull evaluations. Can I rank my animals on their genetic potential without genomic testing them? YES! Although it is not often considered, a commercial dairy that has complete and accurate identification can create a ranking on genetic potential based on parent average, with a considerable amount of reliability (~38%). In fact, a parent average can be constructed for each trait in a bull s proof and will look very similar to genomic results with a lower level of accuracy. This is very important because for a herd with complete and accurate identification of sires and maternal grandsires, the choice to genome test heifers or not is a decision about the accuracy of the ranking based on parent average vs. the accuracy of the ranking with genomics. What is a parent average? Parent average is the average genetics of the sire and dam of the animal. Often times a parent average is estimated with the Sire and Maternal Grandsire (MGS) of the animal when performance data of the dam does not exist. I record Sire x MGS, is my parent average accurate? That depends on the accuracy of your identification. If you do a good job recording breedings, and identifying calves, making both the sire and MGS accurate, then a parent average will have enough accuracy to begin ranking your animals for some basic purposes. Who can do the work on parent average/index ranking? You should work with a trusted genetic advisor often your AI Company. It is very important to remember that before ranking your animals you first have to determine what you are ranking them for! This means that you first need to have a developed genetic plan so you focus on the traits important to you. What if I do not have accurate or complete identification in my herd? Without complete and accurate ID, the ranking of heifers based on parent average alone becomes much more difficult, and likely an impossible task. Often times the accuracy of ID within individual herds is overestimated, and the real miss-id rate in the industry is >25%. If you question your ID accuracy, genomic testing provides an opportunity to determine the accuracy of your identification, in addition to accurately ranking your animals. If I have accurate and complete identification in my herd, in what situations does it make sense for me to genome test my females? The answer will again depend on what you are going to do with the information. If you are simply going to use it to see how you rank genetically among other farms, it clearly will not pay

3 off. If you are going to use it to cull the bottom animals in your herd, it is unlikely to pay off, as they can also be selected based on parent average. If you are going to use the results for selection of which animals should get sexed semen, it is also unlikely to pay off. However, if you want to select the most extreme animals to do embryo transfer work on, it is likely a good strategy to first genome test a preselected group to ensure only the very best are flushed. I m surprised that using this technology to select my bottom animals for culling and my top animals for sexed semen will not pay off? In some extreme situations it may, but if your herd performs as expected, and you have complete and accurate ID, then your virgin heifers will have a parent average reliability of around 38% for Net Merit or TPI. That reliability will increase to about 65% reliability with the genomic test. Using statistics, we can assume that the probability of an animal increasing by more than 100 NM or 150 TPI points is only about 15%, and likewise, an animal decreasing by those amounts is only about 15%. Using a more extreme example, the probability of an individual animal changing by at least 200 NM or 300 TPI points is only 2%. Table 1: Expected changes in NM from Parent Average after genomic testing Change Percentage of animals expected to change this amount >+100 NM$ ~ 15% >+200 NM$ ~2% If 15% of my animals will go up by 100 $NM or 150 TPI and another 15% will go down by the same amount, won t that make a considerable difference in the ranking of my animals? It will make a substantial difference in the ranking of a few individual animals, but most farms are dealing with groups of animals. For example, the genetically highest group could be destined for insemination with sexed semen, while the poorest group in terms of genetics would be destined to be culled. When dealing with groups, we need to consider how much the average of the group would change if we genomic test the heifers vs. if we used only a parent average to rank them. If your herd is normal, about 95% of animals will be between +/-400 NM and the average of your virgin heifers might be 100 NM. If you wanted to select the top 25% for sexed semen usage, the group of heifers selected for sexed semen would likely be those heifers >250NM. The bottom 10% (which would be culled) would be <-150NM. In this situation, what is the probability that a heifer selected for sexed semen based on parent average (top 25%) would fall into the group to be culled (bottom 10%) after genome testing? Referring back to the last answer, there is only a 2% chance that an animal will change by 200NM points, so the likelihood of an animal going from a sexed semen candidate to a cull, (or vice versa) is nearly zero as she would have to change by at least 400NM.

4 Figure 1 Beef Culls # Heifers 10% 25% -$150NM $100NM NM$ +$250NM Figure 1: The graph represents a herd situation where the top 25% of animals based on parent average would be selected for sexed semen, and the bottom 10% would be sold. In a normal situation, there is almost zero opportunity for animals selected for culling based on parent average to ultimately end up in the sexed semen category after genomic testing. But an animal could still change significantly and therefore the actual animals making up the 10% to be culled, would include some different individuals pre and post genomic testing. This is absolutely true, because the accuracy of the selection of the group increases. However, we need to ask what the effect of this change is. With a normal herd, there is <2% chance that an animal in your top half, based on parent average, will end up in your bottom 10% after genome testing. Therefore the animals crossing the threshold and changing the group to be culled (or be selected for sexed semen usage) do not change the average of the group significantly. What is risk or error in the 7K evaluation? There is not a lot of risk in the 7K evaluation. It will always give you more reliable information than simply using parent average (or no information). The real risk is the opportunity cost of investing thousands of dollars when those dollars could have better returns if invested in other ways. Generally using those dollars to simply buy better genetics by way of semen should be considered as an alternative investment. If I m expanding, or need to buy replacements, should I only buy heifers with 7K? This is an interesting question and in some situations it may make sense to pay for testing of unknown heifers. In a normal situation, you will need to test at least 2X the number of heifers you plan to buy to make this a financially sound decision. This decision will be determined by the ratio of replacement cost vs. beef price. At the current low cost of replacements, genome testing these unknown animals is not likely to be an investment that would pay off, however, if we one day experience extremely high prices for replacements and low prices for beef, as has been the case in the past, it would make sense.

5 If I choose to genomic test Unknown animals, what will the benefits be? There are two main benefits: 1) Sire Discovery : This means that we will be able to determine who the sire of the tested animal is provided it was an AI sire. 2) Sire Discovery is the first step in determining accurate genomic predictions. Ultimately you will receive a genomic proof just like other animals, or a bull proof, as described earlier. Can I stop milk recording and classification with a 7K test? Generally milk recording is done for management, not genetic reasons. We must remember that although the genomic test gives us a lot of valuable information on the genetics of an animal, genetic potential does not answer management questions. For example, an animal with a high cell count on test day still may need to be treated or culled and genomic information will certainly not give us that information. It is also important that we continue to gather phenotypic data (through milk recording and classification) so our genomic predictions continue to be current, relevant, and accurate for an ever changing dairy economy. What is the bottom line? Genomic testing is an excellent technology and is certainly exciting. However, exercise caution when deciding if this is the right investment for you. As with any new information or tool, remember to ask yourself how you will use that information and how the investment will pay off. If you can answer those questions and it is a profitable decision for your dairy then it is right for you. If those questions only inspire more questions, proceed with caution.

The impact of genomic selection on North American dairy cattle breeding organizations

The impact of genomic selection on North American dairy cattle breeding organizations The impact of genomic selection on North American dairy cattle breeding organizations Jacques Chesnais, George Wiggans and Filippo Miglior The Semex Alliance, USDA and Canadian Dairy Network 2000 09 Genomic

More information

Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle in Canada

Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle in Canada Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle in Canada Responsibility The calculation and publication of all dairy cattle genetic evaluations in Canada is the responsibility of Canadian Dairy Network (CDN). An 8-member

More information

Integrated IT Solutions in-between Farm Management Systems and Global Holstein Breeding Dr. Stefan Rensing

Integrated IT Solutions in-between Farm Management Systems and Global Holstein Breeding Dr. Stefan Rensing Integrated IT Solutions in-between Farm Management Systems and Global Holstein Breeding vit Verden, Germany email: stefan.rensing@vit.de, web: http://www.vit.de Abstract An integrated shared data base

More information

How To Read An Official Holstein Pedigree

How To Read An Official Holstein Pedigree GETTING THE MOST FOR YOUR INVESTMENT How To Read An Official Holstein Pedigree Holstein Association USA, Inc. 1 Holstein Place, PO Box 808 Brattleboro, VT 05302-0808 800.952.5200 www.holsteinusa.com 7

More information

Reproductive technologies. Lecture 15 Introduction to Breeding and Genetics GENE 251/351 School of Environment and Rural Science (Genetics)

Reproductive technologies. Lecture 15 Introduction to Breeding and Genetics GENE 251/351 School of Environment and Rural Science (Genetics) Reproductive technologies Lecture 15 Introduction to Breeding and Genetics GENE 251/351 School of Environment and Rural Science (Genetics) Animal Breeding in a nutshell Breeding objectives Trait measurement

More information

Marketing Opportunities for AI Bred Heifers and AI Sired Progeny Scott Brown University of Missouri

Marketing Opportunities for AI Bred Heifers and AI Sired Progeny Scott Brown University of Missouri Marketing Opportunities for AI Bred Heifers and AI Sired Progeny Scott Brown University of Missouri The U.S. cattle inventory was at 87.7 million head at the beginning of 2014, the lowest inventory for

More information

vision evolving guidelines

vision evolving guidelines vision To foster a collective, industry supported strategy for the future of the Holstein Breed which will act as a tool for Canadian dairy producers to maximize profitability and genetic improvement.

More information

Comparative Study of Artificial Insemination and Natural Service Cost Effectiveness in Dairy Cattle

Comparative Study of Artificial Insemination and Natural Service Cost Effectiveness in Dairy Cattle Comparative Study of Artificial Insemination and Natural Service Cost Effectiveness in Dairy Cattle Valergakis G.E., Banos G., Arsenos G. Department of Animal Production, School of Veterinary Medicine,

More information

Maximize Female Genetic Potential

Maximize Female Genetic Potential How do you gain genetics? Maximize Female Genetic Potential Shantille Kruse, Ph.D., Boviteq and Todd Bilby, Ph.D., Merck Animal Health Gene$c gain is the amount of increase in performance that is achieved

More information

Replacement Heifers Costs and Return on Investment Calculation Decision Aids

Replacement Heifers Costs and Return on Investment Calculation Decision Aids Replacement Heifers Costs and Return on Investment Calculation Decision Aids The purpose of this replacement heifer cost decision aid is to calculate total production costs and return on investment (ROI)

More information

Longevity of Holstein Cows Bred to be Large versus Small for Body Size

Longevity of Holstein Cows Bred to be Large versus Small for Body Size Longevity of Holstein Cows Bred to be Large versus Small for Body Size L. B. Hansen, J. B. Cole, G. D. Marx and A. J. Seykora Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108 USA E-mail:

More information

Genomic selection in dairy cattle: Integration of DNA testing into breeding programs

Genomic selection in dairy cattle: Integration of DNA testing into breeding programs Genomic selection in dairy cattle: Integration of DNA testing into breeding programs Jonathan M. Schefers* and Kent A. Weigel* *Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706; and

More information

Replacement Heifers Costs and Return Calculation Decision Aids

Replacement Heifers Costs and Return Calculation Decision Aids Replacement Heifers Costs and Return Calculation Decision Aids The purpose of these replacement heifer cost decision aids is to calculate total production costs and return on investment (ROI) to evaluate

More information

Evaluations for service-sire conception rate for heifer and cow inseminations with conventional and sexed semen

Evaluations for service-sire conception rate for heifer and cow inseminations with conventional and sexed semen J. Dairy Sci. 94 :6135 6142 doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3875 American Dairy Science Association, 2011. Evaluations for service-sire conception rate for heifer and cow inseminations with conventional and sexed

More information

Management and Marketing Series Series No. 19 (Revised)

Management and Marketing Series Series No. 19 (Revised) Agricultural and Resource Economics C O L L E G E O F A G R I C U L T U R E & L I F E S C I E N C E S Management and Marketing Series Series No. 19 (Revised) July 2004 Dairy Cow Leasing Geoff Benson, Ph.D

More information

New Zealand Dairy Statistics New Zealand Dairy Statistics

New Zealand Dairy Statistics New Zealand Dairy Statistics New Zealand Dairy Statistics 2006-2007 Contacts LIC and Dairy InSight support the use of information in the New Zealand Dairy Statistics 2006/07 for educational or industry purposes. However, any extracts

More information

Use of Terminal Sires and Maternal Composites in Herds of All Sizes. R. Mark Thallman

Use of Terminal Sires and Maternal Composites in Herds of All Sizes. R. Mark Thallman Use of Terminal Sires and Maternal Composites in Herds of All Sizes R. Mark Thallman Main Take-Home Message If the genetic potential for growth is the same in commercial cows as it is in the bulls they

More information

Use of On-Farm Performance Testing to Enhance the Meat Goat Herd Enterprise

Use of On-Farm Performance Testing to Enhance the Meat Goat Herd Enterprise Use of On-Farm Performance Testing to Enhance the Meat Goat Herd Enterprise Dr. Richard Browning, Jr. Department of Agricultural Sciences Tennessee State University What is On-Farm Performance Testing?

More information

AgSourceDM.com features

AgSourceDM.com features P a g e 1 AgSourceDM.com features Data Entry All data entry to an individual cow s record is performed here. Using the Cow Page-Events screens you can view each individual animal s records. You can enroll

More information

CowCalf5. for Dummies. Quick Reference. D ate: 3/26 / 2 0 10

CowCalf5. for Dummies. Quick Reference. D ate: 3/26 / 2 0 10 CowCalf5 for Dummies Quick Reference D ate: 3/26 / 2 0 10 Page 2 Email: Support@COWCALF.COM Page 3 Table of Contents System Requirement and Installing CowCalf5 4 Creating a New Herd 5 Start Entering Records

More information

Genetic improvement: a major component of increased dairy farm profitability

Genetic improvement: a major component of increased dairy farm profitability Genetic improvement: a major component of increased dairy farm profitability Filippo Miglior 1,2, Jacques Chesnais 3 & Brian Van Doormaal 2 1 2 Canadian Dairy Network 3 Semex Alliance Agri-Food Canada

More information

Performance Traits in Beef Cattle:

Performance Traits in Beef Cattle: Performance Traits in Beef Cattle: Weighing Cows and Calves Performance test guidelines recommend calves be weighed when they are close to 205 days of age. The accepted age range is 160 to 250 days of

More information

The All-Breed Animal Model Bennet Cassell, Extension Dairy Scientist, Genetics and Management

The All-Breed Animal Model Bennet Cassell, Extension Dairy Scientist, Genetics and Management publication 404-086 The All-Breed Animal Model Bennet Cassell, Extension Dairy Scientist, Genetics and Management Introduction The all-breed animal model is the genetic-evaluation system used to evaluate

More information

ANP 504 : ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION COURSE LECTURERS

ANP 504 : ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION COURSE LECTURERS ANP 504 : ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION COURSE LECTURERS DR. A. O. LADOKUN DR. J. O. DR. J. A. DARAMOLA ABIONA COURSE OUTLINE PART I The Role of AI and Reproduction in Livestock Improvement 1. Advantages and

More information

Genomic Selection in. Applied Training Workshop, Sterling. Hans Daetwyler, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS

Genomic Selection in. Applied Training Workshop, Sterling. Hans Daetwyler, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS Genomic Selection in Dairy Cattle AQUAGENOME Applied Training Workshop, Sterling Hans Daetwyler, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS Dairy introduction Overview Traditional breeding Genomic selection Advantages

More information

How to Consider Genetic Characteristics in Dairy Cattle Breeding?

How to Consider Genetic Characteristics in Dairy Cattle Breeding? IT-Solutions for Animal Production How to Consider Genetic Characteristics in Dairy Cattle Breeding? Interbull Technical Workshop & Industry Meeting, February 24th-25th 2015 Segelke D. 1, Täubert H. 1,

More information

Chapter 1: Dates in Dairy History Virginia 4 H Dairy Quiz Bowl Study Materials

Chapter 1: Dates in Dairy History Virginia 4 H Dairy Quiz Bowl Study Materials Chapter 1: Dates in Dairy History 2010 Virginia 4 H Dairy Quiz Bowl Study Materials 1600 s 1611 First cows arrived at the Jamestown Colony 1624 First cows arrived at the Plymouth Colony 1801 1860 1810

More information

Genomics: how well does it work?

Genomics: how well does it work? Is genomics working? Genomics: how well does it work? Jacques Chesnais and Nicolas Caron, Semex Alliance The only way to find out is to do some validations Two types of validation - Backward validation

More information

Who s Your Daddy? Selective Breeding in Goats Part 1

Who s Your Daddy? Selective Breeding in Goats Part 1 Who s Your Daddy? Selective Breeding in Goats This is part of an overview on goat genetics covered during the Goat Genetics and Reproduction Field Day at Cornell University Sept 20, 2003 Dr. tatiana Stanton

More information

Crossbreeding Dairy Cattle

Crossbreeding Dairy Cattle The Babcock Institute University of Wisconsin Dairy Updates Crossbreeding Dairy Cattle Reproduction and Genetics No. 610 Author: Daniel Z. Caraviello 1 Crossbreeding 1 The primary goal of dairy cattle

More information

Understanding Genetics and the Sire Summaries

Understanding Genetics and the Sire Summaries Understanding Genetics and the Sire Summaries 1 Understanding Genetics and the Sire Summaries, was developed to help individuals learn more about genetics and genetic evaluations. This workbook presents

More information

Beef Cattle Selection Handbook. A Basic Guide to Selecting Feeder Cattle, Breeding Heifers, and Bulls

Beef Cattle Selection Handbook. A Basic Guide to Selecting Feeder Cattle, Breeding Heifers, and Bulls Beef Cattle Selection Handbook A Basic Guide to Selecting Feeder Cattle, Breeding Heifers, and Bulls Where to Begin What are your goals? What type of animal will help you achieve these goals? Age? Sex?

More information

BREAK-EVEN COSTS FOR COW/CALF PRODUCERS

BREAK-EVEN COSTS FOR COW/CALF PRODUCERS L-5220 9/98 BREAK-EVEN COSTS FOR COW/CALF PRODUCERS L.R. Sprott* CALCULATING BREAK-EVEN COSTS of production can help cow/calf producers make better management decisions for the current year or for the

More information

Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits

Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits Arnold M. Saxton, Kenneth J. Stalder (Iowa State University) and Robert B. Simpson (East Tennessee Research & Education Center) Summary

More information

UPDATES THIRTY SOMETHING

UPDATES THIRTY SOMETHING UPDATES ----- THIRTY SOMETHING A 15% down. (Money will be held in escrow until there are 3 pregnancies made) Guarantee 1 healthy 3 month old heifer calf. Embryos should be transferred within The next 60

More information

PO Box 1100, Platte City, MO (816) fax (816)

PO Box 1100, Platte City, MO (816) fax (816) 2015 Sire Summary PO Box 1100, Platte City, MO 64079-1100 (816) 431-9950 fax (816) 431-9951 E-mail: maine@kc.rr.com www.maine-anjou.org The Official Spring 2015 Sire Summary Foreword The Spring 2015 Sire

More information

CROSSBREEDING. with Simmentaler for more beef

CROSSBREEDING. with Simmentaler for more beef CROSSBREEDING with Simmentaler for more beef Simmentaler committed to Genetic Improvement Simmentaler X Brahman F1 Crosses Profitabil Crossbreeding The economic climate of today s beef farming business

More information

Economics of Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination. Dr. Les Anderson and Paul Deaton University of Kentucky

Economics of Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination. Dr. Les Anderson and Paul Deaton University of Kentucky Economics of Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Dr. Les Anderson and Paul Deaton University of Kentucky Introduction Few beef producers would disagree that the genetic potential available

More information

Understanding Genetics

Understanding Genetics Understanding Genetics and the Sire Summaries 1 Understanding Genetics and the Sire Summaries The goal of this workbook is to give young people a basic understanding of dairy cattle genetics and how it

More information

Gene Flow, Discounting and Investment Appraisal

Gene Flow, Discounting and Investment Appraisal Chapter 8 Gene Flow, Discounting and Investment Appraisal Gene flow techniques study the flow of genes through populations over time from an economic perspective. They are useful in four ways: 1. Evaluating

More information

NEW YORK STATE 4-H Meat Goat Breeding Stock Adult Doe RECORD BOOK

NEW YORK STATE 4-H Meat Goat Breeding Stock Adult Doe RECORD BOOK NEW YORK STATE 4-H Meat Goat Breeding Stock Adult Doe RECORD BOOK Name: Age: Birthdate: Address: County: Years in 4-H: Name of 4-H Club: Name of 4-H Leader: Project start date: Project end date: How many

More information

ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology Artificial Insemination in Cattle. Objectives. What are the advantages and disadvantages of AI?

ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology Artificial Insemination in Cattle. Objectives. What are the advantages and disadvantages of AI? ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology Artificial Insemination in Cattle Objectives 1) To provide an overview of the process of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle. 2) To gain an understanding

More information

Alison Van Eenennaam Department of Animal Science. University of California, Davis

Alison Van Eenennaam Department of Animal Science. University of California, Davis Beef cattle breeding in Australia Alison Van Eenennaam Department of Animal Science CCA 11/16/2011 University of California, Davis Land mass of Australia ~ mainland U.S.A. Van Eenennaam 11/16/2011 Australia

More information

Selection Procedures for Meat Goat Breeding Programs

Selection Procedures for Meat Goat Breeding Programs Selection Procedures for Meat Goat Breeding Programs Dave Sparks D.V.M. Oklahoma State University Area Extension Food Animal Quality and Health Specialist Credits and Thanks to Dr. Richard Browning Tennessee

More information

Breeding seasons for beef cattle in South Africa

Breeding seasons for beef cattle in South Africa SA-ANIM SCI 2004, vol 5: http://www.sasas.co.za/popular/popular.html 11 Introduction Breeding seasons for beef cattle in South Africa Leslie Bergh ARC-Animal Improvement Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene

More information

Abbreviation key: NS = natural service breeding system, AI = artificial insemination, BV = breeding value, RBV = relative breeding value

Abbreviation key: NS = natural service breeding system, AI = artificial insemination, BV = breeding value, RBV = relative breeding value Archiva Zootechnica 11:2, 29-34, 2008 29 Comparison between breeding values for milk production and reproduction of bulls of Holstein breed in artificial insemination and bulls in natural service J. 1,

More information

Managing the Dairy Farm: Key Performance Indicators

Managing the Dairy Farm: Key Performance Indicators Managing the Dairy Farm: Key Performance Indicators Thomas Fuhrmann, DVM DairyWorks, PO Box 2800-317, Carefree AZ 85377 Email: DairyWorks@aol.com Take Home Message This paper discusses how to use information

More information

A Literature Review on Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle. A Senior Project. Presented to the Faculty of the Dairy Science Department

A Literature Review on Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle. A Senior Project. Presented to the Faculty of the Dairy Science Department A Literature Review on Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle A Senior Project Presented to the Faculty of the Dairy Science Department California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo In Partial Fulfillment

More information

Market Research. Market Research: Part II: How To Get Started With Market Research For Your Organization. What is Market Research?

Market Research. Market Research: Part II: How To Get Started With Market Research For Your Organization. What is Market Research? Market Research: Part II: How To Get Started With Market Research For Your Organization Written by: Kristina McMillan, Sr. Project Manager, SalesRamp Scope: This white paper discusses market research on

More information

PRODUCERS GENETICS CATTLE PRODUCERS INFO SHEET

PRODUCERS GENETICS CATTLE PRODUCERS INFO SHEET PRODUCERS GENETICS CATTLE PRODUCERS INFO SHEET CONTACT INFO. Name: Farm Name: Address: Telephone #: ( ) - City : State: Zip Code : HERD INFO. Number of cows Avg Age of Cows Avg Wt Number of Retained Avg

More information

International Strain Trial. Trial confirms superior attributes of New Zealand Holstein genetics

International Strain Trial. Trial confirms superior attributes of New Zealand Holstein genetics International Strain Trial Trial confirms superior attributes of New Zealand Holstein genetics Strain Trial Summary Introduction Livestock Improvement as a company aims to constantly improve its products

More information

REPRODUCTION AND BREEDING Crossbreeding Systems for Beef Cattle

REPRODUCTION AND BREEDING Crossbreeding Systems for Beef Cattle Beef Cattle REPRODUCTION AND BREEDING Crossbreeding Systems for Beef Cattle Pete Anderson University of Minnesota Beef Team It has been well documented that crossbreeding improves performance of beef cattle.

More information

COMPARISON OF FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION VS. NATURAL SERVICE IN BEEF COWS: REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY AND SYSTEM COST

COMPARISON OF FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION VS. NATURAL SERVICE IN BEEF COWS: REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY AND SYSTEM COST FACT SHEET #2015.02 COMPARISON OF FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION VS. NATURAL SERVICE IN BEEF COWS: REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY AND SYSTEM COST By: Dr. Bart Lardner, Kathy Larson MSc, and Dr. Daalkhaijav

More information

PRODUCERS can choose to use natural

PRODUCERS can choose to use natural Artificial Insemination PRODUCERS can choose to use natural or artificial means of breeding their animals. Technology has advanced in the last 30 to 40 years to allow animal producers to use means other

More information

Artificial Insemination (AI) in Cattle

Artificial Insemination (AI) in Cattle Artificial Insemination (AI) in Cattle Most dairy cows are bred by AI Less common in beef cattle Commonly, bulls are used for all breeding under pasture conditions Less commonly, bulls are used as clean-up

More information

Breeding for Carcass Traits in Dairy Cattle

Breeding for Carcass Traits in Dairy Cattle HELSINGIN YLIOPISTON KOTIELÄINTIETEEN LAITOKSEN JULKAISUJA UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI, DEPT. OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, PUBLICATIONS 53 Breeding for Carcass Traits in Dairy Cattle Anna-Elisa Liinamo Academic dissertation

More information

BREED COMPOSITION OF THE IRISH CATTLE HERD

BREED COMPOSITION OF THE IRISH CATTLE HERD 5557 Breed Composition 22 3/13/01 3:24 PM Page 1 End of Project Repor t DECEMBER 1999 PROJECT No. 4662 BREED COMPOSITION OF THE IRISH CATTLE HERD A u t h o r M.J. Drennan Teagasc, Grange Research Centre,

More information

ANGUS Advantages. American Angus Association Page 1

ANGUS Advantages. American Angus Association Page 1 ANGUS Advantages American Angus Association Page 1 Page 2 American Angus Association The ANGUS Advantage A life in the cattle business is filled with great challenges and great rewards. That holds true

More information

MODULE 1B PART A: STUDENT FACTSHEET SOURCES OF BEEF THE SUCKLER HERD

MODULE 1B PART A: STUDENT FACTSHEET SOURCES OF BEEF THE SUCKLER HERD MODULE 1B PART A: STUDENT FACTSHEET SOURCES OF BEEF THE SUCKLER HERD A substantial part of this work is based on Hybu Cig Cymru (www.hccmpw.org.uk) The following booklets by Hybu Cig Cymru are important:-

More information

Dr. Marija Klopčič, Biotechnical Faculty (Department of Animal Science), University of Ljubljana (27 to 28 April 2015)

Dr. Marija Klopčič, Biotechnical Faculty (Department of Animal Science), University of Ljubljana (27 to 28 April 2015) ICAR Certificate of Quality: CONVIS société coopérative, Luxembourg Auditor(s) Report for the ICAR Executive Board Name(s) of Auditor(s) and areas audited: Dr. Marija Klopčič, Biotechnical Faculty (Department

More information

A POWERFUL IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

A POWERFUL IN VITRO FERTILIZATION A POWERFUL During the past 50 years technological advances in the field of bovine reproduction have led to some dramatic changes in the way cattle look, reproduce, perform, and even taste. Artificial Insemination

More information

EBLEX BEEF BRP MANUAL 4. Beef production from the dairy herd

EBLEX BEEF BRP MANUAL 4. Beef production from the dairy herd EBLEX BEEF BRP MANUAL 4 Beef production from the dairy herd The information in this booklet was compiled by: Mary Vickers, MLC; Clive Brown and Liz Ford, EBLEX. EBLEX Beef Better Returns Programme is grateful

More information

There are some general common sense recommendations to follow when presenting

There are some general common sense recommendations to follow when presenting Presentation of Data The presentation of data in the form of tables, graphs and charts is an important part of the process of data analysis and report writing. Although results can be expressed within

More information

The Use of a Vaginal Conductivity Probe to Influence Calf Sex Ratio via Altered Insemination Time

The Use of a Vaginal Conductivity Probe to Influence Calf Sex Ratio via Altered Insemination Time The Use of a Vaginal Conductivity Probe to Influence Calf Sex Ratio via Altered Insemination Time A.S. Leaflet R1652 M.L. Pugh, animal science graduate research assistant Mel Pence, adjunct instructor

More information

Scope for the Use of Pregnancy Confirmation Data in Genetic Evaluation for Reproductive Performance

Scope for the Use of Pregnancy Confirmation Data in Genetic Evaluation for Reproductive Performance Scope for the Use of Pregnancy Confirmation Data in Genetic Evaluation for Reproductive Performance J. Jamrozik and G.J. Kistemaker Canadian Dairy Network The data on cow's pregnancy diagnostics has been

More information

Investing in genetic technologies to meet future market requirements and assist in delivering profitable sheep and cattle farming

Investing in genetic technologies to meet future market requirements and assist in delivering profitable sheep and cattle farming Investing in genetic technologies to meet future market requirements and assist in delivering profitable sheep and cattle farming B+LNZ GENETICS The Government through its Ministry of Business, Innovation

More information

Value of Managing Beef Cattle Genetics

Value of Managing Beef Cattle Genetics Value of Managing Beef Cattle Genetics Lisa Rees University of Missouri Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics Contact Information: 803 E. Green Meadows, Apt. 102 Columbia, MO 65201 Profile-

More information

The Costs of Raising Replacement Heifers and the Value of a Purchased Versus Raised Replacement

The Costs of Raising Replacement Heifers and the Value of a Purchased Versus Raised Replacement Managing for Today s Cattle Market and Beyond March 2002 The Costs of Raising Replacement Heifers and the Value of a Purchased Versus Raised Replacement By Dillon M. Feuz, University of Nebraska Numerous

More information

The Fall Run: Cull Cows & Trading Calves

The Fall Run: Cull Cows & Trading Calves Canfax Research Services A Division of the Canadian Cattlemen s Association Publication Sponsored by: A lot happens during the fall run and the decisions made now determine if a cow/calf operation is profitable

More information

Genomics in the beef industry: US situation

Genomics in the beef industry: US situation Genomics in the beef industry: US situation Alison Van Eenennaam, Ph.D. Animal Genomics and Biotechnology Cooperative Extension Specialist Department of Animal Science University of California, Davis,

More information

CHARACTERIZATION OF BOXED BEEF VALUE IN ANGUS FIELD DATA. Authors:

CHARACTERIZATION OF BOXED BEEF VALUE IN ANGUS FIELD DATA. Authors: CHARACTERIZATION OF BOXED BEEF VALUE IN ANGUS FIELD DATA 1999 Animal Science Research Report Authors: Story in Brief Pages 32-40 B.R. Schutte, S.L. Dolezal, H.G. Dolezal and D.S. Buchanan The OSU Boxed

More information

Major Advances in Globalization and Consolidation of the Artificial Insemination Industry

Major Advances in Globalization and Consolidation of the Artificial Insemination Industry J. Dairy Sci. 89:1362 1368 American Dairy Science Association, 2006. Major Advances in Globalization and Consolidation of the Artificial Insemination Industry D. A. Funk ABS Global, Inc., DeForest, WI

More information

SENIOR PROJECT APPROVAL PAGE. Conception Rates of Sexed Semen in Lactating Cows

SENIOR PROJECT APPROVAL PAGE. Conception Rates of Sexed Semen in Lactating Cows SENIOR PROJECT APPROVAL PAGE TITLE: Conception Rates of Sexed Semen in Lactating Cows AUTHOR: Christina J. Silva DATE SUBMITTED: December 2, 2009 Dr. Stan Henderson Sr. Project Advisor Signature Dr. Bruce

More information

Which Is the Better Valuation Metric? The P/E Ratio or the PEG Ratio: Part 1

Which Is the Better Valuation Metric? The P/E Ratio or the PEG Ratio: Part 1 Which Is the Better Valuation Metric? The P/E Ratio or the PEG Ratio: Part 1 October 28, 2016 by Chuck Carnevale of F.A.S.T. Graphs Introduction Recently, I have been engaged in rather intense discussions

More information

Appendix J. Genetic Implications of Recent Biotechnologies. Appendix Contents. Introduction

Appendix J. Genetic Implications of Recent Biotechnologies. Appendix Contents. Introduction Genetic Improvement and Crossbreeding in Meat Goats Lessons in Animal Breeding for Goats Bred and Raised for Meat Will R. Getz Fort Valley State University Appendix J. Genetic Implications of Recent Biotechnologies

More information

How to start an Online Job to enter your Spring 2010 Calf Data

How to start an Online Job to enter your Spring 2010 Calf Data How to start an Online Job to enter your Spring 2010 Calf Data From www.simmental.org select Herdbook Online Services Select Log In Account # ASA Member Number Password Password assigned by ASA for member

More information

STAYING AHEAD- WISCONSIN STYLE (OR AT LEAST TRYING TO)

STAYING AHEAD- WISCONSIN STYLE (OR AT LEAST TRYING TO) Producer s View of Staying Ahead in the Dairy Business: Staying Ahead Wisconsin Style Don Niles Dairy Dreams LLC Casco, WI 54213 donniles@dairy-dreams.com STAYING AHEAD- WISCONSIN STYLE (OR AT LEAST TRYING

More information

Marchi Angus Ranches

Marchi Angus Ranches SELLING 20 REGISTERED ANGUS BULLS In a Bad Way 27th Production Sale Marchi Angus Ranches Saturday, April 25, 2015 at the Home Ranch Refreshments Served at Noon Silent Auction Bidding Begins April 18th

More information

Proceedings, Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle September 11 and 12, 2007, Billings, Montana NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR REPRODUCTION IN CATTLE

Proceedings, Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle September 11 and 12, 2007, Billings, Montana NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR REPRODUCTION IN CATTLE Proceedings, Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle September 11 and 12, 2007, Billings, Montana NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR REPRODUCTION IN CATTLE George E. Seidel, Jr. Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology

More information

Beef Cow Share Lease Agreements

Beef Cow Share Lease Agreements Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources EC841 Beef Cow Share Lease Agreements Aaron L. Berger, Extension Educator Introduction Cow-calf enterprises require large investments in capital, labor, and

More information

Basics of Marker Assisted Selection

Basics of Marker Assisted Selection asics of Marker ssisted Selection Chapter 15 asics of Marker ssisted Selection Julius van der Werf, Department of nimal Science rian Kinghorn, Twynam Chair of nimal reeding Technologies University of New

More information

MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT SMALLHOLDER DAIRY COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME. Artificial Insemination (AI) Service

MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT SMALLHOLDER DAIRY COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME. Artificial Insemination (AI) Service MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT SMALLHOLDER DAIRY COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME Artificial Insemination (AI) Service 1 1.0 Introduction The fertility of a dairy cattle is very important for a dairy farmer

More information

Dairy Cattle Background Information

Dairy Cattle Background Information Dairy Cattle Background Information Dairying is another major Australian rural industry in which production significantly exceeds domestic requirements and Australia has emerged as one of the world s major

More information

Health data recording in Finland. Juho Kyntäjä, Agricultural Data Processing Centre Ltd.

Health data recording in Finland. Juho Kyntäjä, Agricultural Data Processing Centre Ltd. Health data recording in Finland Juho Kyntäjä, Agricultural Data Processing Centre Ltd. History of health data recording in Finland The need to have bulls tested for health traits was recognised in the

More information

Robust procedures for Canadian Test Day Model final report for the Holstein breed

Robust procedures for Canadian Test Day Model final report for the Holstein breed Robust procedures for Canadian Test Day Model final report for the Holstein breed J. Jamrozik, J. Fatehi and L.R. Schaeffer Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, University of Guelph Introduction

More information

Somatic cell score. New Zealand Animal Evaluation Limited, Rationale. Reduced survival from higher SCS

Somatic cell score. New Zealand Animal Evaluation Limited, Rationale. Reduced survival from higher SCS Somatic cell score 5 th February 2013 DISCLAIMER Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the investigations, and the content and information within this document. However NZAEL/DairyNZ expressly

More information

Evaluation Of The Charolais As Straightbred And Crossbred For Beef Production In South Central Florida

Evaluation Of The Charolais As Straightbred And Crossbred For Beef Production In South Central Florida Evaluation Of The Charolais As Straightbred And Crossbred For Beef Production In South Central Florida February 1977 - Bulletin 786 Agricultural Experiment Stations Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

More information

That Move Cow-Calf Producers Toward Profitability

That Move Cow-Calf Producers Toward Profitability 7 E-347 Seven Management Techniques 06-05 That Move Cow-Calf Producers Toward Profitability P rofitability is defined as net return to owner s equity; retained earnings (or profits) increase owner s equity.

More information

BLUP Breeding Value Estimation. Using BLUP Technology on Swine Farms. Traits of Economic Importance. Traits of Economic Importance

BLUP Breeding Value Estimation. Using BLUP Technology on Swine Farms. Traits of Economic Importance. Traits of Economic Importance Using BLUP Technology on Swine Farms Dr. John W. Mabry Iowa State University BLUP Breeding Value Estimation BLUP = Best Linear Unbiased Prediction Prediction of an animals genetic merit (BV) Unbiased means

More information

Chapter Eight: ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION AND GENETICS

Chapter Eight: ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION AND GENETICS Chapter Eight: ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION AND GENETICS Wayne Singleton and Allan Schinckel Using Artificial Insemination (AI) in Your Operation A rapid increase in the application of AI technology has occurred

More information

Impact of reproductive technologies on improved genetics in beef cattle

Impact of reproductive technologies on improved genetics in beef cattle Impact of reproductive technologies on improved genetics in beef cattle JE Kinder 1, JM Osborne 1, ME Davis 1, ML Day 1 1 The Ohio State University, Department of Animal Sciences, Columbus, Ohio 43210,

More information

Flock management systems for sheep and goats Your path to greater control and profitability

Flock management systems for sheep and goats Your path to greater control and profitability Flock management systems for sheep and goats Your path to greater control and profitability Complete control of your flock Could you imagine running a 1 000 cow dairy farm without individual milk recording,

More information

Success Factors for a Successful Robot Start-up. Ben Smink. Lely North America, Farm Management Support / (608)

Success Factors for a Successful Robot Start-up. Ben Smink. Lely North America, Farm Management Support / (608) Success Factors for a Successful Robot Start-up Ben Smink Lely North America, Farm Management Support bsmink@lely.com / (608) 698 7416 Building your future www.lely.com Success Factors Robot Start-up In

More information

STRATEGIES FOR DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING TO ENSURE SUSTAINABLE MILK PRODUCTION 1

STRATEGIES FOR DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING TO ENSURE SUSTAINABLE MILK PRODUCTION 1 STRATEGIES FOR DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING TO ENSURE SUSTAINABLE MILK PRODUCTION 1 Prof. Ntombizakhe Mpofu Department of Agricultural Sciences, Lupane State University, P O Box AC 255, Bulawayo Tel: 09-883830/40;

More information

GENOMIC SELECTION: THE FUTURE OF MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION AND ANIMAL BREEDING

GENOMIC SELECTION: THE FUTURE OF MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION AND ANIMAL BREEDING GENOMIC SELECTION: THE FUTURE OF MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION AND ANIMAL BREEDING Theo Meuwissen Institute for Animal Science and Aquaculture, Box 5025, 1432 Ås, Norway, theo.meuwissen@ihf.nlh.no Summary

More information

Unit B: Understanding Animal Reproduction. Lesson 3: Understanding Animal Reproduction Technology

Unit B: Understanding Animal Reproduction. Lesson 3: Understanding Animal Reproduction Technology Unit B: Understanding Animal Reproduction Lesson 3: Understanding Animal Reproduction Technology Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following

More information

Inheritance of Color And The Polled Trait Dr. R. R. Schalles, Dept. of Animal Sciences and Industry Kansas State University

Inheritance of Color And The Polled Trait Dr. R. R. Schalles, Dept. of Animal Sciences and Industry Kansas State University Inheritance of Color And The Polled Trait Dr. R. R. Schalles, Dept. of Animal Sciences and Industry Kansas State University Introduction All functions of an animal are controlled by the enzymes (and other

More information

Sale of Business Property

Sale of Business Property August 2010 RTE/2010-11 Introduction Sale of Business Property Guido van der Hoeven, Extension Specialist/Senior Lecturer Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, NC State University During the

More information

Beef - Key performance indicators. Mary Vickers

Beef - Key performance indicators. Mary Vickers Beef - Key performance indicators Mary Vickers Today Suckler herd KPIs Update on new project Responses KPIs for finishing systems What is a KPI? a business metric used to evaluate factors that are crucial

More information

Pennsylvania Breeders Awards: It s As Simple As... 7 2 1!!!

Pennsylvania Breeders Awards: It s As Simple As... 7 2 1!!! Pennsylvania Breeders Awards: It s As Simple As.... 7 2 1!!! Standardbred Breeders Association of Pennsylvania (SBAPA) projects that when slots revenue has fully funded the program, as much as $10,000,000

More information