Chapter 3 Political Science 100 January 20th, 2015

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1 Chapter 3 Political Science 100 January 20th, 2015

2 Early thought influences later events (Marx, Nietzsche, Qutb) It can inform our base interpretation of our societies (Rousseau, Locke, mith) Practical implications (Astell, Wollstonecraft, Stuart Mill) Address big questions and ask, of us, what we believe ought to be Contextualizing political philosophy

3

4 Inductive theory building: Observation, generalization and hypothesis building Deductive: Grand theory/hypothesis, prediction, experiment to prove hypothesis

5 Historical philosophers worth paying attention to: Plato: The Republic Machiavelli: The Prince Hobbes: The Leviathan Locke: Two Treatises of Government

6 Good Aristotle (social creatures), Rousseau (private world (accumulation of goods) perverts inherent good), Plato (people are good if they know the truth ), Marx (dialectical advancement) Bad Hobbes (nasty, brutish and short civil society), Saint Augustine (original sin), Nietzshe (power), Machiavelli (well sort of) Why does it matter? Right vs Left, organization

7 Ideology: set of systems of ideas that form the basis of a political or economic system and provide guidance and direction for political leadership MacLean and Wood, 62 An aggregation of ideas Accessible/political parties Psychological cheat/shortcut Dogma: Arguing for a point, with no evidence. Rather, truth is found in (political) faith.

8 Being ideological Positive or negative? The non-ideological pragmatist Marx and the False Consciousness Control through ideology

9 (Classical) Liberalism: Individual freedom. As rational beings, individuals can make intelligent decisions about how to live their life best. Grows out of industrial revolution, as much as philosophy Focus on the individual, self-determination Economic liberalism and the invisible hand Reform liberalism and government Most western states espouse liberalism

10 Egalitarianism Equity vs Equality Yes Locke, Montesquieu, Stuart Mill, Thomas Jefferson (Declaration of Independence well, sort of) No Plato (philosopher kings), Hobbes (kings), Machiavelli (Princes), Nietzsche (master race well, sort of), Burke (Aristocracy) Does it matter? free market vs government; gender, sexuality, race, religion

11 How much inequality is okay? Liberals: Differentiation of rights Affirmative action Social inequality Socialists disagree Seek elimination inequality entirely equality of condition State intervention in economic system Strong unions High taxes, redistribution of wealth

12 Socialism: advocating economic equality of the classes and the use of government to serve the collective good Socialists value the collective good over the interest of individuals, and thus emphasize cooperation over competition. Socialists support a positive role for government in the economy. Wide variety of opinions on how to undertake change dominant group are social democrats.

13 Communists Social democrats know nothing, experiment bound to fail Problem is capitalist system Central planning and control of the economy from each according to his ability, to each according to his need Capitalism: means of production are privately owned production, investment, and distribution of resources are determined according to market forces

14 Race Gender Sexuality

15 More recent political philosophers worth noting: Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations John Stuart Mill: Ultilitarianism Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto Mary Woolstencraft

16 Top-down or bottom-up? Liberal reaction against elite dominance Checks and balances, protection Primary philosophy: Laissez-Faire intellectual foundation for free-market capitalism Invisible hand of the market and the people Government still has a role Rights and Property

17 Positive Freedom: Conditions allow the individual to reach their full potential (Freedom to; differentiated equality; government intervention). Writers: Marx, Rousseau, Rawls Negative Freedom: Freedoms are found in a lack of constraint from government, only then is the individual free (Freedom from; equity; neo-liberalism). Writers: Mill, Locke, Nozick

18 Harm Principle Government intervention only justified when another may come to harm. Tyranny of the Majority Abuse of minority at hands of majority Too much equality (especially in voting) is bad Constitutions Sometimes this isn t enough McCarthyism Post 9/11 Utilitarianism

19 An ideology that holds that certain populations are nations, that the world is divided into nations and that a nation should be self determining Dyck

20 Different populations have enough similar characteristics to make them unique There a numerous unique groups These groups have the right to selfdetermination

21 Clouded history of its origins Most theories are Eurocentric French Revolution, Germany, Italy Industrialization Marxism/capitalism; Mass communications/printing Press Exported to the world No general rule of how to create it

22 Response against imperialism/colonialism (mercantilism) Collapse of traditional ways of life Dehumanization? Attempt to get back to their roots? Is violence empowerment? Algeria vs France

23 Positive conceptions A rallying cry to end oppression South Africa or just a rallying cry Vive le Quebec Libre; Scottish Nationalism A type of kinship? Shared experience familiarity

24 Negative conceptions A rallying cry? Basque separatists Us versus them racialization (between and within states, and across borders) Genocide, ethnic cleansing Nazi Germany, Rwanda, Bosnia The Clash of Civilizations? (Huntington)

25 Conservatism: preference of the status quo over change, especially social, economic and political. Slow, evolutionary change is good change. Fast, revolutionary change is bad. Feminism Environmentalism Fascism

26 From a French seating chart (French Revolution) The End of Ideology, Moderates and Extremists Progressive vs Conservative Role of Government Equity and Equality Freedom IR Values Family; Immigration; Crime and Punishment

27 Neo-Liberalism Laissez-Faire Economy Socially progressive (or at least advocate that government has no place in the bedrooms of the nation ) Some Conservative political parties are actually neo-liberal Neo-Conservatism Laissez-Fair Economy Social Conservatism Contradiction? Change

28 Left and Right can be quite similar Radical Change While promote different ideals, outcomes often look similar Fascism and Communism State Power Many examples of resurgent extreme right in Europe North America, less so (kind of) Political System

29 State control versus no control not really left or right, so where does it fit? Feminism? Environmentalism? Populism? Nationalism?

30

31 Citation:

32 Source: politicalcompass.org/us election2012

33 Source: politicalcompass.org/ canada2011

34 Source: Politicalcompass.org

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