Plasma Glucose Levels After Prolonged Strenuous Exercise Correlate Inversely With Glycemic Response to Food Consumed Before Exercise

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Plasma Glucose Levels After Prolonged Strenuous Exercise Correlate Inversely With Glycemic Response to Food Consumed Before Exercise"

Transcription

1 International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 1994, 4, Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. Plasma Glucose Levels After Prolonged Strenuous Exercise Correlate Inversely With Glycemic Response to Food Consumed Before Exercise Diana E. Thomas, John R. Brotherhood, and Janette Brand Miller It was hypothesized that slowly digested carbohydrates, that is, low glycemic index (GI) foods, eaten before prolonged strenuous exercise would increase the blood glucose concentration toward the end of exercise. Six trained cyclists pedaled on a cycle ergometer at 65-70% V02max 60 min after ingestion of each of four test meals: a low-gi and a high-gi powdered food and a low-gi and a high-gi breakfast cereal, all providing 1 g of available carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass. Plasma glucose levels after more that 90 min of exercise were found to correlate inversely with the observed GI of the foods (p <.01). Free fatty acid levels during the last hour of exercise also correlated inversely with the GI (p <.05). The findings suggest that the slow digestion of carbohydrate in the preevent food favors higher concentrations of fuels in the blood toward the end of exercise. Key Words: glycemic index, carbohydrates, free fatty acids, insulin, endurance exercise Plasma glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs) provide substrates for exercising muscles in addition to the glycogen stored in the working muscle. Carbohydrates (CHOs) in the form of muscle and liver glycogen and plasma glucose are a limited source of energy in the body, while there are comparatively limitless amounts of stored fatty acids. Depletion of body CHO is associated with a lowering of blood glucose and the onset of fatigue (1 1). Because CHOs are an essential fuel for strenuous exercise (>65% VO,max), strategies have been sought to maintain the availability of CHOs during prolonged exercise (2,4, 14). Most involve consumption of solutions containing CHOs such as glucose or maltodextrins during exercise in order to keep the plasma glucose levels high. In this situation, glucose from the gastrointestinal tract can be employed by the muscle in addition to glucose derived from gluconeogenesis in the liver and glycogen D.E. Thomas and J. Brand Miller are with the Human Numtion Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Sydney, N.S.W. 2006, Australia. J.R. Brotherhood is with the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe), P.O. Box 58, Sydney, N.S.W. 2001, Australia.

2 362 / Thomas, Brotherhood, and Brand Miller stores. Ingestion of maltodextrins during prolonged strenuous exercise has been found to significantly increase cycling time (4). A similar effect might be obtained by eating a slowly digested CHO food before exercise commences (14). These foods produce a flattened glycemic response and release glucose from the gut for many hours after ingestion (12). The rate of digestion and absorption of the CHO is reflected in the food's glycemic index (GI), a ranking of foods based on the postprandial glycemic responses (9). We postulated that slowly digested CHOs (i.e., low-gi foods) eaten 1 hr before exercise would provide a sustained source of glucose to the blood without an associated insulin surge to inhibit the release of FFAs from fat stores. In a previous study, eight trained cyclists cycled at 67% V02max until exhaustion after consumption of foods of high and low GI (13). The low-gi food (lentils) maintained higher levels of glucose and FFAs during exercise and extended exercise endurance by 20 min compared with the high-gi food (potato). In the present experiment, the aim was to determine whether the magnitude of the glycemic response to different foods ingested preexercise predicted the plasma fuel substrate levels late in exercise. Since plasma glucose levels during the recovery phase may be important to glycogen restoration, we also examined their relationship to the food ingested before exercise. Subjects Methods Six healthy, trained male cyclists participated in the study. Their physical characteristics (mean + SD) were as follows: age, 25 f 5 years; height, 176 f 6 cm; weight, 70.6 f 5.5 kg; VO,max, Llmin. Subjects regularly cycled an average (f SD) of 215 f 123 km per week. Selection criteria included a regular training schedule that would remain the same throughout the period of study. Pretrial protocol required the volunteers to follow a specified meal plan and training schedule on the 2 days prior to each test, in order to minimize the withinsubject variation in starting glycogen levels. The aim was to study subjects with a consistent, submaximal level of muscle glycogen. This protocol has been shown to give reproducible levels of muscle glycogen (4). The protocol was approved by the Medical Ethical Review Committee of the University of Sydney, and all subjects gave their written, informed consent. Study Design Each subject performed four trials in random order, in which one of four test foods was consumed 1 hr before the subject cycled at 65-70% V02max for as long as possible. The volunteer arrived at the laboratory in the morning after a 12-hr overnight fast, and a sampling needle was inserted into a vein in the left forearm for blood sampling. The subject rested 15 min before sampling commenced, and then the food was consumed in the 10 min following the time 0 sampling. The subject then remained seated in a chair until 60 min, when exercise on the cycle ergometer started. The subjects were instructed to continue cycling as long as they felt they could comfortably maintain the set pedaling rate, but they were not encouraged to continue to complete exhaustion. The exercise was terminated when the pedaling rate fell by more than 10% of the original pedaling rate. Every 15 min, the heart rate was recorded (Polar tester,

3 Plasma Glucose Levels / 363 Finland) and the rating of perceived exertion assessed. The laboratory was maintained at "C and 6045% humidity. During cycling, a small electric fan was directed on the subject. Subjects were weighed before and after each trial, and we minimized dehydration by encouraging subjects to drink 120 ml water after each blood sampling. Blood samples were taken at 0 min and then every 15 min throughout the experiment. The end of exercise sample was taken immediately after the subject indicated he would be unable to maintain the required pedaling rate. Blood (8 ml) was drawn into an EDTA-coated blood collection tube, an aliquot for triplicate micro hematocrit readings was removed, and the sample was spun at 3,000 rpm for 5 min at 5 "C. Plasma was drawn off, divided into four storage tubes, and frozen at -20 "C until analyzed for glucose, insulin, lactate, and FFAs. Blood (2 ml) was collected in a plain tube for the insulin analysis. The sampling needle, which remained in place for the duration of the test, was kept patent with 3.8% citrate (D. Bull, Australia). Expired air was collected before the food was ingested and at 15 min and 45 min after consumption. Timed expired air collections were made every 15 min during exercise, and respiratory gases were analyzed for oxygen and carbon dioxide for calculation of the oxygen consumption and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Four foods that varied from high to low GI, according to published tables, were selected (9). The composition of the test meals is shown in Table 1 (5). The four meals were a flaked low-gi food based on lentils, a flaked high-gi food based on potato, and one low- and one high-gi breakfast cereal, based on bran and rice, respectively. The amount of CHO ingested was equal to 1 g of available CHO per kilogram of body mass. The available CHO was determined from ma~iufacturers' data. The volume of each meal was made the same (600 ml) with additional water where necessary. To improve palatability, the flaked foods were consumed with 100 g tomato (3 g CHO in addition to the CHO in the potato and lentil flakes), while the breakfast foods were ingested with 250 ml of low-fat milk (additional 12 g CHO). The tests were given in random order 1 week apart. The observed GI was calculated as the percentage incremental area under the plasma glucose response curve (AUC) for the first hour after ingestion, Table 1 Average Composition of the Test Foods and the Observed Glycemic Index Food Test serve Observed (g dry wt) Available Energy Protein Fat GI M SD CHO (g) (g) (g) M SEM Potato flakes meal , Rice cereal meal , Lentil flakes meal , Bran cereal meal , Note. Potato was US& as the reference food (i.e., GI = 100).

4 364 / Thomas, Brotherhood, and Brand Miller relative to the corresponding AUC for the reference food (potato in this study). The trapezoidal rule was used to calculate the AUC, and the fasting value was taken as the baseline, with negative areas being ignored (16). The observed GI values agreed closely with published GI values (9). Subjects were not informed of their cycling times or of the hypothesis being tested, and the investigators were blind to the food being tested. Before commencing the food trials, the volunteers performed a maximal exercise test and then a stepped submaximal test on a cycle ergometer to confirm the percentage V02max as previously described (13). Results are expressed as mean f SEM. The data from the four trials were compared using two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures, Fisher's least significant differences, and analysis of covariance (Minitab Statistical Software and Statview) (' <.05). Results Figure 1 shows the plasma glucose changes after the four test foods. The mean fasting plasma glucose concentration was 5.2 f 0.2 mmol/l. After ingestion, all the foods caused a rise in plasma glucose, which was highest for potato (4.8 f 0.5 mmol/l) and lowest for lentils and bran cereal (1.4 f 1.0 mmol/l and 2.2 f 1.0 mmol/l, respectively, p <.05, Table 2). The observed GIs (mean k SEM) of the test meals ranged from 30 f 9 for the bran breakfast cereal to 100 for potato, the reference food (Table 2). Plasma glucose levels fell to a nadir at food Time (rnin) Figure 1 - Mean change in plasma glucose concentration (mmolk) preexercise, during exercise, and 30 min postexercise. Food ingestion occurred at 0 min, and cycling commenced at 60 min. *Significant differences are shown in Table 2.

5 Table 2 Summary of Results of the Four Food Trials (Analysis of Variance for Repeated Measures and Fischer's Least Significant Differences) Significant Potato (a) Rice (b) Lentils (c) Bran (d) differences M SEM M SEM M SEM M SEM 0) <.05) Observed glycemic index (%) Peak plasma glucose change (mmol/l) End-exercise plasma glucose change (mmol/l) Postexercise plasma glucose change (mean of 15 and 30 min) (mmol/l) Peak plasma insulin change (piu/l) Postrecovery plasma insulin change (mean of 15 and 30 min) (piu/l) Peak FFA change (meq/l) FFA (AUC) during exercise (meq/l. min) FFA 30 min postexercise (meq/l) RER (AUC) during exercise Exercise times (min) Percentage V0,max Heart rate (beats per min) Percentage decrease in body mass during exercise a vs. c, a vs. d a vs. c, a vs. d a vs. c, a vs. d, b vs. d, b vs. c a vs. d, b vs. d, c vs. d a vs. c, a vs. d, b vs. c, b vs. d a vs. c, a vs. d, b vs. d a vs. d a vs. d 9 a vs. b, a vs. c, g a vs. d 2 a vs. b, a vs. c, C a vs. d n None $ r None 8 None 2 None 1 W m LA

6 366 / Thomas, Brotherhood, and Brand Miller Glycemic index of pre-event food (%) Figure 2 -The relationship between the mean observed GI of the preevent meal and the change in plasma glucose concentration at the end of exercise. Symbols represent the six different subjects studied. The line represents the mean change for each food versus GI. min into exercise that was not statistically different among the foods, before increasing. By the end of exercise (95 f 12 min), the plasma glucose levels relative to fasting were as follows: bran cereal ( mmol/l), lentil flakes (0.5 f 0.3 mmol/l), rice cereal (-0.2 f 0.5 mmol/l), and potato (-1.0 f 0.6 mmol/l) (p <.05, Table 2). There was a significant inverse relationship between the change in plasma glucose at the end of exercise and the GI (Figure 2, analysis of covariance coefficient , p <.01, Table 3). In other words, for every one unit change in GI, there was a change in the plasma glucose level at the end of exercise. Postexercise plasma glucose changes varied among the meals. The bran cereal was associated with the highest plasma glucose levels, while the potato meal gave the least (p <.05, Table 2). There was an inverse correlation between GI and plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) in the postexercise period (coefficient , p <.05, analysis of covariance, Table 3). Plasma insulin changes after ingestion of the test foods are shown in Figure 3. The mean fasting insulin was 8.9 f 0.8 piu/l. After ingestion of potato flakes and rice cereal, plasma insulin levels rose rapidly, reaching a peak at 30 min (38.5 f 11.9 and 32.3 f 6.4 piu/l, respectively). After lentil flakes or bran, there was a smaller rise in plasma insulin, peaking at 30 min for bran and 45 min for lentil flakes and reaching levels half those obtained in the other two trials. During the early phase of exercise, insulin levels declined in all four trials, so that by 15 min into exercise there were no differences among the foods. Similarly, there were no significant differences at the end of exercise. However,

7 Plasma Glucose Levels / 367 Table 3 Relationship of the Observed Glycemic Index of the Foods to the Metabolic Parameters Measured (Analysis of Covariance) Result Coefficient SD t value p value Exercise parameters Change in end exercise plasma glucose level (mmol/l) Change in plasma FFA concentration during exercise (AUC 60 to 120 min, meq/l. 60 min) Change in RER during exercise (AUC 60 to 120 min) Postexercise Change in plasma glucose concentration after exercise (AUC 0 to 30 min recovery, mmol/l. 30 min) Change in plasma insulin concentration after exercise (AUC 0 to 30 min recovery, piu/l. 30 min) Change in plasma FFA concentration at 30 min postexercise (meq/l) during recovery plasma insulin levels began to diverge, and postexercise the plasma insulin AUC correlated negatively with the observed GI (coefficient , p <.05, analysis of covariance, Table 3). The changes in plasma FFAs are shown in Figure 4. The mean fasting FFA concentration was 0.56 f 0.13 meq/l. Plasma FFAs decreased after ingestion of all the test meals, significantly faster for potatoes than for the other foods. As a result, the potato trial produced a more negative AUC during exercise than the bran cereal (p <.05, Table 2). The AUC for FFA during exercise correlated negatively with the observed GI (coefficient = -0.02, p <.05, analysis of covariance, Table 3). Postexercise, the bran cereal elicited the lowest levels of plasma FFA while the potato flakes produced the highest (p <.05, Table 2). At 30 min postexercise, plasma FFA concentrations correlated positively with the observed GI of the foods (coefficient = 0.014, p <.01, analysis of covariance, Table 3). Changes in plasma lactate levels are shown in Figure 5. Small rises and falls, without differences among the foods, occurred during the preexercise period. After the onset of exercise, plasma lactate rose rapidly and then fell, again with no significant differences among the foods. The changes in RER during exercise are shown in Figure 6. The mean k SEM baseline value was 0.83 & The RER rose immediately after food consumption, reaching a peak during the early part of the exercise period. The extent of the rise was influenced by the food consumed. During exercise, the

8 368 / Thomas, Brotherhood, and Brand Miller food Time (min) Figure 3 - Mean change in plasma insulin concentration (yiu/l) preexercise, during exercise, and 30 min postexercise. Food ingestion occurred at 0 min, and cycling commenced at 60 min. *Significant differences are shown in Table 2. food Time (min) Figure 4 - Mean change in the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration (meq/ L) preexercise, during exercise, and 30 min postexercise. Food ingestion occurred at 0 min, and cycling commenced at 60 min. *Significant differences are shown in Table 2.

9 - i! i 4 - rice Plasma Glucose Levels / bran cereal lentils cereal potato 0 4 pre- exercise post- -1 I ' I * I ', / / ; I I food Time (min) Figure 5 - Mean change in plasma lactate concentration (mmolil) preexercise, during exercise, and 30 min postexercise. Food ingestion occurred at 0 min, and cycling commenced at 60 min. high-gi potato trial gave the highest AUC for RER while the low-gi bran cereal trial produced the lowest (p <.05, Table 2). Thus, on an individual basis, there was a positive correlation between the GI of the meal and the AUC for RER during exercise (analysis of covariance coefficient = 0.08, p <.01, Table 3). The exercise times varied, but the differences among the foods did not reach statistical significance (Table 2). There was no correlation between trial times and observed GI. As required by the protocol, the values for mean percentage V02max during exercise were similar among the four trials (Table 2). Similarly, the mean heart rates during exercise were comparable for all trials, and there were no significant differences in the ratings of perceived exertion (Table 2). Body mass decreased by less than 1% and was similar for each trial (Table 2). Discussion In this study we demonstrated that the GI of preexercise food influences the blood levels of muscle fuel substrates during exercise. In particular, after more than 90 min of exercise, low-gi foods provided higher levels of blood glucose and FFA than did high-gi foods. Since higher levels of plasma glucose, achieved without depressing plasma FFA, are likely to favor endurance, the results lend support for the hypothesis that low-gi foods offer an advantage over high-gi foods in prolonged strenuous exercise (1 3). Rate of digestion and absorption of CHO in food has been shown to be a major determinant of its GI rather than the fat, protein, or fiber content or gastric

10 370 / Thomas, Brotherhood, and Brand Miller Figure 6 - Mean change in the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) preexercise, during exercise, and 30 min postexercise. Food ingestion occurred at 0 min, and cycling commenced at 60 min. *Significant differences are shown in Table 2. emptying (12, 15). Starch in many foods, such as potatoes, is rapidly digested compared with the slowly digested starches in foods such as lentils (12). The reasons relate to the molecular structure of the starch, particularly the ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and physical accessibility of the starch to enzymes. Our desire to test the effect of real foods rather than artificial mixtures meant that the non-cho component of the meals varied. We standardized the volume of the foods to minimize differences in gastric emptying for this reason, but the energy, fat, and protein content varied according to the food source. Total calories, and fat content in particular, may have influenced gastric emptying, but this is reflected in the food's GI. We cannot discount that these differences in composition per se may be responsible for the differences in blood-borne fuels at the end of exercise, although we regard this as unlikely. Further studies with foods of varying GI but identical nutrient composition are warranted. One reason to consider the practical implications of consumption of food before exercise is that it may be difficult to drink glucose solutions during the event, especially in sports such as swimming or in heavy occupations such as firefighting. Low-GI foods could provide a continuing source of glucose at physiologically favorable rates from the start of exercise. Furthermore, consuming 70 g of CHO in the preexercise food is equivalent to drinking 700 ml of 10% glucose solution during exercise. Our findings have practical implications for the choice of foods eaten prior to prolonged strenuous exercise. Foods vary by more than threefold in their GI, lentils having one of the lowest values and potatoes one of the highest (9). In fact, potatoes produce a glycemic response similar to that of an equivalent glucose load. Breakfast cereals vary by twofold, with porridge having a GI about half

11 Plasma Glucose Levels / 371 that of cornflakes (9). We found that a 10-unit difference in GI was associated on average with a 0.2 mmol/l difference in plasma glucose concentration at the end of exercise (Figure 2). Thus a food with a GI of 50 would be predicted to give plasma glucose levels 1 mmol/l higher at the end of exercise than a food with a GI of 100. Both glucose and FFA are important oxidative fuels during prolonged exercise. Blood glucose contributes significantly to the CHO energy required during prolonged, strenuous exercise, and evidence indicates that it becomes the dominant CHO energy source during the latter stages (2). CHO ingestion during exercise can delay fatigue and improve performance, and this effect appears to be partly due to prevention of a decline in blood glucose levels (4). Blood glucose utilization increases as the duration of exercise increases, and rates of over 1.2 glmin have been observed at the end of exercise to exhaustion at 67% V0,max (1). As muscle glycogen decreases, blood glucose represents a progressively increasing proportion of total CHO oxidation (4). The rate of FFA oxidation by muscle is approximately proportional to the concentration of fatty acids to which it is exposed (6, 7). Increased availability of FFA has been found to delay exhaustion in rats subjected to prolonged running, and this has been attributed to a glycogen-sparing effect (8). Elevating the plasma FFA concentration prior to exercise was also shown to improve endurance performance in humans (3). Maintained plasma FFA levels therefore may be an advantage in prolonged exercise; however, there is still controversy regarding the role of plasma FFA, and further research is needed. High-GI foods will depress plasma FFA levels more than low-gi foods. Thus, high-gi foods result in lower blood fuel substrate levels, that is, lower blood glucose concentration and lower FFA after more than 90 min of exercise, compared with low-gi foods. Changes in RER were related to GI, being highest for the food with the highest GI (potato) and lowest for the food with the lowest GI (bran cereal). This effect was apparent (Figure 6) even before the start of exercise and suggests that RER is influenced by the prevailing glucose and insulin level. High RER has been associated with extended endurance in studies employing maltodextrin feedings (10). Our results might therefore be interpreted to mean that high-gi foods are more advantageous than low-gi foods. However, RER is an indication of the proportion of CH0:FFA in the fuel being oxidized and is a function of exercise intensity as well as substrate availability. Since CHO stores are limited, it is not necessarily desirable to be burning CHO when FFA would suffice. Hence, if the same intensity of exercise can be adequately maintained at a lower RER, then this will conserve CHO stores, thus favoring extended endurance. Postexercise In the recovery period, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were higher with the low-gi foods than with the high-gi foods. This suggests that glucose was still being released from the gut to the plasma even during recovery, 2.5 to 3 hr after the consumption of the low-gi food. A slowly digested starch may take as much as 4 hr to be completely digested and absorbed (12). For this reason, low-gi foods may be an advantage in the outdoor, competitive, prolonged exercise situation especially if food is not available or is limited.

12 372 / Thomas, Brotherhood, and Brand Miller In summary, this study has shown that low-gi foods are associated with higher blood-borne muscle fuel substrate levels after more than 90 min of exercise. Release of glucose from the gut appears to continue into the postexercise period. Drawing on other studies which indicate that higher levels of plasma glucose are associated with delayed time to exhaustion, we interpret our findings to mean that low-gi foods may prolong endurance. Our findings have practical implications for the choice of foods in heavy occupational work as well as in sports, such as hiking, mountaineering, skiing, and cycle touring. References 1. Ahlborg, G., and P. Felig. Lactate and glucose exchange across the forearm, legs, and splanchnic bed during and after prolonged leg exercise. J. Clin. Invest. 69:45-54, Coggan, A.R., and E.F. Coyle. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise: Effects on metabolism and performance. In Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews (Vol. 20), J.O. Holloszy (Ed.), Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1992, pp Costill, D.L., E. Coyle, G. Dalskey, W. Evans, W. Fink, and D. Hoopes. Effects of elevated plasma free fatty acids and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. (Respirat. Environ. Exerc. Physiol.) 43: , Coyle, E.F., A.R. Coggan, M.K. Hemmert, and J.L. Ivy. Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbohydrate. J. Appl. Physiol. 61: , English, R., and J. Lewis. Nutritional Values ofaustralian Foods, Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, Gollnick, P.D., B. Pernow, B. Essen, E. Jansson, and B. Saltin. Availability of glycogen and plasma free fatty acids for substrate utilization in leg muscle of man during exercise. Clin. Physiol. 1:27-42, Havel, R.J., B. Pernow, and N.L. Jones. Uptake and release of free fatty acids and other metabolites in the legs of exercising men. J. Appl. Physiol. 23:90-99, Hickson, R.C., M.J. Rennie, R.K. Conlee, W.W. Winder, and J.O. Holloszy. Effects of increasing plasma fatty acids on glycogen utilization and endurance. J. Appl. Physiol. (Respirat. Environ. Exerc. Physiol.) , Jenkins, D.J.A., T.M.S. Wolever, R.H. Taylor, et al. Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: , Mitchell, J.B., D.L. Costill, J.A. Houmard, M.G. Flynn, W.J. Fink, and J.D. Beltz. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on gastric emptying and exercise performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 20:llO-115, Newsholme, E.A., and A.R. Leech. Biochemistry for the Medical Sciences. Chichester, UK: Wiley, Thorne, M.J., L.U. Thompson, and D.J.A. Jenkins. Factors affecting starch digestibility and the glycemic response with special reference to legumes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38: , Thomas, D.E., J.R. Brotherhood, and J.C. Brand. Carbohydrate feeding before exercise: Effect of glycemic index. Int. J. Sports Med. 12: , Thomas, D.E., K. Richardson, J.R. Brotherhood, and J.C. Brand. The pre-game carbohydrate meal: Is the glycaemic index relevant? In The Athleteaaximising Participation and Minimising Risk, M.E. Torode (Ed.), Sydney: Cumberland College of Health Sciences, 1988, pp

13 Plasma Glucose Levels / Torsdottir, I., M. Alpsten, D. Andersson, R.J. Brummer, and H. Andersson. Effect of different starchy foods in composite meals on gastric emptying rate and glucose metabolism: 1. Comparison between potatoes, rice and white beans. Hum. Nutr.: Clin. Nutr. 38C: , Wolever, T.M.S., D.J.A. Jenkins, A.L. Jenkins, and R.G. Josse. The glycemic index: Methodology and clinical implications. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54: , Acknowledgments We thank Kellogg (Australia) Pty. Ltd. and the Sydney University Nutrition Research Foundation for their support; the volunteers for participating; and Dr. P. Wursch, Nestec, Switzerland, for providing foods. Statistics were compiled in collaboration with Professor E. Seneta, Head of Statistics, University of Sydney.

An excellent site for information about glycemic index is the GI Website at the University of Sydney.

An excellent site for information about glycemic index is the GI Website at the University of Sydney. Glycemic Index The chemical structure of carbohydrates is not the only determinant of their nutritional value. The physical form of the food we eat determines how quickly our digestive enzymes can react

More information

Is Chocolate Milk the answer?

Is Chocolate Milk the answer? Is Chocolate Milk the answer? Is Chocolate Milk the answer? Karp, J.R. et al. Chocolate Milks as a Post-Exercise Recovery Aid, Int. J of Sports Ntr. 16:78-91, 2006. PROS Study focused on trained athletes

More information

Exercise Metabolism II

Exercise Metabolism II Exercise Metabolism II Oxygen debt & deficit Lactate threshold --------------------------------------------------------------- VO2max, VO2max and Lactate threshold CHO and fat metabolism during exercise

More information

The Effects of Low and High Glycemic Index Meals on Time-Trial Performance

The Effects of Low and High Glycemic Index Meals on Time-Trial Performance The Effects of Low and High Glycemic Index Meals on Time-Trial Performance Laura J.S. Moore, Adrian W. Midgley, Gemma Thomas, Shane Thurlow and Lars R. McNaughton Address all correspondence to: Professor

More information

Level 3. Applying the Principles of Nutrition to a Physical Activity Programme Level 3

Level 3. Applying the Principles of Nutrition to a Physical Activity Programme Level 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION PAPER Paper number APNU3.0 Please insert this reference number in the appropriate boxes on your candidate answer sheet Title MOCK PAPER Time allocation 50 minutes Level 3 Applying

More information

Carbohydrate s Role in Fat Loss by Cameron L. Martz, ACSM H/FI

Carbohydrate s Role in Fat Loss by Cameron L. Martz, ACSM H/FI Carbohydrate s Role in Fat Loss by Cameron L. Martz, ACSM H/FI If you believe what you see on the bookshelves these days, you d think carbohydrates are the root of all nutrition evil. The Atkin s New Diet

More information

UNIT 3: AREA OF STUDY 2

UNIT 3: AREA OF STUDY 2 UNIT 3: AREA OF STUDY 2 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TOPIC 1: FOODS, FUELS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS Energy from muscular contraction comes from Adenosine Triphosphate. An acceptable abbreviation

More information

Predicting Aerobic Power (VO 2max ) Using The 1-Mile Walk Test

Predicting Aerobic Power (VO 2max ) Using The 1-Mile Walk Test USING A WALKING TEST 12/25/05 PAGE 1 Predicting Aerobic Power (VO 2max ) Using The 1-Mile Walk Test KEYWORDS 1. Predict VO 2max 2. Rockport 1-mile walk test 3. Self-paced test 4. L min -1 5. ml kg -1 1min

More information

Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training

Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training By: Jason Dudley Summary Nutrition supplements with a combination of carbohydrate and protein (with a ratio of

More information

Development of a Glycemic Index Database for Dietary Assessment. Sally F. Schakel, Rebecca Schauer, John H. Himes, Lisa Harnack, Nancy Van Heel

Development of a Glycemic Index Database for Dietary Assessment. Sally F. Schakel, Rebecca Schauer, John H. Himes, Lisa Harnack, Nancy Van Heel Development of a Glycemic Index Database for Dietary Assessment Sally F. Schakel, Rebecca Schauer, John H. Himes, Lisa Harnack, Nancy Van Heel What is glycemic index? Applies only to carbohydrate foods.

More information

Creating Your Personal Hydration Plan

Creating Your Personal Hydration Plan Creating Your Personal Hydration Plan Hydration is one area of marathon preparation where you really have to make an effort during training to create your individual plan. Putting the time in to get your

More information

Eating Actively. Dr Patricia Heavey

Eating Actively. Dr Patricia Heavey Eating Actively Dr Patricia Heavey Key Topics Balanced healthy eating for athletes Good nutrition should form an important part of your preparation for running a marathon. Just as you will plan aspects

More information

RUNNING ON EMPTY? DEHYDRATION SLOWS YOU DOWN

RUNNING ON EMPTY? DEHYDRATION SLOWS YOU DOWN FOR HCP DISTRIBUTION ONLY RUNNING ON EMPTY? DEHYDRATION SLOWS YOU DOWN A GUIDE TO HELP YOU ENJOY PEAK PERFORMANCE Why be less than your best? Side effects of dehydration can seriously impact our lives

More information

Studies on the glycemic response of wheat at various level of processing fed to normal healthy rats

Studies on the glycemic response of wheat at various level of processing fed to normal healthy rats Biokemistri 0795-8080/2011 $5.00 + 0.00 Vol. 23, No. 2, June 30, 2011, pages 63 71 2011 Nigerian Society for Experimental Biology Printed in Nigeria http://www.niseb.org/bkr Also available online at http://www.bioline.org.br/bk

More information

Migraine, Stress and Peanut M&Ms. 2007 Stephen J. Peroutka, M.D., Ph.D.

Migraine, Stress and Peanut M&Ms. 2007 Stephen J. Peroutka, M.D., Ph.D. Migraine, Stress and Peanut M&Ms Diagnosis of Migraine Diagnosis of Migraine Migraine and Stress Migraine is an inherited disorder occurring in people who have both an undue tendency to seek stress and

More information

A2E: Fat loss: what the personal trainer needs to know about food, exercise & fat loss

A2E: Fat loss: what the personal trainer needs to know about food, exercise & fat loss A2E: Fat loss: what the personal trainer needs to know about food, exercise & fat loss Tony Boutagy www.tonyboutagy.com Twitter/TonyBoutagy Facebook.com/BoutagyFitnessInstitute Weight loss or fat loss?

More information

Sports Science Exchange 108 DOES A HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE BREAKFAST IMPROVE PERFORMANCE?

Sports Science Exchange 108 DOES A HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE BREAKFAST IMPROVE PERFORMANCE? Sports Science Exchange 108 VOLUME 21 (2008) Number 2 DOES A HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE BREAKFAST IMPROVE PERFORMANCE? Clyde Williams, PhD, FACSM Professor of Sports Science School of Sport and Exercise Sciences

More information

GI/GL and you: what advice should we give? Andrea Young Diabetes Specialist Dietitian

GI/GL and you: what advice should we give? Andrea Young Diabetes Specialist Dietitian GI/GL and you: what advice should we give? Andrea Young Diabetes Specialist Dietitian January 2008 GI and GL Definition Measurement of GI What s s high and what s s low GI Factors that influence GI Measurement

More information

I n the 1970s, the term glycemic SUMMARY. and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, Texas

I n the 1970s, the term glycemic SUMMARY. and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, Texas Glycemic Load Food Guide Pyramid for Athletic Performance Kristen M. Beavers, MPH, RD 1 and Brian Leutholtz, PhD 2 1 Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory; 2 Department of Health, Human Performance,

More information

Food and Fluid Intake Before Exercise

Food and Fluid Intake Before Exercise Chapter 2 Food and Fluid Intake Before Exercise Athletes must determine how best to use the time preceding training or competition. In addition to doing warm-up exercises, they usally eat and drink according

More information

Starch is made up of long chains of glucose molecules joined together. It is found in foods like bread, rice, potatoes and pasta.

Starch is made up of long chains of glucose molecules joined together. It is found in foods like bread, rice, potatoes and pasta. FACTSHEET No. 25 Bread Introduction What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates can be divided into two main groups, sugars and starch: Sugars: These can be made from one single sugar molecule (monosaccharides),

More information

Timing van voeding voeding voor, tijdens en na inspanning. Link physical activity nutrition. Outline. The human engine

Timing van voeding voeding voor, tijdens en na inspanning. Link physical activity nutrition. Outline. The human engine Timing van voeding voeding voor, tijdens en na inspanning Lex Verdijk Congres Sport en Voeding 20 november 2015 Outline Link between physical activity and nutrition Skeletal muscle as the human engine

More information

Energy Expenditure & VO 2

Energy Expenditure & VO 2 Energy Expenditure & VO 2 Current & Common Methods of Measuring Heat Production Direct & Indirect Calorimetry a) Applied Indirect Principle: all energy releasing reactions in the body ultimately depend

More information

Blood Sugar & Glycaemic Index

Blood Sugar & Glycaemic Index Nutrition Blood Sugar & Glycaemic Index Lesley Loizou The human body is designed to run on carbohydrates (CHO). While we can use protein and fat for energy, the easiest and most smoke-free fuel is carbohydrate.

More information

Pedal Off The Pounds. A practical approach for weight management through bicycling and good nutrition. David Ertl.

Pedal Off The Pounds. A practical approach for weight management through bicycling and good nutrition. David Ertl. Pedal Off The Pounds A practical approach for weight management through bicycling and good nutrition 1 David Ertl USA Cycling Level 1 Coach www.cyclesportcoaching.com (Sample Pages) Prologue Losing weight

More information

Exampro GCSE Biology. B2.4 Respiration. Name: Class: Foundation tier. Author: Date: Time: 87. Marks: 87. Comments: Page 1 of 36

Exampro GCSE Biology. B2.4 Respiration. Name: Class: Foundation tier. Author: Date: Time: 87. Marks: 87. Comments: Page 1 of 36 Exampro GCSE Biology B2.4 Respiration Foundation tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 87 Marks: 87 Comments: Page of 36 Q. An athlete did a 6-month training programme. The graph shows the effect of the

More information

FAT 411: Why you can t live without it

FAT 411: Why you can t live without it FAT 411: Why you can t live without it In the many nutrition talks I have done in the past, I have received numerous questions surrounding the somewhat misunderstood macronutrient of fat. Question range

More information

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Dietary and Lifestyle Guidelines

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Dietary and Lifestyle Guidelines Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Dietary and Lifestyle Guidelines Risk factors for NAFLD Typically, but not always seen in patients who are overweight. May have Diabetes and or insulin resistance high

More information

Guidance for Industry

Guidance for Industry Guidance for Industry Food-Effect Bioavailability and Fed Bioequivalence Studies U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

More information

GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview

GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Division of Basic Medical Sciences Discipline of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, M Med Part I

More information

Chapter 11. Muscle Energy and Metabolism

Chapter 11. Muscle Energy and Metabolism Chapter 11 Muscle Energy and Metabolism Muscle Metabolism All muscle contraction depends on ATP ATP is not stored in body / use it as we produce it! Ability to make new ATP supply depends on availability

More information

Using Glycemic Index to Improve Athletic Performance

Using Glycemic Index to Improve Athletic Performance GSSI Sports Science News There is little doubt that carbohydrates play a key role in athletic performance. Carbohydrate, in the form of glucose, fuels muscles, the brain and nerves before, during and after

More information

MANAGING DIET ON AN INSULIN PUMP.

MANAGING DIET ON AN INSULIN PUMP. Patient Information MANAGING DIET ON AN INSULIN PUMP. Dietetic Department Therapy Services Shrewsbury and Telford NHS Trust 1 Food Bolusing on a pump (ADJUSTING YOUR INSULIN WITH YOUR DIET) Hopefully you

More information

Nutrition Facts Label

Nutrition Facts Label Nutrition Facts Label What Do All These Numbers Mean to YOUR Health November 2014 Kathryn A. Parker, RD., LD/N Program Manager Diabetes Self Management Education and Nutrition Therapy Center Diabetes.

More information

Why is this important for the athlete? Getting the balance between complex and simple carbohydrates right can significantly influence performance.

Why is this important for the athlete? Getting the balance between complex and simple carbohydrates right can significantly influence performance. GLYCAEMIC INDEX AND THE ATHLETE You can significantly improve your performance by eating the right mix of complex and simple carbohydrates. Getting the right balance will give you an energy boost just

More information

Relationship of Heart Rate with Oxygen Consumption of adult male workers from Service and Manufacturing Sectors

Relationship of Heart Rate with Oxygen Consumption of adult male workers from Service and Manufacturing Sectors Relationship of Heart Rate with Oxygen Consumption of adult male workers from Service and Manufacturing Sectors Sanchita Ghosh a, Rauf Iqbal b, Amitabha De c and Debamalya Banerjee d a 7,Olive Street,

More information

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM Unit 3 Lecture METABOLISM Anabolism is defined as the chemical reactions that combine simple substances into more complex molecules (requires energy). Examples of anabolism include glycogenesis (conversion

More information

GAME DAY NUTRITION Eating to Win Harvard University Strength & Conditioning

GAME DAY NUTRITION Eating to Win Harvard University Strength & Conditioning GAME DAY NUTRITION Eating to Win Harvard University Strength & Conditioning Game Day Nutrition Pre-Game: Pre-Game Meal: 4-6 hours before game High Complex/Low GI** foods; low protein and fat Hydrate well:

More information

Glucose and Insulin Responses After Commonly Used Sport Feedings Before and After a I-hr Training Session

Glucose and Insulin Responses After Commonly Used Sport Feedings Before and After a I-hr Training Session International kurnal of Sport Nutrition, 1995, 5, 194-205 0 1995 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. Glucose and Insulin Responses After Commonly Used Sport Feedings Before and After a I-hr Training Session

More information

Practical Nutrition Strategies

Practical Nutrition Strategies Practical Nutrition Strategies Anita Bean BSc RNutr Nutrition is an important part of your training programme. Eating the right types and amounts of food, as well as drinking enough fluid before, during

More information

Maximal Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Trained Men

Maximal Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Trained Men J. Achten A. E. Jeukendrup Maximal Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Trained Men Abstract Fat oxidation increases from low to moderate exercise intensities and decreases from moderate to high exercise intensities.

More information

Food Food Typical Serve Protein Content (g) Beef/lamb/pork, lean 100g cooked 31. Ham/salami/corned beef 1 slice (30g) 7. Sausage 1 (90g) cooked 13

Food Food Typical Serve Protein Content (g) Beef/lamb/pork, lean 100g cooked 31. Ham/salami/corned beef 1 slice (30g) 7. Sausage 1 (90g) cooked 13 Factsheet Protein Introduction Proteins are macronutrients that provide energy (calories) and have many structural and regulatory functions in the human body. Protein is the most important building material

More information

HEALTH CLAIMS ON PECTINS APPROVED BY EFSA

HEALTH CLAIMS ON PECTINS APPROVED BY EFSA HEALTH CLAIMS ON PECTINS APPROVED BY EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pectins and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 786) and maintenance of normal

More information

American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement Summary

American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement Summary American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement Summary American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand on Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,

More information

Rowing Physiology. Intermediate. Editors: Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) Author: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR)

Rowing Physiology. Intermediate. Editors: Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) Author: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR) 2 Intermediate Rowing Physiology Author: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR) Editors: Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) 34 1.0 INTRODUCTION The FISA CDP booklet titled BASIC ROWING PHYSIOLOGY provided information

More information

This program includes the following:

This program includes the following: Eating for Health and Performance: The Wildland Firefighter Instructor s Guide This program includes the following: A PowerPoint presentation A brochure An instructor s guide The instructor s guide includes

More information

Hydration status and Sport Drinks for Athletes

Hydration status and Sport Drinks for Athletes Hydration status and Sport Drinks for Athletes Proper hydration before you exercise, monitoring your hydration status during exercise, and replacing fluid losses post exercise are vital to ensuring your

More information

Nutrition for Endurance: Cycling

Nutrition for Endurance: Cycling Nutrition for Endurance: Cycling Superior cycling ability comes from good training. However, without good food choices and the correct timing of meals, your training and performance will suffer. You need

More information

Reactive Hypoglycemia- is it a real phenomena among endurance athletes? by Dr. Trent Stellingwerff, PhD

Reactive Hypoglycemia- is it a real phenomena among endurance athletes? by Dr. Trent Stellingwerff, PhD Reactive Hypoglycemia- is it a real phenomena among endurance athletes? by Dr. Trent Stellingwerff, PhD Are you an athlete that periodically experiences episodes of extreme hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)

More information

Sports Nutrition for the Serious Youth Athlete. Jennifer Sacheck, PhD, FACSM Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy Tufts University

Sports Nutrition for the Serious Youth Athlete. Jennifer Sacheck, PhD, FACSM Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy Tufts University Sports Nutrition for the Serious Youth Athlete Jennifer Sacheck, PhD, FACSM Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy Tufts University Key Sports Nutrition Issues for Youth Athletes Consuming adequate

More information

Metabolic Cost of Weighted Vests During Standing Cycling. Presented by Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Research Team Colin Carriker, Reid McLean, Jeremy McCormick

Metabolic Cost of Weighted Vests During Standing Cycling. Presented by Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Research Team Colin Carriker, Reid McLean, Jeremy McCormick Metabolic Cost of Weighted Vests During Standing Cycling Presented by Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Research Team Colin Carriker, Reid McLean, Jeremy McCormick American Council on Exercise June 2013 Abstract Whether

More information

Everyone needs to take vitamin pills. It s OK to take vitamin supplements, as they are natural substances.

Everyone needs to take vitamin pills. It s OK to take vitamin supplements, as they are natural substances. RM 13 NU: Sport Nutrition Investigation: Myth or Fact? N OTE TO T EACHER Reword some of the Myth statements into Fact statements and remove the word Myth from each card, as students have to determine whether

More information

Energy yield from nutrients

Energy yield from nutrients ENERGY METABOLISM CALORIFIC VALUE Energy content of food materials is measured in calories. One calorie is the heat required to rise the temperature of 1g of water through 1 0 C. Energy content is expressed

More information

Understanding Heat Production & Dehydration During Exercise

Understanding Heat Production & Dehydration During Exercise Understanding Heat Production & Dehydration During Exercise Exercise increases heat production Heat production during exercise can easily be calculated or estimated Metabolic efficiency = ~30% Mechanical

More information

Glycemic Index Explained

Glycemic Index Explained Glycemic Index Explained Co - authors: Anne Garrett RD, BASc, MEd, CDE and Alison Phillmore, RD, CDE Reviewed by: Canadian Diabetes Association Nutrition Guidelines Implementation Subcommittee Correspondence

More information

Q & A: Catherine Norton, Sports Nutritionist

Q & A: Catherine Norton, Sports Nutritionist Q & A: Catherine Norton, Sports Nutritionist 1. What should the breakdown of food in terms of fats/ carbohydrates/ protein for rowers in order to support high training volumes? What should you be eating

More information

WORKING OUT HEART RATE ZONES AND USING THEM AS A TRAINING TOOL

WORKING OUT HEART RATE ZONES AND USING THEM AS A TRAINING TOOL WORKING OUT HEART RATE ZONES AND USING THEM AS A TRAINING TOOL The information below will enable you to understand, calculate and integrate heart rate zone work into your training. It is in an effective

More information

Addressing consumer needs: potential for developing wheat products with lower glycemic response

Addressing consumer needs: potential for developing wheat products with lower glycemic response Addressing consumer needs: potential for developing wheat products with lower glycemic response Dr. Nancy Ames & Dr. Sijo Joseph Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Richardson Centre for Functional Foods

More information

LESSON 2.3 WORKBOOK. Part one: Glucose homeostasis in the blood storing energy

LESSON 2.3 WORKBOOK. Part one: Glucose homeostasis in the blood storing energy LESSON 2.3 WORKBOOK Part one: Glucose homeostasis in the blood storing energy Glucose metabolism takes place in all cells to make ATP. The liver plays an important role in regulating the levels of glucose

More information

Diet and Exercise Performance. Is Carbohydrate Necessary? Why? 4/8/2016. Bonking (Hitting the Wall ) Energy Stores in Human Body

Diet and Exercise Performance. Is Carbohydrate Necessary? Why? 4/8/2016. Bonking (Hitting the Wall ) Energy Stores in Human Body Carbohydrates and Exercise Performance: Is low the way to go, or the way to bonk? Building Healthy Lifestyles Conference March 18, 2016 Glenn Gaesser, PhD School of Nutrition and Health Promotion Arizona

More information

Questions Most Frequently Asked About. Sports Nutrition

Questions Most Frequently Asked About. Sports Nutrition Questions Most Frequently Asked About Sports Nutrition What diet is best for athletes? It's important that an athlete's diet provides the right amount of energy, the 50-plus nutrients the body needs and

More information

Carbohydrates: love m m or leave m? The glycemic index explored

Carbohydrates: love m m or leave m? The glycemic index explored Carbohydrates: love m m or leave m? The glycemic index explored Current trends Louise Gagné M.D. Family Physician, Saskatoon Community Clinic Clinical assistant professor Department of Community Health

More information

Cellular Energy (ATP)

Cellular Energy (ATP) FLUID HEAT & METABOLISM LECTURE 4: ENERGY SYSTEMS & CALORIMETRY Eamonn O Connor Trinity College Dublin Energy Systems 1 1 Cellular Energy (ATP) All cellular work requires ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate)

More information

SAMPLE. Certificate in Understanding the Care and Management of Diabetes. Workbook 1 BLOOD GLUCOSE GLYCAEMIA. NCFE Level 2 RISK FACTORS

SAMPLE. Certificate in Understanding the Care and Management of Diabetes. Workbook 1 BLOOD GLUCOSE GLYCAEMIA. NCFE Level 2 RISK FACTORS NCFE Level 2 Certificate in Understanding the Care and Management of Diabetes SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS GLYCAEMIA BLOOD GLUCOSE PREVENTION BALANCED DIET TYPE 2 RISK FACTORS Workbook 1 This section will help you

More information

PISA Style Scientific Literacy Question

PISA Style Scientific Literacy Question PISA Style Scientific Literacy Question Read the text about exercise. Sioned and Nia are exercising at the gym. They will each spend 30 minutes on their exercise programmes. Sioned is walking at a steady

More information

The major physiological adaptations that can directly influence exercise capacity and stamina of endurance horses include:

The major physiological adaptations that can directly influence exercise capacity and stamina of endurance horses include: Dr. John Kohnke BVSc RDA Endurance horses are trained and conditioned to perform over long distances at moderate speeds. When conditioning a horse for long distance competition, The training program must

More information

NUTRITION IN TABLE TENNIS

NUTRITION IN TABLE TENNIS ETTU COACHING CONFERENCE NUTRITION IN TABLE TENNIS Danijel Borković,dr.med. Prague, 10.10.2016 Nutrition in table tennis: introduction Specifics of table tennis as an sport Fast, high-tech sport. Most

More information

Hydration_Layout 1 07/09/ :07 Page 1. An Introduction COACHING IRELAND THE LUCOZADE SPORT EDUCATION PROGRAMME

Hydration_Layout 1 07/09/ :07 Page 1. An Introduction COACHING IRELAND THE LUCOZADE SPORT EDUCATION PROGRAMME Hydration_Layout 1 07/09/2010 15:07 Page 1 E M P O W E R I N G I R I S H S P O RT H Y D R AT I O N An Introduction Hydration_Layout 1 07/09/2010 15:07 Page 2 2 H Y D R AT I O N A N I N T R O D U C T I

More information

Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage on Cycling Endurance and Muscle Damage

Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage on Cycling Endurance and Muscle Damage Physical Fitness and Performance Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage on Cycling Endurance and Muscle Damage MICHAEL J. SAUNDERS, MARK D. KANE, and M. KENT TODD School of Kinesiology and Recreation

More information

Year/ Semester Level 1 Semester 2 DATE: 20 th May Title: Nutrition and Biochemistry CRN: 1749

Year/ Semester Level 1 Semester 2 DATE: 20 th May Title: Nutrition and Biochemistry CRN: 1749 Leeds Metropolitan University Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education Course: BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science BSc (Hons) Sports Therapy Year/ Semester Level 1 Semester 2 DATE: 20 th May 2010 Examiner:

More information

S4 Heart Rate Manual

S4 Heart Rate Manual S4 Heart Rate Manual INTRODUCTION Congratulations on your choice of the WaterRower Heart Rate Monitoring attachment. We are sure that it will greatly assist the quality of your exercise program. Exercising

More information

Jennifer Spring RD, LDN Outpatient Oncology Dietitian, North Carolina Cancer Hospital

Jennifer Spring RD, LDN Outpatient Oncology Dietitian, North Carolina Cancer Hospital Jennifer Spring RD, LDN Outpatient Oncology Dietitian, North Carolina Cancer Hospital The top 10 causes of death in the United States include: #1 = Heart disease #2 = Cancer #3 = Stroke #6 = Diabetes Decades

More information

Chemical Structures. Lecture 6: Carbohydrates. Simple Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates

Chemical Structures. Lecture 6: Carbohydrates. Simple Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates Lecture 6: Carbohydrates Nutrition 150 Shallin Busch, Ph.D. Chemical Structures Atom: The smallest components of an element that have all of the properties of an element (Whitney and Rolfes) Element: A

More information

G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION. Unit 2. Factors Affecting Fitness HEALTH AND DIET. G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:. Winterhill Physical Education Department

G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION. Unit 2. Factors Affecting Fitness HEALTH AND DIET. G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:. Winterhill Physical Education Department G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION Unit 2 Factors Affecting Fitness HEALTH AND DIET Name: G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:. INTRODUCTION TO DIET A BALANCED DIET is a very important factor in maintaining good health, and

More information

Lecture 4: Metabolism and Dieting

Lecture 4: Metabolism and Dieting This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

NAME: The measurement of BMR must be performed under very stringent laboratory conditions. For example:

NAME: The measurement of BMR must be performed under very stringent laboratory conditions. For example: NAME: HPER 3970 BODY COMPOSITION / WEIGHT MANAGEMENT / SPORT NUTRITION LABORATORY #1: ASSESSMENT OF RESTING METABOLIC RATE AND SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION DURING EXERCISE Introduction Basal Metabolic Rate /

More information

LAST CHANCE FITNESS 8 WEEK WEIGHT LOSS SYSTEM PHASE I

LAST CHANCE FITNESS 8 WEEK WEIGHT LOSS SYSTEM PHASE I LAST CHANCE FITNESS 8 WEEK WEIGHT LOSS SYSTEM PHASE I This 8 week plan if for anyone who wants to lose 16 + pounds. This first 8 weeks are designed to jump start your metabolism. This is a progressive

More information

Standard Operating Procedure

Standard Operating Procedure Standard Operating Procedure Equipment / Procedure: Filename: Assessor s name & date: Reviewer s name & date: Prediction of VO 2max Using a Modified Astrand (1960) Protocol Richard Metcalfe, 14/12/2012

More information

Aging Well Part III Basal Metabolism Rate

Aging Well Part III Basal Metabolism Rate Aging Well Part III Basal Metabolism Rate By: James L. Holly, MD Consider the following facts. If you are five-foot-eleven-inches tall, your basal metabolism rate (BMR) is: Age Male Female 20 1952 1663

More information

Lactic acid system: Advantages: not limited by oxygen delivery, medium ATP yield Disadvantages: limited by lactic acid accumulation, long recovery

Lactic acid system: Advantages: not limited by oxygen delivery, medium ATP yield Disadvantages: limited by lactic acid accumulation, long recovery 1 CHAPTER 6 Sample Answers for Chapter Discussion Questions Question #1 High energy phosphate system: * used in high power output activities (e.g., powerlifting) * uses CP and ATP as the energy fuel *

More information

BEING FUELED, HYDRATED AND COMFORTABLE

BEING FUELED, HYDRATED AND COMFORTABLE PRE-WORKOUT WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO: Optimize your fuel, hydration and comfort before training and events. Achieve adequate total carbohydrates based on your level of training. Create a winning nutrition

More information

Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007. Canine Nutrition

Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007. Canine Nutrition Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007 Main requirements : Canine Nutrition The dog is a carnivore Dogs can vary considerably at different stages of their life in their requirements for energy, fat

More information

Football Aid Training Guide Training for your match

Football Aid Training Guide Training for your match Football Aid Training Guide Training for your match If you are new to football or if you are planning to play football for the first time in a long while then it is a good idea to have a medical check

More information

Metabolic Calculations

Metabolic Calculations Metabolic Calculations Chapter 5 and Appendix D J.S. Blevins, Ph.D. ACSM PD, ES, RCEP Importance of Metabolic Calculations It is imperative that the exercise physiologist is able to interpret test results

More information

University College Hospital. Insulin Pump Advanced Bolus Options

University College Hospital. Insulin Pump Advanced Bolus Options University College Hospital Insulin Pump Advanced Bolus Options Children and Young People s Diabetes Service Introduction When you use an insulin pump, the insulin given to cover food is called an insulin

More information

So how much protein do you need if you are a hard training athlete? What are the best sources of protein?

So how much protein do you need if you are a hard training athlete? What are the best sources of protein? NUTRITION BASICS There are 3 main types of nutrient groups provided by food proteins, carbohydrates and fats. To build a quality physique requires you to make consistently good choices to ensure you get

More information

1940 avenue road toronto, ontario M5M 4A1 p f

1940 avenue road toronto, ontario M5M 4A1 p f 1940 avenue road toronto, ontario M5M 4A1 p 416.385.9277 f 416.385.9266 www.ntnaturopathic.com Nutrition Tune-Up: Nutrition for Active Women We all know that daily exercise is essential for optimal health,

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels SANCO D4/HL/mm/D440182 Working Document for Draft COMMISSION DIRECTIVE on foods intended to meet the expenditure of intense muscular effort, especially for

More information

FUEL YOU R C OMP E T I T I V E S P I R I T NUTRITION AND HYDRATION GUIDELINES FOR SERIOUS ATHLETICS

FUEL YOU R C OMP E T I T I V E S P I R I T NUTRITION AND HYDRATION GUIDELINES FOR SERIOUS ATHLETICS FUEL YOU R C OMP E T I T I V E S P I R I T NUTRITION AND HYDRATION GUIDELINES FOR SERIOUS ATHLETICS ELEVATE YOUR ENERGY Carbohydrates Are King Just like automobiles, our bodies require energy to perform.

More information

Avoiding the Wall : Why women do not need to carbohydrate load. Jamie Justice. Audience: Women s marathon running groups and charity marathon coaches

Avoiding the Wall : Why women do not need to carbohydrate load. Jamie Justice. Audience: Women s marathon running groups and charity marathon coaches 1 Avoiding the Wall : Why women do not need to carbohydrate load Jamie Justice Audience: Women s marathon running groups and charity marathon coaches The marathon s dreaded mile 18 wall is enough to give

More information

Try pancakes, waffles, french toast, bagels, cereal, English muffins, fruit or juice. These foods are all high in carbohydrates.

Try pancakes, waffles, french toast, bagels, cereal, English muffins, fruit or juice. These foods are all high in carbohydrates. Healthy Meals for Swimmers on the Go Notes on BREAKFAST - Start your day off right! Try pancakes, waffles, french toast, bagels, cereal, English muffins, fruit or juice. These foods are all high in carbohydrates.

More information

Muscle contraction. Requires energy

Muscle contraction. Requires energy UNIT 1 - Information Muscle contraction Requires energy This is produced by chemical breakdown of ATP ATP ADP + P UNIT 1 - Information There is a limited supply of ATP in muscle cells (it s usually used

More information

The Key to Natural Weight Management Support. Presented by Sabinsa Corporation

The Key to Natural Weight Management Support. Presented by Sabinsa Corporation The Key to Natural Weight Management Support Presented by Sabinsa Corporation LeanGard A bioavailable combination of natural ingredients that addresses multiple targets in weight management: Supports Lean

More information

The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the experience of fatigue during prolonged exercise

The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the experience of fatigue during prolonged exercise The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the experience of fatigue during prolonged exercise Maastricht University lonnekealbert@hotmail.com Abstract Background: Muscle fatigue occurs during prolonged exercise

More information

Nutritional Support of the Burn Patient

Nutritional Support of the Burn Patient Nutritional Support of the Burn Patient Objectives To understand the principles of normal nutrient utilization and the abnormalities caused by burn injury To be able to assess nutrient needs To be able

More information

NUTRITION OF THE BODY

NUTRITION OF THE BODY 5 Training Objectives:! Knowledge of the most important function of nutrients! Description of both, mechanism and function of gluconeogenesis! Knowledge of the difference between essential and conditionally

More information

Year/ Semester Level 1 Semester 2 DATE: 14 th May Title: Nutrition and Biochemistry CRN: 1749

Year/ Semester Level 1 Semester 2 DATE: 14 th May Title: Nutrition and Biochemistry CRN: 1749 Leeds Metropolitan University Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education Course: BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science BSc (Hons) Sports Therapy Year/ Semester Level 1 Semester 2 DATE: 14 th May 2009 Examiner:

More information

Glucose Measurements Using Blood Extracted from the Forearm and the Finger

Glucose Measurements Using Blood Extracted from the Forearm and the Finger 1 Glucose Measurements Using lood Extracted from the Forearm and the Finger Geoff McGarraugh, Sherwyn Schwartz M.., Richard Weinstein M.. Abstract. Using the FreeStyle blood glucose monitor that measures

More information

Laps to London: A Deep Dive on Optimizing Post-Workout Recovery OFFICIAL REFUEL BEVERAGE OF

Laps to London: A Deep Dive on Optimizing Post-Workout Recovery OFFICIAL REFUEL BEVERAGE OF Laps to London: A Deep Dive on Optimizing Post-Workout Recovery OFFICIAL REFUEL BEVERAGE OF Introducing Nick Folker, Trainer to Select U.S. National Team Swimmers Nick is currently the Director of Aquatic

More information

Work and Energy in Muscles

Work and Energy in Muscles Work and Energy in Muscles Why can't I sprint forever? I'll start this section with that silly question. What lies behind the undisputable observation that we must reduce speed if we want to run longer

More information