Timing van voeding voeding voor, tijdens en na inspanning. Link physical activity nutrition. Outline. The human engine

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1 Timing van voeding voeding voor, tijdens en na inspanning Lex Verdijk Congres Sport en Voeding 20 november 2015 Outline Link between physical activity and nutrition Skeletal muscle as the human engine Energy sources for skeletal muscle contraction Nutrition prior to and during exercise Fulfilling energy needs of skeletal muscle Nutrition after exercise Optimizing recovery Department of Human Biology and Movement Sciences Maastricht University Medical Centre, Netherlands n Link physical activity nutrition The human engine Physical activity needs nutrition Nutrition needs physical activity Skeletal muscle structure ATP is the universal energy donor for muscle contraction Blood vessel Bundle (fascicle) Muscle Muscle fiber = muscle cell Actin Myosin Type I fibers: endurance, oxidative, slow-twitch, long low-moderate intensity Type II fibers: strength, glycolytic, fast-twitch, short high intensity 1

2 De afbeelding kan momenteel niet worden weergegeven. Muscular energy systems Fuelling the engine: nutrition Carbohydrates Fat (Proteins) Free ATP/PCr Carbs Carbs/Fat Energy stores in the body Energy stores in the body fat carbohydrate 37 kj. g kj. g -1 fat carbohydrate 100 g large storage capacity (500 MJ) 5-7 days running limited storage (8 MJ) min running g energy turnover low energy turnover high 300 g 350 g 150 g 750 g Exercise intensity vs energy source Exercise duration vs energy source Egan-Zierath Cell Metab 2013 Egan-Zierath Cell Metab

3 Exercise intensity vs muscle fiber recruitment Endogenous fuel selection spier muscle glycogeen glycogen plasma plasma glucose glucose plasma plasma vrije fatty vetzuren acids andere intramuscular vetbronnenlipid Exercise intensity (%Wmax) Fuel needs dependent on type, intensity (fiber type recruitment), duration, and frequency of exercise Egan-Zierath Cell Metab 2013 van Loon et al., J. Physiol., 2001 Sports Nutrition Energy expenditure Tour de France Energy expenditure MJ/d Fluid intake 10 L/d The type and amount of fluid and food taken in to attain optimal exercise performance Preparation, Execution, Recovery Saris et al, Int J Sports Med, 1989 Dietary targets; fuel optimization Nutrition prior to exercise Before competition: optimize muscle glycogen stores During competition: exogenous carbohydrate administration After competition: replenish muscle glycogen stores When glycogen is limiting performance!!! 3

4 Glycogen storage prior to exercise Nutrition before competition Carbohydrate loading High-carb meals (>60-65 En%) in days before competition Use a small, carbohydrate-rich meal >2 h before start Ingest 5-8 ml/kg of a sports drink 5 min before start or during warm-up Drink plenty of water, especially when preparing for competition in the heat/humidity Get experienced with nutritional interventions Tapering Performance benefit dependent on sports activity n Nutrition during competition Carb ingestion during endurance exercise Carbohydrate intake to supplement limited endogenous carbohydrate stores (30-60 g/h) Carbohydrate Control Compensate for the loss of water and electrolytes by sweating Performance benefit during prolonged moderate-to-high intensity exercise (60-70% VO 2 max; >45 min) Performance benefit likely Stellingwerff et al, Eur. J. Physiol., 2007 Glycogen use with resistance exercise Composition of carbohydrate drink? up to 1.7 g/min g/min? Performance benefit unlikely Multiple transportable carbohydrates Koopman et al., Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 2006 Jeukendrup et al, COCNMC,

5 Other reasons to use sports drinks Dehydration % performance capacity % 0.70 L 2 % 1.40 L 3 % 2.10 L 4 % 2.80 L Up to 2 L loss per hour 60 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 % dehydration Water intake and exercise Sports drinks during exercise Reality: - registered loss > 2 L/h - maximal absorption during exercise <2 L/h ( ml) Aim: - hydration status before exercise - acclimatisation - post-exercise rehydration Coaching: - water intake is trainable! 4-8 % CHO drink (<18%) osmolality <400 mosmol iso- to hypotone glucose / maltodextrin sodium mg/l taste well 6-8 ml/kg/h ml 2-3 ml/kg per min Post-exercise recovery nutrition Optimize muscle glycogen repletion 45 Repletion of endogenous glycogen - Multiday event - Multiple sessions per day - Rapid repletion needed Repair muscle damage Facilitate long-term muscle adaptation Muscle glycogen synthesis rate Carbs Carbs+Pro Carb+carbs van Loon et al., Am. J. Clin. Nutr.,

6 Post-exercise nutrition Post-exercise recovery nutrition Co-ingestion of an insulinotropic protein, with up to 0.8 g/kg/h carbohydrate accelerates post-exercise muscle glycogen repletion Repletion of endogenous glycogen Repair muscle damage Facilitate long-term muscle adaptation Beelen et al., Int. J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab, 2010 Skeletal muscle reconditioning Muscle protein balance synthesis breakdown 1-2 % per day Exercise and nutrition??? ( %. h -1 ) Main anabolic stimuli Post-prandial muscle protein synthesis Food intake Physical activity Muscle protein synthesis (%/h) 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 Muscle Synthesis Rate +35% Basal Amino Acids Bennett et al, Clin Sci,1989 6

7 Post-exercise muscle protein synthesis Food intake and muscle protein balance 0,12 Muscle Synthesis Rate Muscle protein synthesis (%/h) 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 Control +100% Exercise Synthesis Breakdown Chesley et al, JAP1992 Burd et al., J Appl Physiol, 2008 Muscle synthesis: exercise and nutrition Muscle protein synthesis following exercise Muscle protein synthesis 0,08 0,06 0,04 0, Young Older Rust Inspanning Rest + 20g Exercise + 20g More protein into the muscle after exercise!! Breakdown Synthesis 0,03 0-0,03 Muscle net balance Water Carbs Protein Pennings et al., Am J Clin Nutr, 2010 Optimize post-exercise muscle synthesis - amount of dietary protein Amount of dietary protein - type of protein - carbohydrate co-ingestion - timing of protein ingestion - nutritional compounds 7

8 Amount of dietary protein, post-exercise Amount of dietary protein, post-exercise Moore et al., AJCN, 2009 Witard et al, AJCN 2013 Milk protein more effective than soy protein Type of protein Wilkinson et al, AJCN 2007 Training and protein supplementation Lean mass increase Timing of protein ingestion Hartman et al, AJCN

9 Timing of protein ingestion Protein ingestion after exercise Post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates are increased up to a greater extent when dietary protein is provided immediately after exercise Ingestion of protein after endurance exercise: effect on muscle protein synthesis rates to be established Levenhagen et al., Am. J. Physiol., Muscle protein synthesis during sleep Protein ingestion during overnight recovery Muscle synthesis rate Placebo Protein Res et al., Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., 2012 Training and overnight protein supplementation Nutrition during recovery Muscle mass Muscle strength - use carbohydrate recovery drinks (6-18 % CHO drink) - immediately post-exercise ( g/kg/h) - glucose / maltodextrin / multiple - protein: 2-6% ( g/kg) - additional supplements depending on aim - sodium content: up to 1200 mg/l - additional water (ample electrolytes) - taste well - combine with normal diet whenever possible Snijders et al, J Nutr

10 Sports nutrition in the past Sports nutrition in the present A practical and efficient way to ingest the required nutrients in a sports specific setting Sports nutrition in the future? Dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid Improved 10 km time-trial performance 310 * Power Output (W) Placebo Nitrate Cermak et al. Int. J. Sports. Nutr Take home - general Physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. Appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices will facilitate optimal health and performance. Nutritional needs are dependent on type, intensity (muscle fiber type recruitment), duration, and frequency of exercise Endurance: focus on fuel before, during, and after exercise Resistance: focus on building blocks after exercise Nutritional strategies need to take the aim of the exercise into account. Optimal performance, optimal adaptation, or merely health promotion (e.g. maintain fitness, lose weight, improve body composition, etc)?! Take home - performance Maximize fuel stores before exercise Provide additional carbohydrates during exercise longer than 60 min at moderate to high intensity (30-60 g/h) Provide carbohydrate (20-60 g) and protein (20-25 g) shortly after exercise (for glycogen stores and muscle repair/growth) Maintain hydration status before, during, and after exercise Incorporate in diet when possible Practice on individual basis to get experienced with individual needs, and limit GI discomfort 10

11 Quoting Jack LaLanne Sport en Voeding Exercise is King Nutrition is Queen Put them together and you have a Kingdom Acknowledgements Sponsors and collaborators M3 research group 11

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