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1 BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PLANT PATHOLOGY SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE Pl. Path 604

2 What is biotechnology? Biology+ technology i.e. involves the exploitation of biological agents or their components for generating userful products/ services Biotechnology can be defined as the use of living microorganisms in systems or processes for the manufacture of useful products, it may be algae, yeast, fungi, bacteria, virus or cells of higher plants and animals or their subsystems or isolated components from living matter (Gibbs and Greenhalgh, 1983)

3 Biotech- Blend of technologies An interdisciplinary activity- of basic sciences and engineering Microbiology Chemistry & Biochemistry Genetics Molecular Biology Immunology Physiology Engineering

4 Old & New Biotechnology Though the term biotech. is of recent origin but the discipline itself is very old Man started exploiting/ employing organisms as early as 5000 BC for making wine, vinegar and curd etc. Such processes which are based on capabilities of micro-organism etc. are commonly considered as old biotechnology

5 1 st world war prompted the use of microorganisms for the production of different product on commercial scale Old Biotechnology German were forced to develop technology for the production of glycerol (used for production of explosives) due to disruption of vegetable oil by Britishers British produced acetone-butanol fermentation using Clostridium acteobutylicum due to German interference with normal supply of these. Production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger due to destruction of citrus orchards in world war I. Production of penicillin (Penicillium notatum)

6 Ancient Biotechnology Fermentation- the bulk of modern biotech industry was known to our ancestors- Dravidians and Aryans approx. four thousand yrs ago By early 20 th century the microorganisms were exploited to produce specific products such as citric acid from sugar and acetone from corn mash In 1928, Scottish microbiologist, Alexander Fleming isolated antibiotic producing mold (Penicillium notatum) and named the chemical Penicillin Penicillin was used to save thousands of lives during World War II

7 Since then man continued his quest for : Improving the natural capabilities of microorganisms, Making them capable of novel processes and Discovering microorganisms with new capabilities all these thrusts have led to the development of Recombinant DNA technology which allows man to modify organisms and other microorganisms to create in them highly valuable novel and naturally non-existent capabilities New Biotechnology

8 Eg. Human insulin genome transferred and expressed into E. coli and insulin produced by these genetically engineered microbes (GEMs), being used to manage diabetes. Improvement of crop varieties for useful traits. Transgenic plants resistant to viral infection e.g. Papaya ring spot virus These few and numerous examples constitute New Biotechnology

9 Scope and Importance Biotech. has rapidly emerged as an area of activity having marked impact on almost all domains of human welfare ranging from: Plant sciences, Food processing, protecting environment, protection, production and productivity, trade, economics and economy Human health Employment: being new and emerging field require huge infrastructure and Human Resource

10 Commercial potential Unlimited potential In 1991, about 130 biotechnologically derived pharmaceuticals were under review in USA Contribution of Biotech products to global market was between $ billion and it is on the rise. Similarly in India demand fro such products was around Rs 27 billion for 1995 and Rs 55 billion by 2002 Major share of this demand was in Human health Industrial products Agriculture sector.

11 Biotechnology in Plant Pathology Molecular Detection and identification of plant pathogens Identification and tagging of resistance genes (MAS) Development of resistant cultivars Gene pyramiding Exploitation of biocontrol agents in disease/ pest management Strain improvement Development of resistant transgenics

12 Biotechnology in India Importance of Biotech. Highlighted in 69 th session of Indian Science Congress held at Mysore, 1982 National Biotechnology Board established DBT under the ministry of Science and technology Biotechnology Research Centers: IARI NDRI, Karnal IVRI, Izat Nagar National research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, IARI (1993)

13 Areas To Cover Adoption & Benefits Regulatory Policy Liability

14 Improvements most often delivered through biotechnology Herbicide tolerance Enable improved weed control measures Insect resistance Enable improved pest management Disease resistance Papaya Tomato Capsicum

15 Products in the Market High-performance cooking oils -- reduce need for processing, create healthier food products (sunflower, peanuts, soybeans) Delayed-ripening fruits and vegetables -- superior flavor, color, texture (tomatoes) Food enzymes -- purer, more stable form of chymosin used in cheese production -- the first biotechnology food product Transgenic plant resistant to Viruses and pests.

16 Global Area of Transgenic Crops, 1996 to 2000: By Crop (million hectares) Soybean Corn Cotton Canola Source: Clive James, 2000

17 Crops improved through biotechnology that are grown most frequently: Soybeans Corn Cotton Canola

18 Global Area of Transgenic Crops, 1996 to 2000: By Trait (million hectares) Herbicide tolerance Insect resistance Herbicide tolerance / Insect resistance Source: Clive James, 2000

19 Global Area of Transgenic Crops, 1996 to 2000; Industrial and Developing Countries (million hectares) Industrial Developing Source: Clive James, 2000

20 Global Area Adoption Rates (%) for Principal Transgenic Crops (million hectares) Nontransgenic Transgenic Soybean Cotton Canola Maize Source: Clive James, 2000

21 Biotech Crops-Percent of Plantings - U.S Soybeans Cotton Corn 1999 figures are based on a survey of BIO member seed sales figures are based on USDA/NASS 2003 figures are estimates of USDA, NASS 3/31/

22 Biotech Crop Plantings-U.S Soybeans Cotton Corn * *2003 estimates, USDA, NASS 3/31/03

23 Biotech crops in india (2011) India grew 7% 160 of the global biotech crop hectarage of million hectares in There are 16 biotech crops in field trials in India including Bt maize, HT maize and Bt/HT maize which, subject to regulatory approval could be deployed commercially within 2 to 3 years Agri-biotech industry annual revenues grew consistently during the 2002 to 2011 period: agribiotech industry market increased 22-fold from Rs.110 crore (US$25 million) in to Rs crore (US$551 million) in

24 Economic Impact With crops improved through biotechnology, the key commodity is information, and this is carried in the seed itself. Further, its delivery is scale neutral and not capital intensive for the farmer.

25 Through the 8 crop varieties widely planted in the U.S. to date, biotechnology has: Increased yields by 4 billion pounds Saved growers $1.2 billion annually Reduced pesticide use by 46 million pounds annually -Leonard Gianessi National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy

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