CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. (Levin, 1983 : 56). It means that literature is the medium of expression of whatever

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Literature is the expression of society as speech is the expression of man (Levin, 1983 : 56). It means that literature is the medium of expression of whatever happens in the society. It becomes a picture of one s life, his success or failure and his experiences in his lifetime. Broadly, literature is the picture of a social condition of a country and even telling a history. Specifically, Zeraffa (1973 : 40) states, the novel was born and established itself as a genre on account of, and to account for, historical and social phenomena. Therefore, the novel tries to reveal the condition of a society and history, in a given time. The statement supported by Levin (1983 : 62) states that : the relation between literature and society is reciprocal literature which is not only the effect of social causes but also the cause of social effect. Literary work has some functions in life such as the entertainment and as social documents. That because the common approach to the relation of literature and society is the study of literary work as social document, as assumed pictures of social reality. Rene Wellek and Austin Warren in Theory of literature mentioned, literature was primarily a treasury of costumes and customs, a source book for the history of civilization, especially of chivalry and its decline. As a social document, literature can be made to yield the outlines of social history (103 ). One of the novel that shows social phenomenon is The Diary of Young Girl by Anne Frank. It is based on the true story of Anne Frank. The novel is diary which is written in Dutch language which was kept by Anne Frank while she was in hiding 1

2 for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation in the Netherlands. Anne wrote her activity and her feeling inside her diary. She wrote her situation about Jews live in that period. The novel is about Anne frank s diary, which tells her daily activities. It is started from her feeling as a child of a Jewish family to the political condition in that period. They had to run away and went into the hiding place because the Nazi had started to capture and imprisoned all Jews. That what makes Anne father brought her family to the hiding in the secret pavilion. Secret pavilion was an office building in the central Amsterdam in the Netherlands. Anne s father and his friend as the owner of that building made a secret room behindthe building for them for living and hiding. In that secret pavilion Anne wrote in her diary about her condition. She also wrote why they should receive different treatment from other people who are not Jews. Anne and her family hide in the secret pavilion for almost two years, along with another family with three members and a doctor. There were a total of eight Jews hide in there. On August 4, 1944 the gestapo penetrated into the Frank s hiding place. On september Anne and her family among the last shipment of a thousand Jews left Holland. While the train arrived in German, on the platform men and woman were separated. It was the last Anne with her sister and her mother see her father. They were treated like prisoners and should work twelve hours a day. In October 1944 Anne, her sister, and their mother were selected to be moved to Belsen in German. They were seperated from each other. They were died in their respecting camps soon afterwards, Anne was died because of thypoid fever. After the war ended Otto Frank Anne s father returned to Amsterdam. Otto was the only member of that family who still survived. He got Anne diary from his friends in that pavilion. 2

3 In the novel The Diary of Young Girl there is fascism ideology will be analyzed in this thesis. Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th century Europe. Once in power of Adolf Hitler turned Germany into a fascist state. Fascist was originally used to describe the government of Benito Mussolini in Italy. Mussolini's fascist one party state emphasized patriotism, national unity, hatred of communism, admiration of military values and unquestioning obedience. Hitler was deeply influenced by Mussolini's Italy and his Germany shared many of the same characteristics. Hitler and the Nazis blamed the decline in Germany s power on Jews and radicals and preached the supermacy of the so called German Aryan race. Hitler declared aryas is the master race creators of all civilization and fitted by nature to rule the world. Jews and fascist are the topics that are very interesting to be discussed. Both of them are the most remembered in the history of German. There are some literary works such as a novel tells a story about it. Most of that novel takes from true story by experience of Jews people in that time. It is because world war left dark story about Jews people in the world. Some of that story came from true story of the Jews people that run and hiding. And how they struggle to be a life and being normal people. Readers may wonder why Jews are persecuted by Nazi. From that question why the title of this paper was made. This paper is the analysis why Jews as the victim of the fascism. Hitler s most virulent racial attacks were directed againts the Jews. Despite the many distinguished contributions Jews had made to German life over the centuries, Hitler s propaganda described them as an alien, inferior race. They were the orginators of all those doctrines hostile to Nazi aims communism, facifism, internationalism, christianity. In Hitler s view, as long as Jews remained in 3

4 German, they were a constant source of ideological infection and a threat to German racial purity. By this background, historical approach is suitable approach to analyzing this paper. Historical approach is one of the method to analyze literary work in which the author and the reader comprehend the message of the literary work by remembering the moment or historic moment a long with the literary work written.this analysis is analyzed based on the event that happened in the past where connected with problem in this study. First, find out about history of fascism. And then, find impact of fascism toward Jews. This is connected with German under Adolf Hitler and Nazi occupation. Collect all the data about the fascism, and then connect that data between fascism and the Jews. The problem in the novel is one of social problem in that time. This is what studying in sociology of literature. Literature is not just a study about literay work. In literature there is sociology of literature. By studying sociology literature someone can identify the problem in society. Literature is the reflection of society itself. Some literary work such as novel, drama, poetry are inspire from real life. Sometime not just inspire but some of that literary work cames from true story such as this novel. By analyze the literary work can take knowledge about the problem in society. Generally, a literary work expresses and reflects human problems. Literature basically talks about life. The discussion about literature can portray the artistic values. However, studying about it, frequently gives such a description of human experience. As a means of the social creation, literature usually reveals the situation or the problems that occur in social life. Thus, literature can be defined as a term used to describe written or spoken material or the attempt to describe human experience by means of the written word. (Usrotun Sa idah, 2008: 1) 4

5 Sociology of literature derived from the sociology and literature. Literature is a reflection of society. Through literature, the author reveals the problems of life. Literary works are influenced by the society and at the same time able to make an impact on society. Sociology can be defined as the science or systematic knowledge about the life of human group in relation to other human beings is generally called society. The sociology literature is a subfield of the sociology of culture. It studies the social production of literature and its social implication. 1.2Problem of the Study The focus of this proposal is to analyze of fascism against Jews in The Diary of Young Girl by anne frank. Therefore, the questions are addressed in this thesis are: 1. What is the ideology of fascism reflected in Anne Frank s The Diary of Young Girl? 2. What are the impacts of fascism toward Jews in Anne Frank s The Diary of Young Girl? 1.3 Objective of the Study 1. To identify the ideology of fascism in Anne Frank s The Diary of Young Girl. 2. To identify the impacts of fascism toward Jews in Anne Frank s The Diary of Young Girl. 1.4 Scope of the Study 5

6 In doing analysis, scope is needed to determine the limitation of the problem that will be discussed. The scope of the analysis the novel The Diary of Young Girl is limited on the impact of facsism toward Jews under Nazi occupation. 1.5 Significance of the Study The significance of the analysing of Anne Frank s novel The Diary of Young Girl, is to reveal the tragedy of human life. To show the readers about unbearable suffering because of fascism ideology by the Nazi 's authority and this tragedy is expected not to recur in the history of mankind. This paper is made to answer why Jews as the victim of fascism and the ideology of fascism. The readers are expected know about the fascism and the condition of Jews under Nazi occupation. By reading this thesis, we may improve our horizon and the knowledge of the students about social condition in the past. Expecting to make people understand with social problem in other people experience. 6

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