Polar Route Operations

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1 AC AOC-19(0) 23 July 2010 Advisory Circular Polar Route Operations General... 1 Purpose... 1 Applicability... 1 Cancellation... 1 Effective Date... 1 References... 1 Definition... 2 Introduction... 2 Considerations... 2 Fuel Freeze Strategy and Monitoring... 2 Cold fuel Management Procedure... 2 Navigation... 3 Communication... 3 Radiation... 3 In-flight Diversion... 3 Designation of En-route Alternate Airports... 3 Recovery Plan... 4 Training... 4 Minimum Equipment List (MEL)... 4 Flight Validation GENERAL. Advisory Circulars (ACs) are issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) and contain information about standards, practices and procedures acceptable to the Authority. The revision number of the AC is indicated in parenthesis in the suffix of the AC number. 2 PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance to the operator applying for operational approval for Polar Route Operations. 3 APPLICABILITY. This AC applies to all Singapore AOC holders. 4 CANCELLATION. This is the first AC issued on this subject. 5 EFFECTIVE DATE. This AC is effective from 23 July REFERENCES. The following materials were referred to for the development of this AC: Boeing AERO series Publication on Polar Route Navigation; FAA Order Flight Standard Information Management System; and FAA AC B AC AOC-19(0) July 2010

2 7 DEFINITIONS. 7.1 Polar Regions are defined as follows: North Polar Region the entire area that lies north of latitude 78º00 North; and South Polar Region the entire area that lies south of latitude South. 8 INTRODUCTION. 8.1 Operations using the Polar routes are likely to involve long duration and range. Hence, it is important that operators should refer to AOCR Chapter 4, paragraph 21 and Appendices C1 and C2 for ULR requirements for which an Authority approval is required. 8.2 Before commencement of operations using Polar routes, operator must ensure that approval from the Authority has been granted. 8.3 Should there be any in-flight diversion to airfields in the Polar region, the operator must ensure it has an operational plan to ensure safety, cater to physiological needs and expeditious evacuation of passenger and crew. This plan should cover but not limited to the equipment required and the configuration of the airplane. 9 CONSIDERATIONS. 9.1 The Polar Regions have some of the harshest landscapes and atmospheric environments with challenges that require special considerations. 9.2 The following are some of the areas of particular concern associated with Polar operations: (f) Fuel Freeze and cold fuel management; Anomalies associated with Magnetic and True heading references due to the area of magnetic unreliability (AMU) and converging meridians when nearing the Pole; Limitations on use of HF, VHF and satellite communication; Space weather activity affecting air navigation, human health and HF communication; In-flight diversion and evacuation of passengers and crew from a diversion airport; and En-route alternate airports. 10 FUEL FREEZE STRATEGY AND MONITORING The operator may develop his fuel freeze strategy and monitoring programme in lieu of using the standard minimum fuel freeze temperatures for specific types of fuel used. In such cases, the operator s fuel freeze analysis and monitoring programme for the aeroplane fuel load is subjected to Authority approval The operator should have established procedures that require coordination between maintenance, dispatch and assigned flight crew to convey the determined fuel freeze temperature of the fuel load on board the aeroplane. 11 COLD FUEL MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE During long flight duration in very cold air mass, the fuel temperature could potentially approach freezing point. It is imperative that a cold fuel management procedure be developed for dispatch and in-flight use. AC AOC-19(0) July 2010

3 12 NAVIGATION Operators are to provide information and procedures with regard to the use of Magnetic and True directional references for navigation through the area of magnetic unreliability (AMU) and near or over the True Geographical Pole. 13 COMMUNICATION Effective voice communications and/or data-link capability must be available for all portions of the flight route. There must be an established communication plan and may be accomplished using HF voice, HF data-link, SATCOM voice or SATCOM data-link Solar flare activity prediction and its effects must be taken into consideration when dispatching a flight using polar route/s. Note 1: It is recognised that SATCOM may not be available for short periods during flights over the poles. Note 2: Communication capability with HF radios may also be affected during periods of solar flare activity. 14 RADIATION The operator must regularly monitor space weather activity and provide radiation forecast to the crew A clear dispatch policy guideline on Solar, Electromagnetic and/or Geomagnetic Radiation must also be in place. Note: For further information on Radiation refer to: FAA AC Radiation Exposure of Air Carrier Crewmember. FAA AC Crewmember Training on in-flight Radiation Exposure. 15 IN-FLIGHT DIVERSION Apart from engine failure, an in-flight decision to divert could be caused by events including but not confined to: medical alerts; depressurisation; hydraulic failure; and smoke warning in cargo-hold, in-flight entertainment system or Avionics An in-flight diversion within the Polar Region should take into account remoteness of the region, weather conditions as well as limited supporting facilities. In this regard the operator should develop appropriate procedures and processes to facilitate decision-making for in-flight diversion Guidelines on medical emergencies, especially when no medical personnel are found on board, must be provided. 16 DESIGNATION OF EN-ROUTE ALTERNATE AIRPORTS An operator should designate a set of alternate airports, regardless of their distance from the planned route, such that one or more can reasonably be expected to be available in a variety of weather conditions, to support a diversion. AC AOC-19(0) July 2010

4 16.2 The aeroplane must be able to make a safe landing and manoeuvre off the runway at the selected diversion airport. The airport must also have capability to remove disabled aeroplane following landing, so as not to block the operation of a recovery aircraft In addition, these designated airports should be capable of protecting the safety of all personnel by being able to: deplane the passengers and crew in a safe manner during possible adverse weather conditions; provide for the physiological needs of passengers and crew for the duration of the stay until safely evacuated, and safely and expeditiously extract passengers and crew. Note: A time frame of 12 to 48 hours for execution and completion of a recovery is considered acceptable. 17 RECOVERY PLAN. A very important aspect of an unplanned diversion in the Polar Regions is the recovery plan. In addition to paragraph 9.2 above, the operator: should demonstrate his ability to launch and conduct the recovery plan during initial application for Polar route approval; and must conduct annual audit of his recovery plan for accuracy and completeness. 18 TRAINING. The operator should address the following training requirements in his approved training programmes: (f) (g) (h) QFE/ QNH and meter/feet conversions (required for flight crew and dispatch); Fuel freeze (training for maintenance, dispatch, and flight crew); Route-specific training on weather patterns; Relevant aircraft system limitations e.g. fuel temperature limits; Maintenance control role in providing aeroplane systems capability information to dispatch and flight crew to aid pilot-in-command in diversion decision-making; Crew training on the use of arctic suits; Dispatch and crew considerations during Solar flare activity; and Training of flight crew and dispatcher for role in the operator s passenger recovery plan. 19 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST. The following MEL items must be serviceable and carried on board: Fuel Quantity Indicating System and fuel tank temperature indicating system; Auxiliary Power Unit including pneumatic and electrical power; Auto-thrust system; AC AOC-19(0) July 2010

5 Communication system(s) relied on by the flight crew to satisfy the requirement for effective communication capability; and Expanded medical kit to include automated external defibrillator (AED). 20 FLIGHT VALIDATION In order to receive approval to conduct Polar operations, the operator must complete a successful Authority-observed validation flight which should include demonstration of its reaction and recovery plan in the event of a diversion to one of its designated en-route alternate airports with emphasis on: Communications; Coordination; Facilities; Accuracy of NOTAM and weather information; and Operability of ground equipment during the simulated diversion For aeroplane weight and balance purposes, revenue cargo may be carried in a validation flight The Authority may permit the operator to complete the reaction and recovery plan exercise prior to validation flight. In such case, the validation flight may be conducted with commercial passengers on board. AC AOC-19(0) July 2010

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