Briefly review music theory units

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1 Framework for Lesson Plans It is important that students are always being presented with new concepts or elements while simultaneously practicing known concepts in each lesson. In your introductory lecture, ask students to memorize melodies found on the audio CD for Chapter 1. Homework for Chapter 1 should include the memorization of melodies for Chapter 2, found on the audio CD. Introduction 1. Vocal warm- up 2. Review through performance Main Section 1. Review homework assignments Vocal warm- ups can include the singing of simple canons. Review known main melodies from previous chapters, singing with solfège and/or rhythmic syllables. Briefly review music theory units 2. Preparation and presentation of new music theory concepts Sing and move. If you re working on a rhythmic concept, students need to sing while performing the beat and clapping the rhythm. If you re working on melody, students need to sing and clap the melodic contour. Work on the new concept you re presenting. Follow the procedures outlined in the book. 1. Guide students to listen, sing, and memorize the new song. 2. Guide students to analyze what they hear; ask them questions concerning what they ve been singing. 3. Guide students to construct a representation of what they ve been singing from memory. Have them exchange their representation with a friend in the class. Let the whole class sing the song and point to their friend s representation. Once you ve done that, ask them to talk about two things: (1) what they wrote that was the same and (2) what they wrote that was different. Address the newly learned concept like this:

2 3. Assign Homework 1. As the instructor, sing the song with the appropriate rhythm or solfège syllables. Do this with the class several times: all together, or with the class divided in two, or in small groups, or individually any way you d like as long as they re singing with the appropriate syllables. 2. Present the notation. Have the students copy the notation in some way that challenges them. If you re working on a melodic element, have the students write it in a different key. If you re working on a rhythmic element, have the students write it in a different meter. You can ask one student to do this activity at the board. 3. Put the newly learned concept into practice through singing, writing (assign selected exercises from Section 2 to do as a class), assigning exercises from the Skills CD, and assigning keyboard performance exercises from the companion website. 4. Listening: Locate the How to Read A Musical Score sections at chapter ends. Perform the pieces. Working as a class, identify as many aspects of the scores as appropriate to the level of learning. 5. Improvise and compose using the newly learned melodic or rhythmic element or concept. Close: Sing known focus melodies or canons to end the class

3 Introduction: The lesson introduction is divided into two sections. Section one of the lesson introduction begins with vocal warm- up exercises. Vocalizations and humming are valuable exercises for developing beautiful singing. Students should vocalize high and low sounds as well as soft and loud sounds to develop the full range of their voice. Songs sung using the oo sound are particularly good for developing intonation. Vocal exercises should be an initial part of each music lesson. Examples of vocal warm- ups can be found on the audio CD. The following are sample vocal warm- up exercises. Yawning Sighing Humming Descending Scale Pattern Slide Whistle Flashlight Beam Sirens and Roller Coasters Call- and- Response Songs This opens up the back of the throat and relaxes the voice. This is a gentle way of using a higher voice than you usually speak with. Try sighing a few times, starting each sigh a half step higher than the last. Use an open vowel sound. This is a gentle (and quiet) way of using the singing voice. Humming a favorite song before singing it also gives students an opportunity to practice the song s melody without being distracted by the text. Sing songs that begin with a descending vocal scale pattern using neutral syllables; this enables accurate intonation in addition to developing the head voice. Students imitate the sounds of a slide whistle to develop their head voice. Students vocally follow a flashlight beam projected on a wall or board; students follow the contour of the moving beam of light. Students vocally imitate the sound of a siren and roller coaster. Repeating simple melodic patterns helps develop students intonation; the repetition of simple melodic patterns helps to secure the placement of each pitch. Students should also sing canons taught to them by the instructor. Section Two of the lesson introduction begins with a review of known material that is sung with solfège and rhythm syllables. It is important to keep practicing these patterns aurally. Melodic examples should also be sung with numbers as well as letter names and neutral syllables. Rhythm examples should be sung with numbers (counting) and neutral syllables.

4 Main Section of Lesson Plan The main part of the lesson plan has four subsections. Section One begins with the review and correction of all homework assignments for class. This could also include asking students to write down rhythms of known melodies or complete melodies on the staff. Section Two is the preparation and presentation of new melodic or rhythmic concepts. The following are some strategies for preparing rhythmic and melodic elements. Procedures for Preparing Rhythmic Elements Echo clapping Melodic contour and rhythm Perform rhythm and beat at the same time Conduct Aural analysis Visual representation Procedures for Preparing Melodic Elements Melodic contour Melodic contour and rhythm Echo singing Writing Aural analysis Clap the rhythm of a melody or a rhythmic pattern. Demonstrate the melodic contour of the song while clapping the rhythm. Divide the class into two groups one group performing the rhythmic pattern, the other keeping the beat. This activity may be practiced in different combinations: 1. instructor/class, 2. class /instructor, 3. divided class, 4. two individual students, 5. student keeps the beat with one hand and taps the rhythm with the other hand, 6. perform the rhythm and beat at the same time Sing and conduct at the same time. Identify which beat or beats contain the new rhythmic element Create a beat chart and write solfège syllables on each beat to indicate the number of sounds within the beat. Demonstrate the melodic contour of a melody with arm motions. Motions should be natural and appropriate to the text and tempo of the song. Demonstrate the melodic contour while clapping the rhythm of a melody. Sing melodic patterns sung or played by the instructor. Write the rhythm of a melody spatially. Identify which beat or beats contain the new melodic element.

5 Visual representation Create a representation using solfège syllables written spatially to indicate the position of the new melodic element. Once a concept is taught the instructor should choose from a variety of musicianship skills to practice a new rhythmic or melodic element. Developing ear- training abilities and mastering sight- singing normally takes many hours of practice. Practice sessions after the presentation of a new element can be made more efficient by using a variety of practice techniques. Practicing in small groups is valuable for students on many levels. In addition to sharpening their listening skills by evaluating each other's performances, students who practice with their peers are far more secure in their performance when called on in class. Procedures for Practicing Rhythmic Elements Rhythm syllables Conducting Echo singing Aural Dictation Writing Improvise rhythm patterns Writing Perform a rhythmic canon Procedures for Practicing Melodic Elements Conducting Hand signs Sing a melody with rhythm syllables while tapping the beat. Sing with rhythm syllables while conducting. Echo sing rhythm syllables to a rhythm pattern clapped by the instructor. Identify the meter and rhythm patterns clapped or sung by the instructor Change a rhythm pattern from a given pattern into a new rhythm pattern. One person writes a sixteen- beat pattern, then claps a slightly different pattern. The other person must identify where the changes occur. Select a meter and length for the pattern then determine the rhythmic form (for example, ABA or ABAB) to use. Students memorize a phrase of a melody and write it from memory. a. Say rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm. b. Think the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. c. Clap the rhythm in canon with someone else. d. Perform the rhythmic canon by yourself. Clap one part with one hand and the other part with the other. Sing song or solfège syllables and conduct. Sing solfège syllables and show hand signs. Rhythm and hand signs Sight singing from hand signs Memory Sing solfège syllables while showing hand signs. Sing solfège syllables or show hand signs for a pattern; ask another student to sing it back. Memorize an exercise and notate it without referring to the book. First analyze the form by looking for repetition and

6 Error Detection similar patterns. This helps simplify the task. Select a phrase of music. One person plays the selection, deliberately making a melodic mistake. Another person follows the score and locates the error. Developing musical memory as a prelude to developing dictation skills Musical memory plays an important role in singing accurately and being able to recall a pattern for the purposes of dictation. The following suggested techniques can be helpful. Memorizing by ear is more difficult than memorizing from notation, as it involves no visual aid. Melodies used for memorizing by ear should be easier than those used with notation. Extracts should be played on the piano or another instrument and sung a few times. The following procedures may be used for both rhythmic and melodic memorization. When students have gained experience in unison memory work, they can begin to memorize two- part extracts. Accompaniments may be drawn from a rhythmic pattern, a rhythmic or melodic ostinato, chord roots, a contrapuntal melodic line, or typical cadential idioms in modal or harmonic music. Memorize from hand signs Memorize from staff notation Memorizing by ear 1. Show typical melodic patterns and ask the students to sing patterns back. Start with short patterns such as s - l - s - m or m - f - m - r - m. 2. Once melodic patterns can be echoed with ease, progress to singing four and eight beat melodies. 3. Show a melody in hand signs. Select pentatonic melodies or rounds. The students sing the melody in canon using solfa or absolute letter names and write the example from memory. 4. Sing a known melody with absolute letter names while using hand signs. 1. Memorize a short fragment of a musical example from a score using hand signs. 2. The instructor sings the unknown part of a musical example. Students memorize and sing the motifs. 3. Students write the melody on staff paper. At a more advanced level, the students can write the example in another key using a different clef. The instructor plays a melody on the keyboard, students: 1. Identify the meter. 2. Identify the ending and starting pitches. 3. Students sing and conduct.

7 4. Students sing with hand signs. 5. Students sing with absolute pitch names and hand signs. 6. Students sing with rhythm syllables. Memorizing two- part examples Error detection 7. Students write or play it back on the piano. The example may be transposed. 1. Sing the two- part example. 2. Memorize one part silently using solfa. 3. Sing that part out loud while conducting. 4. Practice the other part following steps 1 through Sing both parts in a group and then as solos, using both solfège syllables and note names. 6. Write both parts of the extract. 7. Sing one part and play the other on the piano, or sing one part and show the second part with hand signs. Select a phrase of music. One person plays the selection, deliberately making a melodic mistake. Another person follows the score and locates the error. Sight Singing The sight- singing exercises may be memorized and notated. Prior to sight singing Sight singing Memorize Practice Practice basic rhythmic and melodic patterns from the sight- reading exercise with the students while the students follow the staff notation. Difficult rhythms should be practiced with a suitable rhythmic ostinato or subdivision of the beat. Sing these preparatory exercises in the same key as the reading example. Exercises should be sung in solfége, letter names and neutral syllables. 1. Discuss the meter and key. Determine an appropriate tempo. 2. Determine the form. Look for repeated patterns. 3. Ask students to think through the melody. Students may conduct or use hand signs while thinking through the melody. 4. Students sing the exercise while conducting. Memorize the example and notate it if appropriate. Read melodic patterns not associated with rhythms; read a serious of notes on the staff or a series of solfège syllables. Instructors should devise a variety of ways to practice a reading exercise. For example: read the melody backwards; read a unison melody while clapping a rhythmic ostinato; sing a melody in canon at the fifth (reading only the first voice).

8 Dictation Dictation is closely linked to the development of musical memory, inner hearing, and reading and writing skills. Memory is essential for successful musical dictation. Beginning dictations should be based on patterns that have been memorized by the students. As the student's memory develops, the instructor can begin more formal dictation practice. Initially students should sing the melody before attempting to notate it. In this way, the instructor can determine whether students are hearing the example accurately. Initial dictation material can be based on simple folk music. Later, music of other styles may be added. The following procedures may be used for rhythm dictation. Prepare the example Instructor performs Students perform Students write Instructor plays the musical example The instructor plays a melody on the piano; students determine the meter and the number of bars. Instructor plays the musical example while students conduct. Students conduct and sing using rhythm syllables Instructor provides the meter, Students write the dictation with stick or traditional notation. Instructor plays the musical example students check their written work. Students may write this example in other meters or use the rhythm as the basis for a melodic improvisation. The following procedures may be used for melodic dictation. Prepare the key Sing typical melodic patterns Perform the melody Aural Analysis Students perform Students perform Prepare the key with hand signs and staff notation Sing typical melodic patterns found in the dictation. Students sing using solfège syllables and letter names. During beginning stages of formal dictation the instructor may also give the student a score with the bar lines indicated and certain notes or rhythms filled in to aid students' memory. Perform the melody on the piano or another instrument. Students determine the meter. Students conduct and sing the examples with rhythm syllables. Students determine the final note and the beginning note as well as some or all of the following, as appropriate: mode, melodic cadences, melodic contour, patterns, and meter. Students sing the melody using rhythm syllables and hand signs. Students sing the melody using solfège syllables and absolute letter

9 Students write Students perform names. Students write the melody from memory. Instructor provides the meter and the key Students sing the melody from their score. This melody may be used to practice additional skills; transpose it into other keys or practice the intervals in the melody. Ensemble Work Singing and playing part music are important aspects of musical training. This enables the student to learn to hear several voices simultaneously. The following procedures may be used for developing two- part singing. Perform Perform Ensemble work Develop two- part singing Performing two- part music Sing folk songs or other exercises while clapping the beat or the rhythm. Sing folk songs, dividing the singing by phrases in call- and- response style. This enables Group I to hear what Group 2 sings, and vice versa. Add a rhythmic ostinato and sing using rhythm syllables 1. Students sing while instructor claps the rhythm. 2. Students and instructor exchange parts. 3. Divide the students into two groups, one group sings and another performs the rhythm. 4. Two students perform the work. 5. One student may sing one voice while playing the other voice on the piano. 6. Students clap a series of rhythmic patterns while singing a known song. 7. Sing in two parts from hand signs. This helps students see the intervals spatially. 8. Sing simple pentatonic folk songs in canon. 9. Sing a well- known song and at the same time clap various rhythms indicated by the instructor. The students may also read an exercise while the instructor improvises an extended rhythmic ostinato. The students must sing and listen at the same time, then try to recall the rhythmic pattern. Begin with simple, familiar patterns. 10. Sing one part and clap the second part simultaneously. 1. If the two- part selection is a folk song, teach the song first either by rote or from the music, then teach the second part.

10 2. Divide the class into two groups. Group A sings the top line while group B sings the bottom. Reverse. 3. Group A sing the bottom line and Group B claps the top. Reverse. 4. Perform the work as a group and then with soloists. Individuals may then sing any part while clapping the other or may sing one part and play the other part on the piano. Section four of the lesson plan is the assignment of homework and allows students to further practice new elements in combination with music skills. Close of Lesson The instructor reviews the concepts taught in the lesson and ends with the singing of known canons or melodies.

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