GCSE Music Unit 4 (42704) Guidance

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1 GCSE Music Unit 4 (42704) Guidance (There are recordings to accompany this document.) The Task Students will be required to compose one piece of music which explores two or more of the five areas of study. The composition may be in any style or genre of the student s choosing. Compositions may be drawn from influences within the three strands, but this is not necessary or obligatory. In practice, it may well be that the submitted composition encompasses most if not all of the five areas of study but it should still be possible to produce a composition that will focus on a minimum of two if so desired. It is envisaged that this approach will allow for flexibility and encourage diversity and creativity. It may well be that in the embryonic stages of the composition, for some students, the focus of the work in terms of the chosen areas of study will be unclear or even undecided. This is perfectly acceptable. As the composition progresses, the student will become aware of the direction the piece is taking and two or more areas of study will probably appear to be more prominent or important than others. In these cases, it is perfectly acceptable for the focus of the composition to change and evolve as the work progresses. This is part of the compositional process and will help students to understand the nature of composition as a developmental activity. The fact that the areas of study are closely related to the musical elements will allow teachers to focus on each area separately if so desired so that students can gain a greater understanding of each in isolation prior to embarking on a major project requiring the use of two or more. Approach and suitable tasks It is impossible to suggest or recommend any individual approach to composition and this section is not intended to give a prescriptive fully developed scheme that teachers feel the need to follow. It is however, probably wise to avoid a genre based approach given to all students since experience of students composing at this level has demonstrated that frequently, the best work is produced in circumstances where: teachers draw upon the musical strengths of the individual students, focusing on their preferred listening styles, performing skills and ability to use technology effectively teachers teach students to use specific compositional techniques that can be applied to a wide variety of musical genres and styles teachers use non-prescriptive topics where students have been encouraged to develop their own briefs in conjunction with their own musical interests. AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number ) and a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (number ). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.

2 Much will depend on the experiences of students at key stage 3 and these will vary enormously within different educational establishments. Resources within different schools will also vary enormously. However, it is hoped that schools and colleges will develop schemes of work that will allow for flexibility in approach, to enable each student to follow a pathway that is appropriate to their own individual skills, talents, abilities, interests and access to appropriate resources and technology. In practice, this would mean that a genre based approach such as selecting a particular genre or style of music at the outset, eg the string quartet, or a pop song may not necessarily be appropriate for all the students in the group. The requirements of the specification mean that teachers should focus clearly on helping students to develop their understanding of compositional techniques through the areas of study in a structured programme of exercises and tasks that will help them to gain confidence in preparation for the 25 hours of controlled assessment. Planning and management of the teaching and assessment It is important to realise that it is not necessary to start the controlled assessment at the outset of the course. As already mentioned, students will doubtless benefit from a period of time in which they can learn how to use compositional techniques and build an understanding of the creative compositional processes necessary for a successful outcome. This will also be beneficial to the teacher in that it will give plenty of time to become familiar with the capabilities of the student so that assessment becomes part of the process rather than simply the end result. There are of course many different compositional techniques that can be employed in any singularly successful composition and not all will apply to every genre of music. The following list is not intended to be exhaustive but contains examples of techniques that have been used successfully by many schools and colleges and students in the past. The use of pedals with changing chords Stock chord progressions and the use of inversions Balanced phrases within melodic writing with a consideration of the functional harmonic implications The use of riffs and simple ostinato / ground bass patterns Simple two part writing and the use of imitation, canon etc Minimalist techniques such as the additive process and phasing The use of dotted rhythms, triplets and syncopation Tonality: major / minor / modal / pentatonic Techniques specific to a musical period, eg the alberti bass How to write idiomatically for piano / keyboard, eg avoiding the use of block root position triads in the left hand, and changing textures

3 Writing idiomatically for other instruments Creating textural variety within the harmonic structure of the music Use of a variety of different vocal techniques The use of cadences: perfect, plagal, imperfect, interrupted Sequence Imitation Call and response Tièrce de Picardie Modulation Use of major, minor and dominant seventh Chords using roman numerals /chord symbols. In addition to the above, teachers might wish to refer to section 3 in the specification under the heading The organisation of sound for a detailed list. It is recommended that schools and colleges explore different options in setting the controlled assessment. It may well be that some schools and colleges feel that there is sufficient time within the normal timetabled curriculum to be able to set aside a period over a number of weeks when the task can be completed. However, if this is not so, then discussions might need to take place between the teacher and the school leadership team to ensure that a suitable period of time is set aside in addition to the timetabled curriculum to ensure that the task can be completed successfully. It is also recommended that the teacher responsible for assessment is the same teacher who undertakes the supervision of the task. Not only will this make assessment easier, it will also ensure that the work can be verified as authentic. A possible suggested starting point for the teaching of compositional techniques A suitable starting point for a mixed ability group might be to consider working through the introduction of the following two Areas of study: AoS1 Rhythm & Metre and AoS5 Structure & Form Students could be encouraged to develop a short percussive piece for different un-tuned percussion instruments. Prior to a given practical task it is likely that there might be some associated listening and appraising. This might include music from different cultures, for example Brazilian Samba and/or African drumming such as that from Burundi, perhaps linked to some of the minimalist percussive works from western culture such as Steve Reich. Different tasks could be set in relation to this to take into account the teacher s understanding and knowledge of the different abilities and experiences of the students in the group.

4 At a simplistic level, the brief might be to produce a short piece using: simple time three repetitive but independent patterns a ternary structure. At a medium level, the brief might be to produce a longer piece using: compound time canonic use of thematic ideas over a number of parts at different pitches a rondo structure. At a more advanced level, the brief might be to produce an extended piece using: changes of metre and tempo syncopated thematic ideas that transfer from part to part use of variation techniques within the structure. All of these can be approached using a variety of different techniques and strategies such as: individual work using sequencing or score writing software small group work where students experiment with different ideas through practical performance, experimentation and sharing ideas whole class work through the performance of existing music, possibly prepared specifically by the teacher. At any appropriate given point, the teacher might then introduce the idea of how AoS4 Timbre and Dynamics can affect the impact that the music might have. Students could then explore using different combinations of timbres and practise using different dynamic levels to add drama and tension to the music. This is not intended as a detailed scheme, rather as a starting point, but demonstrates how an approach of this type could allow students to develop their ideas at a rate appropriate to their existing knowledge and experience. At any point appropriate to their development they could move on to the next level. It would also allow them to focus predominantly on the use of Rhythm & Metre and Structure & Form without necessarily having to consider the other musical elements at this stage. It would also allow for individual and peer assessment as the work progresses and, hopefully, there would be a wide variety of different outcomes because there is scope for considerable variety in use of Rhythm & Metre and Structure & Form.

5 Marking and Assessment For each student, the composition must be submitted as follows: a recording of the final composition a score of the composition. The definition of a score for this purpose can be found in the specification. The score need not be in staff notation if other forms are more appropriate. Students should be encouraged to produce the highest quality score possible to ensure success (see later in this section). Teachers will mark and assess the final presented composition according to a single set of assessment criteria and the piece will be assessed in the light of the selected areas of study. The maximum mark is 30. There are six bands of assessment with five marks within each band. Within each band, there are five bullet points relating to the quality of the composition as a whole and one bullet point referring to the score. In addition to the six mark bands, there are six musical aspects that also need consideration: the imaginative use of sound a sense of musical balance the creation and development of musical ideas an understanding of the chosen medium the appropriate and idiomatic use of instruments, voices and other sound sources appropriate uses of musical elements, devices, techniques and conventions. What does this all mean? In practice, it means that the assessment process works as follows: For each piece consider: the selected Areas of study in relation to the musical aspects finally placing the mark in the most appropriate band of assessment.

6 This is not a difficult task if it is approached in a careful and considered manner. Where a composition fulfils all the criteria for a particular band, then the mark can be placed at the top of that band. This is usually easiest within the highest band of marks. If some of the criteria are fulfilled but not all, then the mark can still be placed in that band at the most suitable point. Frequently, a judgement will need to be made as to whether or not a mark will just fall into a higher band, or just fails to fulfil the criteria. If the latter, the mark will move into the next band down. As mentioned earlier, it is important to ensure that the score matches the criteria for the band in which you wish to place the mark. It may well be possible that the recording of the composition displays all the attributes of one of the higher mark bands, but the quality of the score lacks the necessary detail to justify the mark. This is why it is important to encourage students to produce the highest quality score possible. The following examples will serve to demonstrate how the assessment process works. Within the examples, you will find a variety of different selected Areas of study, scores, musical genres and recording techniques. There are examples of very good practice and less good practice and each submission is appropriate to the ability of the different students. All are completely valid submissions and whilst they are not intended as set examples, they do illustrate the kind of variety that is possible within the specification. Example 1. Title: Slap n Funk Chosen areas of study: Timbre and Dynamics Structure and Form In this composition, the student has chosen to focus primarily on Timbre and Dynamics / Structure and Form as the principal Areas of study, though clearly there is much evidence of careful use of all of the other Areas of study to a greater or lesser extent. There is an obvious link to the Popular music of the 20 th and 21 st centuries strand although this isn t mentioned and is not in any case necessary in this unit. The student has composed, programmed and performed all of the parts on the recording so there is clearly clarity of intention in the work. This composition is imaginative and largely satisfying. The student clearly has a very good knowledge of different aspects of guitar and bass guitar techniques and is able to employ these with coherence and consistency in the music, demonstrating a sound sense of understanding of musical ideas in relation to the Areas of study selected. In addition, there is good dynamic contrast in B 2 with the use of snare drum crescendos to lift the phrase to a climax each time. In relation to structure and form, the piece is well balanced with sufficient repetition of ideas to give unity but also some development of the musical ideas presented in the form of variation in the B section. The score contains sufficient detail to reflect the student s intentions and provide a guide to the listener. This type of score is entirely appropriate to the genre of music presented. Overall, the composition fulfils all the criteria in the band of marks, but in addition, the writing for instruments and sound sources is idiomatic and there is a sense of completeness in the music. In terms of assessment, this would mean that the fact that all the criteria have been met in the band, would lead to at least a mark at the top of that band. The fulfilment of some of the top band criteria means that, overall, a mark at the lower end of the band would in this case be justified.

7 Example 2. Title: Waiting Here Chosen Areas of study: Harmony and Tonality Structure and Form In this piece, the composer is also the performer. He has chosen to focus on Harmony and Tonality / Structure and Form. Whilst there is no requirement to consider the other Areas of study, in this particular case the lack of any melodic content and rhythmic interest means that the student has struggled to produce a piece which can satisfy the assessment criteria for the higher bands and, as a result, the composition works at a basic level. The student demonstrates a basic understanding of the musical ideas presented in relation to the Areas of study selected by presenting a piece that has a simple harmonic structure in a repetitive structure containing some basic contrast of ideas. There is some incoherence in the handling of musical ideas in the recording of the composition with some wrong notes in the chords though this is only occasional. Writing for instruments (guitar) appears simplistic and lacks finish. The score shows inconsistencies and is not accurately presented. For example, the music doesn t speed up in the chorus and there is no vocal part. On balance, the fact that all of the criteria for the 10 6 band are fulfilled and the fact that the incoherence present is relatively minimal would point to a mark at the upper end of that band rather than the lower. Example 3. Title: L Arc de triomph Chosen Areas of study: Rhythm and Metre Timbre and Dynamics This student, like the student in example 2, has chosen not to explore Texture and Melody. However, unlike example 2, this composition is largely effective. There is a sound understanding of the musical ideas in relation to the Areas of study selected with in particular, good use of dynamic contrast for dramatic effect. There is competent handling of the musical ideas and the writing for instruments, and sound sources demonstrates understanding of the techniques required. The score is accurate and contains detailed performance directions appropriate to the chosen style of music. In considering an appropriate mark for this piece, from the above you can see that it is not a clear cut case because the piece fulfils criteria from three mark bands: / / On balance, the band would appear to be most represented pointing to a mark in the middle of that band.

8 Example 4. Title: I really, I really want to be with you Chosen Areas of study: Texture and Melody Structure and Form In this composition, the vocal melody is a little restricted in terms of range but that is not untypical in the genre presented, and the rhythm of the melody and the word setting is generally effective. In addition, the strophic structure is also entirely appropriate here although there is little development of the musical ideas presented. Despite this, the student demonstrates some understanding of the musical ideas in relation to the Areas of study selected and there is competent handling of the musical ideas. The score shows some musical ideas clearly. For example, there is little detail regarding the rhythm of the guitar part and how it should be played, and there is nothing on the score to suggest how this information was given to the teacher. There are some basic details given regarding metre, tonality, structure and dynamics but not, for example, tempo. One might also point out that there is nothing in the score to indicate the melodic content other than the text. However, this is less important in relation to the submission because the student has performed the vocal part herself, therefore clarity of intention is evident. However, apart from the score, the criteria for the band is largely represented in this piece suggesting a mark lower in that band. Example 5. Title: Jig Chosen Areas of study: Texture and Melody Harmony and Tonality Structure and Form Timbre and Dynamics In relation to the chosen Areas of study this student demonstrates the successful and imaginative creation of musical ideas. The writing for instruments is idiomatic. There is sophisticated use of harmony and frequent modulation within the rondo structure making good use of development of the musical ideas. Texturally, the music explores different methods of writing. The student has decided to focus on all but one Area of Study but despite not including Rhythm and Metre, the student demonstrates a firm grasp of writing in compound time. The composition is musically stimulating, interesting and satisfying. The score is accurate and contains (some) detailed performance directions (though not all). Perhaps this is the one area where improvements could have been made, but despite this, there is a sense of completeness in the music that would justify a mark at the upper end of the band.

9 SCORES FOR EXEMPLAR WORK Page number 1 Slap n Funk Track Wait Here Track L Arc de triumph Track I really, I really want to be with Track 4 22 you 5 Jig Track 5 25

10 10 of 30

11 11 of 30

12 12 of 30

13 13 of 30

14 14 of 30

15 15 of 30

16 16 of 30

17 17 of 30

18 18 of 30

19 19 of 30

20 20 of 30

21 21 of 30

22 22 of 30

23 23 of 30

24 24 of 30

25 25 of 30

26 26 of 30

27 27 of 30

28 28 of 30

29 29 of 30

30 30 of 30

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