HANDBALL. A bit of history

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1 HANDBALL A bit of history Games similar to modern team handball have historically been played in many different cultures around the world. We know that the ancient Greeks and Romans played a type of handball, and handball was also played by the Inuit in Greenland and the French in Europe as early as the Middle Ages. Team handball as we know it today developed in northern Europe by the end of the 1800s. It was especially popular in Sweden and Norway. Handball was first played with 11 players on each team, like football, although the game is played with the hands instead of the feet. The two sports shared the same playing field and even the ball was the same. In 1938, handball became a game where two teams of seven players competed on a 40 x 20 m court. Modern handball is usually played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and beach handball (also called sandball). CHARACTERISTICS Objective To put the ball in the goal of the opposing team. The team that scores the most goals wins. Playing area The dimensions of a handball court are 40 x 20 m. Duration Two 30 minute halves, with a 10 minute break at half-time. Players The team has 12 members: 7 players (6 field players and a goalkeeper) and 5 reserves. Substitution of players can be done in any number and at any time during game play. Ball Different size and weight balls are used for men, women, beginners, children, youth and junior categories. Referees A Handball match is led by two referees. One court referee and one goal line referee. 1

2 HOW TO PLAY Handball is played on a court 40 meters long by 20 meters wide (40 m x 20 m), with a goal in the center of each end. The goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called goal area defined by a line six meters from the goal. No attacking or defending players are allowed to touch the floor of the goal area, only the defending goalkeeper is allowed inside this perimeter. However, the field players may catch and touch the ball in the air within the goal-area, as long as the player starts his jump outside the area and releases the ball before he lands. Passing to your own goalkeeper results in a turnover. A dashed near-semicircular line 9 meters from the goal marks the free-throw line. Field players are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their bodies above the knee (knee included). The ball can be thrown, hit, bounced and caught with one or two hands. A player who is in possession of the ball may stand stationary for only 3 seconds and may only take three steps. They must then shoot, pass or dribble the ball. The game is quite fast and includes body contact, as the defenders try to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. Contact is allowed only when the defensive player is completely in front of the offensive player. Any contact from the side or especially from behind is considered dangerous and is usually met with penalties. Unlike in basketball, where players are allowed to commit only 5 fouls in a game, handball players are allowed an unlimited number of faults. 2

3 Fouls The most common fouls are travelling, double dribbling, entering the goal area, touching the ball below the knees, sending the ball outside the field of play, pushing or holding an opposing player and passive play and fouls resulting in penalty throws. Double dribbling Travelling Touching the ball below the knees Sending the ball outside the field of play Pushing or holding an opposing player Entering the goal area Passive play The ball is dribbled using one hand, moving the wrist vertically downwards. Once the ball has been dribbled and caught, it cannot be dribbled again. It must either be passed to a team-mate or shot on goal. It is penalized with a free throw. A foul committed by a player who takes more than three steps without bouncing the ball. It is penalized with a free throw. The ball cannot be hit or touched with the foot, although it is not considered a foul when an opposing player throws the ball at a player's leg or if it is an involuntary action. When a player sends the ball outside the field of play, it is the other team that puts it back into play with a throw-in from the sideline or corner of the court or a goalkeeper-throw, depending on where the ball went out. Players are only allowed to steal the ball from an opponent with the palm of their open hand and block the path of other players with the torso, even if they are not in possession of the ball. Only the goalkeeper can enter the area between the goal and the six-meter line, although it is possible to jump above it and release the ball before returning to the ground. If the team in possession of the ball does not play as if attempting to score a goal, the referees will penalize this team for unsportsmanlike conduct. Penalty When the team on defense commits a foul inside the area or for illegally preventing a clear scoring opportunity, even when outside the goal area. 3

4 Awarded throws Free-throw A throw made by a player to put the ball back into play when the opposing team has committed a foul (double dribbling, travelling, pushing, passive play ). The ball is thrown from the place where the foul was committed. If the foul takes place between the free-throw line and the goal-area line, the throw is done on the free-throw line Defensive players have to position themselves at least 3 m. from the ball. Throw in When the ball crosses the side-line, the team which did not touch the ball last makes a throw-in. It has to be taken standing on the line, from the same place where the ball went out. Penalty throws or 7 meter throw It is awarded when the defending team makes a foul when the attacking team has a clear chance to score. It is taken from the penalty line (7 m). The goalkeeper can take up a position between the goal line and the fourmeter restraining line. All other players must remain behind the free-throw line until execution. Goalkeeper-throw When the attacking team throws the ball over the end-line or when the goalkeeper deflects the ball over the end-line. The goalkeeper takes the throw from inside the goal area. Comer throw-in When the ball is sent out over the endline by a player from the defending team, except the goalkeeper. It is taken from the corner of the court closest to where the ball left the court, with one or both feet on the sideline. Throw-off It takes place from the center of the court. The thrower must touch the center-line with one foot and all of the other players must be in the half of their team. The defending players must keep a distance of at least three meters to the thrower. A throw-off occurs at the beginning of each period and after the opposing team scores a goal. 4

5 Disciplinary sanctions Warning Suspension Disqualification A warning for unsportsmanlike conduct. A yellow card is given to a player who has broken the rules. Two minutes without playing for unsportsmanlike conduct or for receiving two warnings. The player cannot return to the game due to seriously unsportsmanlike conduct or for receiving three suspensions. A red car is given to the player. The team may send in a substitute for the player after two minutes. If there has been a very serious violation of the rules, the referee will punish the player directly with a red card and exclude him or her from the game. The reduction on the court will, however, last for 4 minutes. Players The team has twelve members: seven players (six field players and a goalkeeper) and five reserves. Each field player has a specific position: Goalkeeper: The player who defends the goal. He must wear a shirt of a different colour from the rest of the players. Only the goalkeeper is allowed to move within the goal-area, although he may not cross the goal area line while carrying or dribbling the ball. Within the goal-area, he is allowed to touch the ball with all parts of his body including his feet. The goalkeeper may also play outside the goal area, but then he has to abide by the same rules as any other player on the court. Wings (right and left): the players whose activity is concentrated near the sidelines. Their main characteristics are speed and their ability to throw from difficult positions. Backcourt (right and left) players: they are good in high and powerful throws. Pivot or circle runner: plays in the center of the attack, with his or her back to the goal. This is a strong player who fights against the defense to try to open spaces for his or her teammates. Center: this player organizes the team's attack. Offense and defense positions 5

6 PLAYING TECHNIQUE In order to play handball well, it is necessary to be familiar with and properly execute the main actions involved in the game, both defense and offense. They are described below: Pass: normal way of exchanging the ball between players. The pass can be done in different ways: low, hip, shoulder, overhead, bounce and jump. Dribbling: releasing the ball towards the floor without losing control. It allows the players to move forward on the court, for example in a counterattack. The wrist cannot be rotated when pushing the ball towards the ground, as in basketball. Throwing: Shooting the ball towards the goal with the objective of scoring a goal. This throw varies depending on the position of the attacker and the defender on the court. Different types of shot include the jump shot, set shot, fall shot or lob shot. etc. Receiving and handling the ball: it is important to get a good grip on the ball so that it does not fall out of your hand. Feinting: you can feint with the arm holding the ball or your body, moving as if planning to throw the ball in the opposite direction from where you really want it to go. Get open: this is done by attacking players to get away from defenders and is the easiest way to receive the ball. Marking-covering: the movements made by defending players to get close to the attackers and prevent them from receiving the ball or shooting to score, trying also to intercept the ball. 6

7 OFFENSE AND DEFENSE In handball all the players play in offense and in defense, everyone participates in defensive and offensive play at the same time. Offensive Strategy: 1. Ball handling is the most important aspect of the game. Quick, accurate passes are essential to a successful offensive attack. 2. Players should maintain proper court spacing so that each player may be an offensive threat. 3. Players should constantly be cutting towards the goal with or without the ball. This will force the defense to respect all players on the court and create more scoring opportunities. 4. Players should move the ball quickly with a minimum of dribbling. Scoring opportunities develop when sharp, quick passes are used and the defense does not have time to adjust to new offensive positions. 5. Shooting should not be forced. If a player drives for a shot and is blocked by the defense, he should pass to a teammate and a new offensive threat should be initiated. Defensive Strategy: 1. For defensive play or on defense, the defenders position themselves in two lines, the first next to the area, without entering it, and the second on the nine-meter line, also known as the free-throw line. 2. It is also possible to use a combination of defensive systems, in which some players occupy a specific zone determined by the defense used and others mark or play special defense against the best players on the opposing team. 3. The individual defensive player must cover the player in his zone and at the same time be aware of opposing players cutting towards one s zone. 4. An offensive player becomes a threat when in a position to shoot the ball or when cutting quickly prior to receiving a pass. 5. The defender should position oneself between his opponent and the goal. Once an offensive player gets around the defender, any interference from behind will likely result in a penalty shot. 7

8 HANDBALL - WORKSHEET NAME: GROUP: DATE: 1. Complete the graphic organizer. Write short and precise sentences. Objective: HANDBALL Main characteristics How to play Techniques RULES Fouls Awarded throws Disciplinary sanctions Offense Defense 8

9 2. Match Penalty throw Double dribbling Free throw Travelling Throw in Passive play Suspension Throw off Get open Two minutes without playing for unsportsmanlike conduct or receiving two warnings. When a player bounces the ball with two hands, or stops and restarts the dribble. Keeping the ball in a team's possession without making any attempt to attack and trying to score. When the ball goes out of bounds you put the ball in play with this. When the attacking players try to get away from the defenders to receive the ball. To put the ball back into play when the opposing team has committed a foul When a player takes more than three steps without bouncing the ball. It occurs at the beginning of each period and after the opposing team scores a goal. When the defending team makes a foul when the attacking team has a clear chance to score. 3. Look for the translation of the following words related to handball. Word Meaning /translation Turnover Free throw Deflect the ball Unsportmanlike conduct Abide by Fall shot Lob shot Set shot Counter attack 9

10 Word Meaning /translation Grip of the ball Court spacing Offensive threat 4. What happens if after the two parts of 30 min, the match ends in a tie? 5. What do you think is the quickest way to advance the ball down the court? Explain your answer. 6. Which one is the most used defensive system in handball: zone or individual defense? Explain your answer. 7. Unlike football, in handball there are no defenders or forwards. Everyone participates in defensive and offensive play at the same time, What do you think is the reason for this way of playing handball? 10

11 8. The rules of handball provide for four disciplinary punishments: warning, suspension, disqualification and exclusion. Can you explain the progression of the punishments? 9. Answer the following questions? - What is the Asobal League? - What are the best 4 handball teams in this league? - How was the podium in male and female handball in the London Olympic Games? - When and where was the last World Men's Handball Championship held? How was the podium? - When and where was the last World Women's Handball Championship held? How was the podium? 11

12 10. Now you know there are other varieties of handball like beach handball and field handball. Can you look for the main differences between them and indoor handball? 11. Watch these videos in YouTube and answer the questions below. or type Basic Handball - Set Defence 6-0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=loayafmhjdg or type Basic Handball - Set Defence 5-1 and Set defense Draw a handball court with the positions of the offensive and defensive players. - How do the defense players move in the court related to the position of the ball?. Explain it and draw it. 12

13 Set defense Draw a handball court with the positions of the offensive and defensive players. - How do the defense players move in the court related to the position of the ball?. Explain it and draw it. Set defense Draw a handball court with the positions of the offensive and defensive players. - How do the defense players move in the court related to the position of the ball?. Explain it and draw it. 13

14 - What differences do you see in the previous defensive strategies? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmr3r10kaos or type Denmark vs Spain (2nd Half) World Championships Final handball 2013 What defensive strategies does the Spanish team mainly use? And Denmark? (You don t have to watch all the video, just the necessary to analyze the defensive strategies both teams are using) 14

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