1 Dr. Olga N. De Jesus Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, NY
2 Purpose of Research The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate: Undergraduate international English language learners perceptions of and experiences with; Academic and language acquisition through online courses taken at this four year New York state college.
3 Significance of Study The research may: Allow experts of the field to make recommendations as to what stage of second language acquisition an undergraduate international student is proficient enough to take an online course and if so, Determine what strategies or techniques are necessary to ensure both second language development and academic success and, Help the international English language learners better understand their individual process of learning academic and the English language through an online course.
4 Theoretical Framework The literature review was based on four central theories: Bendura s (1986) Self-Efficacy Theory Knowles (1980) Adult Learning Theory Kolb s (1993) Learning Style Theory Krashen s (1988) Second Language Acquisition Theory
5 Research Questions How do select English language learners describe their perception of and experiences with academic and language acquisition through online undergraduate course at this 4 year New York state private college? How, if at all, do the perceived experiences of English language learners at this 4 year New York state private college affect their language acquisition? How do the perceived experiences of English language learners at this 4 year New York state private college affect their general academic skills?
6 Methodology Phenomenological Approach Creswell (2012) defined it as, an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem (p.59). Procedure Build a complex holistic picture, Analyze words, Report detailed views of informants, and Conduct the study in a natural setting.
7 Data Collection Participants Screening Questionnaire Individual Interview Focused Group Interview
8 Participants The participants in this study consisted of: 4 males and 6 females Aged years TOFEL scores were all in the passing range of 70s Number of years in the United States ranging from 1-3 From different countries with various native languages
9 Setting A New York State private four year college that was founded in 1950 Its tuition and fees are $17,556 ( ) Total undergraduate enrollment of 7,968, with a gender distribution of 32.9 % male students and 67.1 % female students Ethnic make-up of 28% African-American, 3% Asian, 31% Hispanic, 0% Native-American, 29% Anglo, 6% unknown, and 1% International At this college, 4.0 % of the students live in college-owned, -operated, or -affiliated housing and 96.0 % of students live off campus This college is part of the NCAA II athletic conference
10 Data Analysis Epoche Transcription Horizontalization Meaningful Unites Textual and Structural Descriptions
11 Trustworthiness Content Validity Triangulation Peer Review Member Check Researcher s Bias Audit Trail
12 Ethical Consideration Obtaining appropriate approval from program chair and IRB committee from the New York State private 4 year college, Maintained the confidentiality agreement; all participants were assigned a pseudonym name for identification, and All data was stored in a file which was backed up into computer files and safely stored.
13 Findings Results of participant screening questionnaire Results of individual participant interview Results of focus group interview
14 Results of Screening Questionnaire Table 1 Individual Interview Participants Profile Pseudonym Gender Age TOFEL Score Years in U.S. Language Native Abigail F Spanish Bruno M German Catalina F Spanish Don M Mandarin Emily F Spanish Frank M Mandarin Gabriela F Spanish Helen F Russian Ian M French Jennifer F Farsi
15 Results of Individual Interview Table 2. Individual Interview Items and Responses Pseudonym Place of Birth Studied English in ESL Strength Weakness Native Country Abigail Guatemala very little speaking writing Bruno Germany yes writing speaking Catalina Colombia very little speaking reading & writing Don China very little speaking reading & writing Emily Ecuador yes writing speaking Frank China very little speaking reading & writing Gabriela Mexico very little listening speaking, reading & writing Helen Russia yes reading & writing speaking Ian France yes reading & writing speaking Jennifer Middle East no speaking reading & writing
16 Results of Focus group Interview Four overarching themes were consistently present throughout all steps in the phenomenological data analysis: Perception of online learning Perception of cultural differences Perceptions of SLA Perceptions of academic content acquisition
17 T1. Perceptions of Online Learning Likes: Don, 19: I have liked the luxury of learning at the comfort of my home. Dislikes: Emily, 23: I really don t like it when I ask a question and it takes a day or days for the professor to answer. Technology Competency: Frank,20: When I first took an online course, I had to become familiar with the computer system and the first week I missed an assignment because I did not know where to upload it. Time Management: Don, 19: It made me work faster and motivated me to do work on time.
18 T2. Perceptions of Cultural Differences Cultural Differences: Jennifer, 23: I find it difficult to communicate with the professor because I feel silly writing to someone I don't see. Lack of Cultural Responsive Teaching: Helen, 22: I felt that I could not understand others well, nor could I be understood by others. I prefer to take the classes where professors and students can meet and discuss. Age and Gender Differences: Catalina, 28: Yes, I feel like he was not culturally sensitive and responsive to me Bruno, 19: I have no complaints about any of my online professors.
19 T3. Perceptions of SLA Vocabulary: Abigail, 18 At the beginning was difficult because I didn t know the meaning of words. Reading & Writing: Helen, 22: I always have a dictionary with me at all times, especially when your classmates knew English and professor assume you knew English. Gabriela, 21: I write things in English that doesn t make any sense but I feel like they make sense in Spanish. Listening & Speaking: Don, 19: To speak in English is much harder because it has many difficult sounds to pronounce that are not the same as my own language.
20 T4. Perceptions of Academic Content Acquisition Learning Style: Jennifer, 23: I have learn that I learn better in person than online. Academic Achievement: I did ok, but I feel that I could have done better in a face-to-face class, online classes is more intensive.
21 Summary of Findings Overall, all of the participants agreed that both language and cultural differences presented challenges in online learning situations, and all reported that they avoided taking more than one online course at a time (i.e., or per semester) because of these challenges. In general, attitudes toward online learning tended to be more positive among participants with more: (a) proficient language skills, (b) online course experience, and (c) time spent in the United States.
22 Implications of findings The findings of this study noted the following theoretical implications: Academic Content Acquisition Second Language Acquisition Course Instructional Delivery Cultural Differences
23 Limitations The research study was a very focused and limited to: Data collection of 10 participants Single small private college Results cannot be generalized
24 Recommendations Future Research A more extensively study with larger population on the causes and effects of online learning on international ESL graduate and undergraduate students, who have come to the U.S. for education, while simultaneously or consecutively examining ways to eliminate or at least alleviate identified or perceived challenges and consequent stresses of online learning. Research should be conducted to investigate how international students transfer knowledge with the use of different technological applications as learning tools.
25 Recommendations Instructional Designers should anticipate and consider the possibility of cultural differences in students, and Incorporate diversity and cultural understanding into lesson plans. Audio and visual features of online learning technology could be more usefully employed in order to foster ESL listening and speaking skills. Syllabi should be detailed to include schedules for assignments, suggestions, and other information to help with time management.
26 Recommendations Online Instructor Should Instructor should provide information and direction for learning technology Instructor should also remind all students in an online course to use standard English at all times Encourage students posting of photographs and other benign personal information at the beginning of the course Allow students to journal online when possible Provide alternative forms of communication and opportunities to meet in person when needed and feasible.
27 Recommendations Administrator Determine when it would be recommendable for an international student to take their first online course Closely monitor the number of online courses these students are allowed to take in a given semester Continue to promote cultural diversity awareness and provide opportunities for students, faculty and the administration to build a culturally responsive community
28 Reference Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Creswell, J.W. (2012). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2007). Educational research: An introduction. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3 rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
29 Researcher s Background New York City Public School Teacher Bilingual & Special Education Specialist Assistant Professor, Department of TESOL/Bilingual Graduate Education, Mercy College
Undergraduate Students Perceptions and Preferences of Computer mediated Communication with Faculty Jennifer T. Edwards Keywords: Computer Mediated Communication, Student/Faculty Communication, Communication
How Accelerated Nursing Students Learn A Comparative Case Study of the Facilitators, Barriers, Learning Strategies, Challenges and Obstacles of students in an Accelerated Nursing Program Background and
1 20th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning click here -> Use of Online Chat by Heritage Learners in a Blended Class De Zhang Doctoral Student in Curriculum & Instructional Technology Department
Characteristics of Effective and Sustainable Teaching Development Programs for Quality Teaching in Higher Education This presentation will address the following conference aim/question: What are the contextual
IUMPST: The Journal. Vol 2 (Pedagogy), February 2011. [www.k-12prep.math.ttu.edu] Onsite Peer Tutoring in Mathematics Content Courses for Pre-Service Teachers Elaine Young Associate Professor of Mathematics
Game Based Learning for Spanish 101 Action Research By Naomi Wahls Page 1 Table of Contents Introduction and Problem Statement Purpose and Intended Audience Research Questions Context of the Study Procedures
English Language Institute New York City and Westchester County www.pace.edu/eli Table of Contents 2 - Campus Maps (New York City and Pleasantville) 3 - About the English Language Institute 4 - Intensive
Blog, blog, blog Online Journaling in Graduate Classes 1 Lyubov Laroche, 2 Barbara Newman Young, 1 Dorothy Valcarcel Craig 1 Western Washington University, 2 Middle Tennessee State University (USA) Abstract
Application for graduate ADMISSION GRADUATE APPLICATION PROCEDURE AT EMORY & HENRY college 1. Complete this application packet (typed or neatly printed in ink) and sign it. Send the forms along with the
ICTLHE RCEE RHED2012 Process-oriented guided inquiry learning in engineering a Elliot P. Douglas*, b Chu-Chuan Chiu a Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Box 116400,
Supporting English-Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms Sylvia Valentin Department of Education Niagara University Abstract The student population in school classrooms across the United States continues
An agency of the Regional Offices of Education for Will & Grundy-Kendall Counties 2705 McDonough Street Joliet, IL 60436 (815) 744-8334 Fax (815) 744-8396 Lewis University Cohort Program Reading Endorsement
Qualitative Research Methods in Psychology - Lab Department of Psychology Lab Objectives: (1) Develop skills in interview transcription for the purposes of qualitative analysis. (2) Develop skills in inductive
SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Programs in Psychology The Psychology Department presently offers six master s degree programs. Three lead to the Master of Arts in Psychology with concentrations
Conducting Interviews in Qualitative Social Science Research Types: individual face-to-face (choose non-shy participants willing to share) telephone (not ideal but used when direct access not possible)
The Use of Film, Television, and Music in Teaching Graduate Nursing Students Concepts of Qualitative Research Michelle L. Edmonds, PhD, ARNP, CEN, CNE Jacksonville University Jacksonville, FL Problem Qualitative
VOLUME 16 NUMBER 3, 2006 Striving for Success: Teacher Perspectives of a Vertical Team Initiative Dr. Lisa Bertrand Educational Administration and Counseling Southeast Missouri State University Dr. Ruth
Promoting Learner Autonomy and Language Awareness Through Blogging Paul Dickinson Abstract The benefits of learner Weblogs, or blogs as they are more commonly known, have been reported in various educational
828 Portfolio Assessment as an Alternate Appraisal Method: A Faculty Perspective Kimberly D. Clements School District of Lee County Geri McArdle Barry University Ann F. Cole School District of Lee County
Your direct pathway to University of Massachusetts Boston 2010/2011 Boston, Massachusetts USA The Navitas at UMass Boston advantage Enrolling in the University Pathway Program means you are a UMass Boston
1 The University of Texas at San Antonio Department of Bicultural Bilingual Studies BBL 7023 Qualitative Research Methods Note: This Syllabus is provided for informational purposes regarding the anticipated
Octavius V. - #140, named for Octavius V. Catto, a black activist from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was erected in 1929 at 30th and Saunders Streets in the eastern section of Camden. Catto School houses
Spring 2010 Students Perceptions and Opinions of Online Courses: A Qualitative Inquiry A Report by South Texas College s Office of Research & Analytical Services South Texas College Spring 2010 Inquiries
Planning For and Completing the Master s Program in History at Illinois State University 1 Ross Kennedy Associate Professor and Director, Graduate Program in History 309-438-5015 email@example.com Overview
World Languages Portfolio Model A new path to measuring growth in traditionally non-tested grades and subjects Benefits of the Model Authentic, individual growth scores for an additional group of teachers
A Brief Look at Online Tutorial Experiences of Older Students in Remedial College Mathematics Greg A. Baugher Instructor and Doctoral Student Mercer University, Georgia USA Baugher_GA@Mercer.edu Abstract
Distance Learning Survey of Texas Tech University s Distance and Off-Campus Students Five Year Comparison 2005-2009 Administrative Report September 2011 Office of Planning and Assessment Introduction The
Instructional Strategies: What Do Online Students Prefer? Kristen Cuthrell Assistant Professor East Carolina University College of Education Curriculum and Instruction Greenville, NC USA firstname.lastname@example.org
Appendix CEHD Grant Application Form Submit this application form by one of the following due dates along with your proposal. Applications must be received, at email@example.com, by 5:00p.m. on August
Background Manship School of Mass Communication Annual Report on Mass Communication Graduate Student Learning Assessment May 30, 2011 Amy Reynolds, Associate Dean, Graduate Studies & Research The Manship
19th Annual Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA March 5, 2008 Creating Online Learning Communities: A Cross Disciplinary Examination of
Internet and Higher Education 9 (2006) 107 115 Assessing the quality of online courses from the students' perspective Andria Young, Chari Norgard 1 University of Houston-Victoria, 3007 N. Ben Wilson, Victoria,
TEACHING BUSINESS SCHOOL COURSES IN CHINA George Schell University of North Carolina Wilmington SCHELLG@UNCW.EDU ABSTRACT There are many reasons for faculty to seek teaching experience in a country outside
1 21st Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning 08.05 Assessing Online Learning and Effective Teaching Practices Cynthia Whitesel Adjunct Instructor Visiting Lecturer Lincoln University of the
How Do Subject Specific Teacher Preparation Program that Integrate Technology Throughout the Courses Support the Development of Mathematics Preservice Teachers' TPCK (Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge)?
STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF ONLINE LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS USE OF ONLINE TOOLS Dr. David A. Armstrong Ed. D. D Armstrong@scu.edu ABSTRACT The purpose
EFL LEARNERS PERCEPTIONS OF USING LMS Assist. Prof. Napaporn Srichanyachon Language Institute, Bangkok University firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to present the views, attitudes,
How does the Gateway to College Program work? The Gateway to College program helps students who have dropped out of high school or who may not graduate on time earn high school credit while earning college
DEGREE/PROGRAM CHANGE FORM C Form Number: C1076 Fields marked with * are required Name of Initiator: Holbrook Mahn Email:* email@example.com Date:* 08-09-12 Phone Number:* 505 277-5887 Initiator's Title* Professor:
Blended Spanish Instruction: Perceptions and Design A Case Study Chris J. Jochum This paper presents the results of a case study that was conducted to investigate the perceived effectiveness of a blended
MSU IDEA Pilot Study Preliminary Results This document was a quick attempt to share what was learned from the pilot of a new course evaluation form created and administered by the IDEA Center (http://ideaedu.org/services/student-ratings).
Student Feedback on Online Summer Courses October 8, 2015 Santa Clara University Office of Assessment Report Introduction In the summer of 2015, approximately 700 undergraduate students were enrolled in
The Qualitative Report Volume 15 Number 3 May 2010 754-760 http://www.nova.edu/ssss/qr/qr15-3/qid.pdf Qualitative Interview Design: A Practical Guide for Novice Investigators Daniel W. Turner, III Nova
2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education Role of Social Presence, Choice of Online or Face-to-Face Group Format, and Satisfaction with Perceived Knowledge
3 Developing Vocabulary in Second Language Acquisition: From Theories to the Classroom Jeff G. Mehring Abstract This paper examines the theories behind vocabulary acquisition in second language learning
Running head: CREDIT RECOVERY 1 Credit Recovery: Improving Student Graduation and Learning Experiences in an Online Master s Degree Program Yi (Leaf) Zhang Ernest Johnson University of Texas at Arlington
1 Department of Linguistics ESL Endorsement The Department of Linguistics has received approval from the State of Michigan Board of Education to offer an ESL Endorsement to teacher certification. To enroll
Continuous Improvement: It Takes More Than Test Scores Analyzing state assessment results is only the beginning of effective data-driven decision making. Victoria L. Bernhardt There is no question that
Connecting Career and Technical Education to English as a Second Language (ESL) English as a Second Language (ESL) programs assist language minority students whose dominate language is not English, and
ALSO AVAILABLE ONLINE HTTP://WWW.HNEF.ORG Nursing Scholarship Program High School Seniors & College Nursing Program Applicants Thank you for your interest in the Healthcare and Nursing Nursing Scholarship
2012-2013 UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY Master of Science in SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY TITLE OF MODULE: Analysis of Qualitative Data CODE OF MODULE: C MAIN LECTURER: Stiliani Chroni Tel:+30.2431047048, Email:
Student Success at the University of South Carolina: A comprehensive approach Category: Academic Support Summary: The University of South Carolina Student Success Center offers a comprehensive array of
ALSO AVAILABLE ONLINE www.hnef.org Nursing Scholarship Program High School Seniors & College Nursing Program Applicants Thank you for your interest in the Healthcare and Nursing Nursing Scholarship Program.
SOME IMPORTANT NOTES ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Prof. Dr. Andreas Budihardjo August, 2013 CHECKLIST ( LOFLAND & LOFLAND, 1995) Basic organization How well is the article written or presented? Data & Methods
Enhancing Technology College Students English Listening Comprehension by Listening Journals Jung-chuan Chen* Department of Applied Foreign Languages, Nanya Institute of Technology Chung-Li, Taiwan, 32034
WHITTIER COLLEGE Department of Education & Child Development Application for Admission Teacher Credential Program 13406 E. Philadelphia Street P.O. Box 634 Whittier, CA 90608 562-907- 4248 Fax: 562-464-
English Language Learners English as a Second Language 2012-2013 Objectives: To identify LEP students and provide appropriate ESL services to students enrolled in ESL program Activities Person(s) Responsible
Requirements for the Master s Degree in Curriculum and Instruction The requirements for the Master s Degree in Curriculum and Instruction are twofold: 1) Thirty-six credits of graduate coursework as described
Best Practices Learning Disabilities in English Language Learners During the second semester of an English as a Second Language (ESL) course, a faculty member finds one of the students from Saudi Arabia,
BILITERACY: INSIGHTS FROM BILINGUAL READING SPECIALISTS Tatiana Cevallos, Ed.D. George Fox University BILINGUAL EDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES As the USA becomes more diverse in the 21 st century and it is impacted
THE REPORT@ROBERTLEOS.COM www. August 2006 Volume I Issue 2 Robert H. Leos, Ph.D., P.O. Box 11622, Austin, TX 78711-1162 report@ Phone: 512-914-5998 Fax: 512-892-1781 Welcome! by Robert H. Leos I NSIDE
A CASE STUDY COMPARISON BETWEEN WEB-BASED AND TRADITIONAL GRADUATE LEVEL ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP INSTRUCTION Shari Koch, Instructional Designer imedia.it Christine D. Townsend, Professor and Head Kim E. Dooley,
Tips for Choosing a TESOL Master s Program Whether you are just breaking into the TESOL field or have already been in the profession for some time, a great way to increase your knowledge and expand your
University of Colorado-Boulder Traditional Program 2009-10 Print Report Card Program Information Name of Institution: University of Colorado-Boulder Institution/Program Type: Traditional Academic Year:
Reading in a Foreign Language April 2009, Volume 21, No. 1 ISSN 1539-0578 pp. 88 92 Reviewed work: Teaching Reading to English Language Learners: A Reflective Guide. (2009). Thomas S. C. Farrell. Thousand
Language Policy September 2014 This Language Policy was developed over the period April- December 2013, and reviewed in September 2014. All staff at Bonn International School had input in developing the
Perceptions of participants on the certificate course for distance education practitioners: Botswana Case Study R. K. Masalela, University of Botswana firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This study qualitatively
University Experience at Union Admission Requirements Fall 2015 1. Complete an application for admission and submit it to the Hendersonville campus, 205 Indian Lake Blvd., Hendersonville, Tn. 37075. Applications
+ Supervising Students In Training: What, How, and Why Jung H. Hyun, Ph.D. Cher N. Edwards, Ph.D. Seattle Pacific University + Reflections 2 What is Supervision? How was your supervision experience when
Partners in Pedagogy: Collaboration Between University and Secondary School Foreign Language Teachers October 1999 Lina Lee, University of New Hampshire One of the challenges facing many foreign language
1 How Are College Students Using Wireless Internet to Facilitate Learning? Yong Lu, email@example.com Hongyan Ma, firstname.lastname@example.org Sandra Turner, email@example.com College of Education, Ohio University Final Report
ORIGINAL RESEARCH AND PEER REVIEW USING WEB-BASED COLLABORATIVE TOOLS BY COLLEGE STUDENTS Mustafa Çakır 1, William S. Carlsen 2 1 Marmara Üniversitesi, Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi, Orta Öğretim Fen ve Matematik
Application for Graduate Study Expected Registration Year: Graduate Program: Name: Maiden: Address: City: County: State: Zip: Are you a U.S. Citizen? Yes No Nation of Citizenship: If no: Green Card Degree
11-03-2011 P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science Graduate Programs Listed below are the degree programs offered through the P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science at Lehigh
Analyzing Qualitative Data The purpose of coding qualitative data is to take an overwhelmingly large amount of words or artifacts and organize them into manageable chunks. Following the steps in this outline
Student Perceptions of Learning: A Comparison of Two Different Populations Catharina Daniels 1 Pace University School of Computer Science and Information Systems Technology Systems Department New York,
Summer Session III 2014 Distance Learning Aggregate Survey Results In order to strengthen UWG s distance and distributed learning programs, separate evaluations have been developed for distance courses.
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH & FOREIGN LANGUAGES The Department of English and Foreign Languages encompasses the disciplines of English, modern languages (French and Spanish), and humanities. Majors are offered
Factors affecting bachelor s degree completion among Black males with prior attrition ABSTRACT Rayna Matthews-Whetstone Richardson, Texas ISD Joyce A. Scott Texas A&M University-Commerce Black males lag
Nursing Scholarship Program College Applicants (Prerequisite Coursework & School/College of Nursing) Thank you for your interest in the Healthcare and Nursing Nursing Scholarship Program. The Foundation
Santa Clara University Department of Education EDUC 369: Action Research Winter 2009 Action Research Project Design Document Information Packet By Joe Chee Action research is an approach to scholarly inquiry
The Impact of Online Quizzes on Student Engagement and Learning Dr. Jennifer Hillman Fall 2011-Spring 2012 Introduction PSYCH 270: Introduction to Abnormal Psychology is typically a large lecture class
DOCTOR OF EDUCATION (Ed. D.) DEGREE PROGRAM IN CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION WITH EMPASIS IN CURRICULUM STUDIES Department of Instruction and Teacher Education College of Education University of South Carolina
Comparing Alternative Teaching Modes in a Master s Program Student Preferences and Perceptions Karl Nollenberger, Associate Professor University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh Introduction The increase in online