1 + Supervising Students In Training: What, How, and Why Jung H. Hyun, Ph.D. Cher N. Edwards, Ph.D. Seattle Pacific University
2 + Reflections 2 What is Supervision? How was your supervision experience when you were in the program? What did you like about your supervision? What didn t you like about your supervision?
3 + Supervision 3 An intervention provided by a more senior member of a profession to a more junior member or members of that same profession. This relationship is evaluative, extends over time, and has the simultaneous purposes of enhancing the professional functioning of the more junior person(s), monitoring the quality of professional services offered to client(s) she, he or they see(s), and serving as a gatekeeper of those who are to enter the profession. (p.8, Bernard & Goodyear, 2004)
4 + Review of Studies on Supervision 4 in School Counseling Significant differences in supervisory activity between RAMP programs and traditional programs (Blakely, Underwood, & Rehfuss, 2009) School counselors utilizing the ASCA national model seemed to have more experience (significantly) than school counselors not utilizing the ASCA national model. (Blakely, Underwood, & Rehfuss, 2009)
5 + Review of Studies on Supervision 5 in School Counseling Communities of practice: Relationship with supervisors, lack of power to change things in school are the major themes, which led the participants to turn to their peers to make sense of their experience. (Woodside, Ziegler, & Paulus, 2009)
6 + Review of Studies on Supervision 6 in School Counseling Respondents with more than 40 hours of supervision training scored in the upper end of the self-efficacy scale, whereas respondents with fewer than 40 hours of supervision training reported a wider range of self-efficacy. (Dekruyf & Pehrsson, 2011) School counselors would benefit in the following areas (Dekruyf & Pehrsson, 2011): (a) counselor development (b) supervision methods and techniques (c) the supervisory relationship (d) models of supervision
7 + Review of Studies on Supervision 7 in School Counseling School counselor supervisors perception of and their approach to supervision seem different from ones in other contexts. (Peace & Sprinthall, 1998; Peterson & Deuschle, 2006; Luke, Ellis, & Bernard, 2011)
8 + Review of Studies on Supervision 8 in School Counseling No Evidence that supervision in school counseling is occurring in a substantial way No clinical supervision training (Crutchfield & Borders, 1997; Sutton & Page, 1994) Limited qualified supervisors Lack of awareness of benefits counselor resistance Focus of administrative supervision Ethical issues Lack of state or national mandate (Dollarhide & Miller, 2006)
9 + Results 9
10 + WHY do SC take interns? 10 Responsibility for Growth of the field. Giving back Influenced by previous experience Good interns: competent skills, good fit to the grade level, love what they do, knowledge Good interns: self-starter, asking for help, being able to multitask, follow through
11 + Ethical Standards for School 11 Counselors (2010) F.3 Supervision of School Counselor Candidates Pursuing Practicum and Internship Experiences: Professional school counselors: a. Provide support for appropriate experiences in academic, career, college access and personal/social counseling for school counseling interns. b. Ensure school counselor candidates have experience in developing, implementing and valuating a data-driven school counseling program model, such as the ASCA National Model. c. Ensure the school counseling practicum and internship have specific, measurable service delivery, foundation, management and accountability systems. d. Ensure school counselor candidates maintain appropriate liability insurance for the duration of the school counseling practicum and internship experiences. e. Ensure a site visit is completed by a school counselor education faculty member for each practicum or internship student, preferably when both the school counselor trainee and site supervisor are present.
12 + Before you take interns 12 Are you ready? Supervision training Experience in the building Experience at the grade level Is the site ready? Principal s permission Office space Technology Building policy
13 + What does Supervision consist of? 13 Huge Commitment! Understanding the intern (skills, attitude, & fit) Questions that you would like to ask during interview Why do you like to work at that grade level? Experience at that grade level? What kinds of training have you received? What s your strengths? What s your weaknesses? What s your university s expectations? What s your expectations? Commitment? Clear goals and expectations Syllabus Contracts
14 + HOWs 14 Depending on relationship with the supervisor familiarity with school intern s strengths and weaknesses
15 + WHATs 15 Help interns to Understand how SC does differently from other educational staff Fit in with the staff Understand the reality Have fun with their jobs and love what they do Apply their knowledge into practice Ask for help Make mistakes Feel empowered Listen to their clinical judgment Thrive on their own way
16 + More WHATs 16 Different Roles observation and conversation (modeling & explaining) process and debrief events (observing, good questions) consulting Questions are different depending on the level What do you observe? Why do you think that I did what I did? How would you do it differently? Why do you do what you do? Know when/how to give feedback (Ask!) What did they do? (clear, specific, objective) How did they do? How do you feel about what you did? I-message
17 + Challenges in Supervision 17 Quality time in limited time Stretching intern Intern s limited availability Challenges from staff Being challenges by the intern
18 + What would be helpful? 18 Previous supervision experience Supervision training Feeling prepared to guide Having a clear idea of preparation: what to ask, how to screen, and what personality works, etc.
19 + 19 What s it like? Questions?
20 + References 20 Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2004). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA US: Allyn & Bacon. Blakely, C., Underwood, L. A., & Rehfuss, M. (2009). Effectiveness of school counselor supervision with trainees utilizing the ASCA model. Journal of School Counseling, 7(30). Retrieved from Crutchfield, L. B., & Borders, L. (1997). Impact of Two Clinical Peer Supervision Models on Practicing School Counselors.Journal of Counseling & Development, 75(3), Retrieved from EBSCOhost. DeKruyf, L., & Pehrsson, D. (2011). School counseling site supervisor training: An exploratory study. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50(5), Devlin, J. M., Smith, R. L., & Ward, C. A. (2009). An adlerian alliance supervisory model for school counseling. Journal of School Counseling, 7(42) Retrieved from Dollarhide, C. T., & Miller, G. M. (2006). Supervision for preparation and practice of school counselors: Pathways to excellence. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45(4),
21 + Luke, M., Ellis, M. V., & Bernard, J. M. (2011). School counselor supervisors' perceptions of the discrimination model of supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50(5), Peace, S., & Sprinthall, N. A. (1998). Training School Counselors to Supervise Beginning Counselors: Theory, Research, and Practice. Professional School Counseling, 1(5), 2-8. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Peterson, J. S., & Deuschle, C. (2006). A model for supervising school counseling students without teaching experience. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45(4), Stewart, D. W., & Shamdasani, P. N. (1990). Focus groups: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA US: Sage Publications, Inc. Sutton, J. r., & Page, B. J. (1994). Post-Degree Clinical Supervision of School Counselors. School Counselor, 42(1), Woodside, M., Ziegler, M., & Paulus, T. M. (2009). Understanding school counseling internships from a communities of practice framework. Counselor Education & Supervision, 49(1), 20-38
22 + Contact Information 22 June Hyun Cher Edwards