Color Theory. Objectives. Color in Textiles and Fashion. Intensity versus value. Tint, Shade and Tone

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1 Objectives Color Theory Color in Textiles and Fashion One of the first stimuli to reach the eyes is color The first judgment of a garment or accessory is usually color-- based color What is color theory? Why is color theory important? What are the different systems? How does color affect fashion? How do we predict color each season? The Language of Color Hue The specific name of a color Each color on the color wheel is a hue Black, white, and gray do not appear on the color wheel because they have no hue Research and common sense tells us that the majority of consumers base their purchases primarily on visual stimuli. Intensity/Chroma The brightness or dullness of a color g You can lessen a colors intensity by mixing it with its complement the color on the opposite of the color wheel Colors of low intensity are more muted and called tones, and colors of high intensity are intense or pure Value Lightness or darkness of a color Tint adding white to a hue raises its value or lightens it Shade adding black to a hue lowers its value or darkens it Intensity versus value Tint, Shade and Tone Mix the color s complement Mix white or black to the collor Tint Shade Tone 1

2 Color Characteristics Warm colors include yellow, orange and Cool colors include green, blue and violet Neutral colors include white, black and Each color can be warm or cool depending on it s base. Does it have a reddish tone underneath, or a bluish one? Sometimes you can t tell until you compare it to another color. Warm and Cool Colors red associated with the heat of the sun or a fire. and provide a cool, cool calming effect effect. gray. Warm and Cool Warm Colors Colors of the sun Red, Orange, and yellow Red-orange the warmest color Cool Colors Colors of the ocean Blues and greens Color and Psychology Colors can affect our mood or demonstrate it to others. Sometimes this is accurate, and sometimes only perceived. Color psychology varies by culture, region and personality and should always be taken with a grain of salt. There are some basics to be aware of on the following pages What do you think colors mean? Take the quiz at urvey/ The Magic of Color Setting the Mood Red Make people feel bold, excited or even nervous, can stimulate eating and drinking Orange Blue Green Yellow Neutral colors Less aggressive, feel friendly, hopeful, and full of energy Subdued and calming, can also be depressing, bright blue can lower blood pressure, body temperature and pulse rate Calming Cheerfulness and happiness, gold is more formal White, clean and isolation Gray, lack of energy, silver indicates high technology 2

3 3

4 Color and Cultures Branding and color Color and Design Color can be an instant and powerful identifier when connected to certain labels and brands. Color and Texture Color and Proportion 4

5 Color Systems The first color wheel was invented by Newton Color systems are used to organize colors. Several main systems are used today. Additive Color System This is the system based off of Light as color. The three main colors: red, blue and green are added together to create white. white Black is the absence of light The Brewster System The common color wheel Includes three primary colors yellow, red, and blue located equidistant from each other on the color wheel. By mixing equal amount of two primary colors colors, three secondary colors are formed orange, green and violet. Likewise, by adding equal amounts of a primary and corresponding secondary color, a tertiary color is formed i.e. yellowyellow - orange, red red-- orange Viewing Color In order for color to exist, three parts are needed: The object being viewed The viewer Light In essence, without light, color cannot be viewed, and does not exist. An object absorbs all colors except the color that it reflects so actually it is every color except what you see! Subtractive Color Theory This is the theory that works for most pigments and the color wheel works with to a point. The common color wheel uses red, red blue and yellow. yellow True pigment primaries are cyan, magenta and yellow. Mixed together, they create black. White is the absence of color. Color Wheel 5

6 Secondary Colors Secondary Colors Orange, purple, and green Created by mixing equal parts of two primary colors. Purple Orange Green Tertiary Colors Located between a primary and a secondary color. Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, and yellow-green. Tertiary colors are made by combining a primary color with a neighboring secondary color The Ostwald System Based on four hues: yellow, red, blue and green spaced equidistant apart. Between these hues are orange, purple, turquoise, and leaf green. In addition there are two intermediate hues on each side of these eight hues forming a color system based on 24 hues. The Munsell System A scientific system of describing hue, value and chroma (intensity) and is based on five principal hues: yellow, green blue green, blue, purple and red. red Both value and chroma are designated in 10 steps. The Munsell system offers an effective means for accurately communicating color descriptions. 6

7 Color Harmonies Color Schemes Monochromatic Color scheme uses tints and shades of one color on the color wheel Color harmonies are colors that when used together create a pleasing effect. A monochromatic color harmony is based on a various values and intensities of a single color, such as various shades of blue. An analogous color harmony combines three to five hues that are located next to each other on a color wheel such as blue, blue blue-- green and green. Color Schemes Analogous Color Harmonies Color scheme uses colors that are next to each other on the color wheel Complementary Color Scheme Color scheme uses two colors that are directly opposite each other on the color wheel A complementary color harmony is based on two colors located directly opposite each other on the color wheel, such as green and red. A splitsplit - complementary color harmony is based on a color plus the two colors directly adjacent to the complementary color, such as red, yellowyellow - green and blueblue green. A doubledouble - complementary color harmony includes the set of two complementary color harmonies such as yellow, violet, blue and orange. Split Complementary Color Scheme Color scheme uses three colors. It combines one color with the two colors on each side of its complement. 7

8 Color Harmonies A triadic color harmony includes three color at equal distance from each other of the color wheel such as red yellow and blue red, blue. A neutral color harmony is based on black, white and gray and may include brown, tan and beige. Tetrad Triad Color Scheme Color scheme uses any three hues that are an equal distance apart on the color wheel. Neutral Scheme Color scheme uses neutral elements such as tans, black, white or grey. A color scheme using 4 colors equal distance apart or 2 sides equal distance apart on the color wheel Inspiration for Colors Schemes Inspiration for Colors Schemes 8

9 Color Theory Complex phenomenon: Physics of light, chemistry of colored objects, biology of the eye, behavioral sciences, and aesthetics. Metamerism : A color matches with one light Metamerism: source, but not with any other light source. Bezold effect: When two or more colors merge into one new color, i.e., small scale print or yarn dyed fabric viewed from a distance. Names Color Name and Measurement The human eye can distinguish a very large amount of colors, but only remember a few at a time. Describing colors varies from person to person, so a standard numerical system works best. Assign numerical values to a color. Used to match color and sort shades. Color matching developing a formula to reproduce a color. Shade sorting occurs when a manufacturer groups fabrics by color so that all fabric of one color match. Measurement Trend Forecasting A very large industry not only within the fashion world, but all design industries (automotive, interiors, technology, etc.) Evaluate the progression of trends using a series of resources resources. In fashion there are 4 levels of trend prediction: Color 2 years ahead Texture and fabrication Surface interest Silhouette Forecasting Color 9

10 Forecasting Surface Interest Cool hunters Color needs three things to exist: Trade shows Summary Color is often the first attractor for consumers Color can be described through qualifiers Hue: the name of the color Value: how bright or dull a color is; you can add a color s complement to dull d ll iit (called ( ll d a tone ) Intensity or chroma: chroma : how light or dark a color is; adding black to a color creates a shade / adding white creates a tint Colors can be warm, cool or neutral Colors can produce actual and perceived psychological responses Color can be perceived differently through design, texture and proportion The color being viewed Color harmonies are formulas for creating pleasing effects out of the color wheel. The viewer Monochromatic uses one hue, and can move up and down in value. Light Analogous uses colors next to each other on the wheel The main systems that we use to describe color are: Additive color theory: uses light; red, blue and green are the primary colors that mix to make white. Black is the absence of light Subtractive color theory: uses pigment; magenta, cyan and yellow are the th primary i colors l that th t mix i to t make k black. bl k Whit White is i the th absence b of color. The Brewster System is a type of subtractive color theory. It is also known as the color wheel. Red, blue and yellow are the primary colors. Orange, green and purple are the secondary colors that are achieved by mixing any two primaries. Tetrads are 3 colors equidistant from each other Neutrals use neutral colors Color scheme inspiration may also come from nature, artwork, or other sources Colors can play tricks on the eye some are bad, and some we can use The Otswald System is a type of stubrative color theory with four primaries that is not used that often in fashion. The Munsell System is a type of subtractive color theory that uses a more scientific way to describe color with hue, chroma and value. complementary colors are opposite each other on the wheel Metamerism when the light source changes the color appearance Bezold effect when colors merge to create a shape Trend forecasting can be broken down into four stages: 1. color 2. textiles and fabrication 3. surface interest 4. silhouette 10

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