1 Tue Dec 22nd: Final Exam, 11.30am 1.30pm, 70 multiple-choice questions Final Exam is cumulative i.e. Chs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 ~ 2 or 3 per chapter for first 15 chs above, and ~ 5 or 6 per chapter for the last 5 chs. All qns will be repeated from either class lectures, review sessions (3), or midterms (2) Last review session: posted up tonight Today: Chapter 27 (Color) (Maybe begin Review if time) Reminder: Please fill Teacher Evaluations, via Smartphone: Or, Computer: (Check for more details if you need)
2 Color: What gives an object color? First, recall simple model of atom and what light does to atoms in Ch. 26: There are natural frequencies associated with electron vibration - different for different atoms/molecules. Light of certain frequency impinging on material forces vibrations of electrons at that frequency If resonant (i.e. = natural freq), material absorbs the light, turning it into heat. If off-resonant, atoms re-emit the original frequency: transparent materials transmit the light opaque materials reflect the light From last time The color comes from those frequencies that are reflected, i.e. off-resonant in the visible spectrum: Selective reflection
3 Selective Reflection Usually, a material absorbs light of some frequencies, and reflects the rest usually a spread of freqs Eg. A red rose: - petal appears red since petal s atoms absorb all visible light frequencies except red, which it reflects. (i.e. blues, greens are resonant). - But, if hold rose in green (or blue) light, then the petal looks black since all the impinging frequencies are resonant, so get absorbed. i.e. Apparent color of object depends not only on what s not its natural frequencies, but also on what is illuminating it.
4 Selective Reflection cont. Eg. incandescent vs fluorescent light bulb both emit all frequencies, but incandescent emits more at the lower frequencies (i.e red) and fluorescent emits more of the higher freqs (i.e blue). So: Fluorescent light here enhances blues, plays down reds, so lipstick looks less red (pink) c.f. in sunlight!
5 Selective Transmission Similarly, color of transparent object determined by what frequencies are non-resonant Eg. Blue glass appears blue because all other frequencies illuminating it coincide with natural frequencies of the atoms in the pigment (dye), so get absorbed: are fine particles that selectively absorb certain freqs & transmit others blue glass is transparent to blue, i.e. off-resonant in bluefrequency range
6 Question Why does a blue glass feel slightly warmer to touch than usual colorless window glass? Because blue glass absorbs the other visible-range frequencies, transforming their energy to random kinetic energy of the glass molecules i.e. heat. Colorless glass means that all frequencies in the visible range get transmitted (none are resonant) i.e. none get absorbed.
7 Clicker Question When green light is shone on a red rose, what happens? A) The leaves become warmer than the petals B) The petals become warmer than the leaves C) Both petals and leaves warm up the same amount Answer: B Because green is absorbed by the red petals, turning the light energy into heat. (The petals appear black). The leaves, on the other hand, reflect green.
8 Mixing colored light White light from the sun is composed of all the visible frequencies - as demonstrated by a rainbow, or passing it through a prism. Intensity of light varies with frequency - Radiation curve of sunlight is: Most intense in the yellowgreen. Our eyes have evolved to have max sensitivity in yellow-green! That s why fire-engines & school-buses are now painted yellow-green, and why use yellow sodiumvapor street lamps at night.
9 Mixing colored light cont. All colors combine to make white In fact, just red (R) +green (G)+ blue(b) is perceived as white too. (i) (ii) (iii) Why? Recall 3 types of cones (color receptors) in eye : (i) Stimulated by lowest 1/3 of spectrum - light of these frequencies appears red (ii) middle green (iii) highest blue When all 3 types of cones stimulated equally, we perceive white.
10 Mixing colored light cont. In fact, any color in the spectrum can be produced by various amounts of red, green and blue: these are called the additive primary colors Eg. Project red, blue, green lamps on screen: Where two colors overlap, another is produced. We say they the two add to each other. (This is what s going on in a color tv tiny (<mm) spots, either R, B or G; gives a range of colors when viewed at a distance)
11 Adding colors Red + Blue =Magenta Red + Green = Yellow Blue + Green = Cyan Since R + B = magenta, and R+B+G = white, then magenta + green = white. Magenta and green are called complementary colors: i.e. Two colors that add together to make white. So, complementary pairs are: - Magenta and Green - Yellow and Blue (since = (R+G) + B) - Cyan and Red
12 Clicker Question If sunlight were green instead of white, the most comfortable color to wear on a cold (but sunny) day would be: A) yellow B) blue C) green D) magenta Answer: D, magenta You d want pigments that absorb the green and turn it into heat. Magenta is the complementary color to green, so absorbs green. E) violet
13 Addition of colors used in lighting stage performances get interesting colored shadows: Eg. R, G, B, colored lamps illuminating a golf ball: Ball appears white (= R+G+B). This middle shadow is cast by the green lamp. If the red and blue lamps were turned off, this shadow would be black. But instead it is illuminated by the R and B lamps, which add to magenta. Similarly, can explain - the cyan shadow cast by the red lamp (lit by G and B lamps) - the yellow shadow cast by the blue lamp (lit by R and G lamps)
14 If ball was bigger so that shadows from each lamp overlapped, what would be the color of the shadow directly behind the ball? A) White B) Green the color of the middle lamp C) Magenta white minus green D) Black E) None of the above Answer: D Clicker Question Black i.e. no color, since that part of ball obstructs light from all three lamps.
15 Mixing colored pigments If R + B + G = white, how come mixing red, blue, and green paints makes a brownish-black? It s because you re mixing pigments, rather than mixing lights directly: pigments absorb specific colors, e.g. A red paint pigment absorbs the complementary color (cyan), and reflects red (see selective reflection earlier) i.e. this is color subtraction pigment takes away the complementary color (eg cyan) from the impinging light. So if you mix red, blue and green pigments, then you are absorbing cyan, magenta, and yellow, i.e. everything. So get black ( = absence of color).
16 Mixing colored pigments cont. Subtractive primaries magenta, cyan, yellow i.e. the colors obtained from subtracting the additive primaries from white. (i.e. the complementary colors to those). Yellow pigment absorbs blue; cyan absorbs red. So both absorbed where overlap which thus appears (white blue red) = green Pigments: Colored photos composed of dots of magenta, cyan, yellow
17 Why the sky is blue Arises from selective scattering - not from color addition/subtraction i.e. light striking atoms and molecules in a gas (ie far apart from each other) gets re-emitted in many directions. The tinier the particle, the more higher-frequency light it will re-emit (c.f. sound vibrations smaller bells have higher pitch than larger bells) N 2 and O 2 in atmosphere are like such tiny bells. i.e. scattered So, what does this mean for the sky? Next slide
18 Why the sky is blue cont. First note that if there was no atmosphere, we d see a white sun in a black sky. As light moves through atmosphere, most goes in straight lines, but when it hits a molecule, the higher freqs (violet, blue) especially get scattered in all directions. i.e. blue reaches you in any direction you look - you see blue light from everywhere overhead i.e. a blue sky!
19 Why the sky is blue cont. But violet is higher freq than blue why don t we see a violet sky? We would if our eyes were equally sensitive to violet and blue, but the cones in our eyes sense blue much more, so we sense a blue sky. Other creatures with better violet vision like bumble bees, do see a violet sky! The lower freqs pass more or less in a straight line; e.g. red scatters a tenth as much as violet. DEMO: shine flashlight through water with a few drops of milk in it. View from the side, see bluish haze. If look straight through, see reddish-orange as this doesn t get scattered so much. Remember this demo when we get to sunsets!
20 Why the sky is blue cont. Why are some skies bluer than others? Depends on what s in the atmosphere, i.e. How much water, dust, etc - these particles are larger than O 2, N 2, so scatter lower freqs strongly as well, making sky less blue and more whitish. e.g. Drier atmospheres (eg in Greece and Italy) have deeper blue skies than more humid ones e.g. Polluted cities even greyish skies, because of exhaust gases absorbing rather than scattering
21 Why sunsets are red Light that s not scattered is light that is transmitted i.e. redsoranges especially. E.g. Previous DEMO front view of flashlight through milkywater. The thicker the atmosphere the light passes through, the more of the higher-freqs that will be rescattered away from the transmitted beam, i.e. the transmitted beam is redder ( next slide)
22 Why sunsets are red cont. This is what happens at sunsets (or sunrises) : Red-orange sunset, as almost all higher freqs scattered away. As day progresses, more blue/violet scattered, as sunlight travels greater dist through atmosphere, so sun looks increasingly orange. Note consistency with color mixing rule: white blue/violet = yellow/orange sun At sunset, medium-freq green is also subtracted, just red remains. (W = R+B+G)
23 Clicker Question Red sunsets are due to lower frequencies of light that A) are scattered from larger particles in the air B) are refracted from larger particles in the air C) are reflected by clouds and relatively large particles in the air D) do not get scattered in the air E) appear reddish orange to the eye. Answer: D, do not get scattered in the air. Recall it is the high frequency blues that are scattered by the atmospheric particles which are relatively small. This leaves orange/red to be transmitted
24 Clicker Question If molecules in the sky instead scattered low-frequency light more than high-frequency light, what color would the sky be? What color would sunsets be? A) The sky would still be blue, sunsets still reddishorange B) The sky would be reddish-orange, sunsets blue C) Both with would blue D) Both would be reddish-orange E) None of the above Answer: B The day-time sky would have low-frequencies, ie reddishorange. The sunsets would be white-minus-these, i.e. blue!
25 Why clouds are white First, what are clouds?! A mass of water droplets of various sizes suspended in the atmosphere. Different sizes of droplets scatter different freqs - smallest ones scatter high freqs like blue/violet, slightly bigger ones scatter medium freqs like green, and bigger ones scatter reds hence, net scattered is white! If droplets and clouds get too large, get appreciable absorption, so they look darker (greyer).
26 Why Water is Greenish-Blue If look at surface of lake or ocean, it may appear deep blue but that s because it reflects the sky s blue. However, if put white paper under water, it looks pale greenish-blue. Why? Although water is transparent in the visible-light regime, it does absorb some red: red light is reduced to ¼ of original brightness in 15 m of water. Since complementary color to red is cyan, this means water is cyan Explains why many red crabs look black in deep water. Also note, water absorbs strongly in the infrared, which is why sunlight warms water
27 Some final remarks on color So, generally, the color of things depend on what colors are scattered by molecules and also on what colors are absorbed or reflected by molecules. Eg. Sky is blue from scattering in atmosphere, and water is blue-green from partial absorption of red. Eye-color is interesting: Blue eyes are blue, not to any pigment, but to scattering by small, widely-separated particles in the irises. Brown eyes, on the other hand, are brown due to absorption by pigments.
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