# Outline. Quantizing Intensities. Achromatic Light. Optical Illusion. Quantizing Intensities. CS 430/585 Computer Graphics I

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1 CS 430/585 Computer Graphics I Week 8, Lecture 15 Outline Light Physical Properties of Light and Color Eye Mechanism for Color Systems to Define Light and Color David Breen, William Regli and Maxim Peysakhov Geometric and Intelligent Computing Laboratory Department of Computer Science Drexel University Achromatic Light Light without color Basically Black-and- White Defined in terms of energy (physics) Intensity and luminance or Brightness (perceived intensity) 3 Quantizing Intensities Q: Given a limited number of colors/ shades, which ones should we use? Suppose we want 256 shades Idea #1 (bad) 128 levels from levels from Problems Discontinuities at 0.9 Uneven distribution of samples 4 Quantizing Intensities Optical Illusion Suppose we want 256 shades Idea #2 (also bad) Distribute them evenly Problem This is not how the human eye works! The eye is sensitive to relative intensity variations, not absolutes The intensity change between 0.10 and 0.11 looks like the change between 0.50 and

2 Optical Illusion Revealed Quantizing Intensities Idea #3 Start with intensity I 0, go to I 255 =1 by making I 1 = r*i 0 I 0, I 1 = r*i 0, I 2 = r^2*i 0, I 255 = r^255*i 0 =1 r = (1/I 0 ) 1/255 I j = r j I 0 = I (255-j)/255 0 r = (1/I 0 ) 1/n I j = r j I 0 = I (n-j)/n 0 Min intensity for CRT ~ 1/200 th to 1/40 th of max 7 8 Selecting Intensities Chromatic Light! Dynamic range of a device Max intensity/min intensity Gamma correction: adjusting intensities to compensate for the medium Look-up table How many intensities are enough? Can t see changes below 1% 1.01 = (1/I 0 ) 1/n n = log 1.01 (1/I 0 ) 9 Let there be colored light! Major terms Hue Distinguish colors such as red, green, purple, etc. Saturation How far is the color from a gray of equal intensity (i.e. red=high saturation; pastels are low) Lightness Perceived intensity of the reflecting object Brightness is used when the object is an emitter 10 Physics of Light and Color Spectral Energy Distributions Light: a physical phenomenon: Electromagnetic radiation in the [400 nm-700nm] wavelength range Color:psychological phenomenon: Interaction of the light of different wavelength with our visual system. 11 Violet nm Blue nm Green nm Yellow nm Orange nm Red nm White Less White (Gray) Laser Pure day light 12 2

3 Colorimetry (Physics) Specifying Colors Define color in terms of the light spectrum and wavelengths Dominant Wavelength: what we see Excitation Purity: saturation Luminance: intensity of light Ex: Pure color, 100% saturated, no white light White/gray lights are 0% saturated 13 Can we specify colors using spectral distributions? We can, but we do not want to. More then one set of distributions corresponds to the same color. Reason? Too much information 14 The eye contains rods and cones Rods work at low light levels and do not see color Cones come in three types (experimentally and genetically proven), each responds in a different way to frequency distributions Seeing in Color 15 Tristimulus Theory The human retina has 3 color sensors the cones Cones are tuned to red, green and blue light wavelengths Note: R&G are both yellowish Experimental data 16 Luminous-Efficiency Function The eye s response to light of constant luminance as the dominant wavelength is varied Peak sensitivity is at ~550nm (yellowgreen light) This is just the sum of the earlier curves 17 Eye Sensitivity Can distinguish 100,000s of colors, side by side When color only differs in hue, wavelength between noticeably different colors is between 2nm and 10nm (most within 4nm) Hence, 128 fully saturated hues can be distinguished Less sensitive to changes in hue when light is less saturated More sensitive at spectrum extremes to changes in saturation a about 23 distinguishable saturation grades/steps Luminance dynamic range: 10,000:1 18 3

4 Specifying Colors Terms Depends on the context Compare against standard samples I.e. the paint store, printing professions PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM Artistic mixtures of tint, shade, and tone Tint == white + pure color, decreasing saturation Shade == black + pure color, decreasing lightness Tone == both Both are subjective 19 Perceptual Term Hue Saturation Lightness self reflecting objects Brightness self luminous objects Colorimetry Dominant Wavelength Excitation purity Luminance Luminance 20 Color Models RGB Idea: specify color in terms of weighted sums of R-G-B Almost: may need some <0 values to match wavelengths Hence, some colors cannot be represented as sums of the primaries 21 RGB is an Additive Color Model Primary colors: red, green, blue Secondary colors: yellow = red + green, cyan = green + blue, magenta = blue + red. All colors: white = red + green + blue (#FFFFFF) black = no light (#000000). 22 RGB Color Cube Color Models CMY Describes hardcopy color output We see colors of reflected light 111CRMGYBÈ È È Í Í Í =-Í Í Í Í Í Í Î Î Î RGB used in Monitors and other light emitting devices TV uses YIQ encoding which is somewhat similar to RGB

5 CMY(K) is a Subtractive Color Model Primary colors: cyan, magenta, yellow Secondary colors: blue = cyan + magenta, red = magenta + yellow, green = yellow + cyan. All colors: black = cyan + magenta + yellow (in theory). Black (K) ink is used in addition to C,M,Y to produce solid black. white = no color of ink (on white paper, of course). 25 Color Models XYZ Standard defined by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) since 1931 Defined to avoid negative weights These are not real colors X = k Ú P(l)x l dl Y = k Ú P(l)y l dl Z = k Ú P(l)z l dl 26 Color Models XYZ CIE Chromaticity Diagram Cone of visible colors in CIE space X+Y+Z=1 plane is shown Constant luminance Only depends on dominant wavelength and saturation 27 Plot colors on the x + y + z = 1 plane (normalize by brightness) X x = X + Y + Z Y y = X + Y + Z Z z = X + Y + Z Gives us 2D Chromaticity Diagram 28 Working with Chromaticity Diagram C is white and close to x=y=z=1/3 E and F can be mixed to produce any color along the line EF Dominant wavelength of a color B is where the line from C through B meets the spectrum (D). BC/DC gives saturation Colors inside ijk are linear combinations of i, j & k E i A k F C B D j 29 Gamut: all colors produced by adding colors - a polygon Green contour RGB Monitor White scanner Black printer Problem: How to capture the color of an original image with a scanner, display it on the monitor and print out on the printer? A triangle can t cover the space Gamut

6 Color Models YIQ National Television System Committee (NTSC) È Y È È R Y is same as XYZ model and Í Í Í Í I = Í Í G represents brightness. Î Í Q Î Í Uses 4MHz of bandwidth. Î Í B I contains orange-cyan hue information (skin tones). Uses about 1.5 Mhz Q contains green-magenta hue information. Uses about 1.5 Mhz B/W TVs use only Y signal. Tint-Shade-Tone YRIGQBRYGIBQÈ È È Í Í Í =--*Í Í Í Í Í Í -Î Î Î È È È Í Í Í =--*Í Í Í Í Í Í -Î Î Î Relationships of tints, shades and tones. Tints - mixture of color with white. Shades mixture of color with black. Both ignore one dimension. Tones respect all three HSB: hue, saturation, and brightness Also called HSV (hue saturation value) Hue is the actual color. Measured in degrees around the cone (red = 0 or 360 yellow = 60, green = 120, etc.). Saturation is the purity of the color, measured in percent from the center of the cone (0) to the surface (100). At 0% saturation, hue is meaningless. Brightness is measured in percent from black (0) to white (100). At 0% brightness, both hue and saturation are meaningless HLS hue, lightness, saturation Developed by Tektronix Hue define like in HSB. Complimentary colors 180 apart Gray scale along vertical axis L from 0 black to 1 white Pure hues lie in the L=0.5 plane Saturation again is similar to HSB model

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