LANGUAGE AND VALUE BASED EDUCATION THROUGH LITERATURE A STUDY ON GEORGE ORWELL S ANIMAL FARM

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1 LANGUAGE AND VALUE BASED EDUCATION THROUGH LITERATURE A STUDY ON GEORGE ORWELL S ANIMAL FARM M. Nirmala Kumari M.A.,Eng., B.Ed., Ph.D Scholar, Nagarjuna University, Guntur. ID: ABSTRACT Great literature is simple language charged with meaning to the utmost possible degree. - Ezra Pound. Disintegration of essential values and increasing cynism in society has brought to focus on moral and ethical values. It is necessary to make changes in education system. Therefore, value education is a tool for the inculcating the moral and social values. Animal Farm is a masterly political allegorical satire, Written by George Orwell pseudonym (penname) of Eric Arthur Blair ( ). He was a British novelist, essayist, literary critic, advocate and a fighter for political change. Orwell s work is marked by ardent intelligent and irony a profound awareness of social injustice and passion for democratic socialism. Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-four is a gruesome forecast of totalitarianism written as an allegorical satire i.e., combination of allegory and satire. This political Fable set in a farm yard but based on Stalin s betrayal of the Russian Revolution. Through interesting, fascinating and captivating animal characters intrigue the readers to a fantasy world. The picturesque delights the minds of the reader. INTRODUCTION: Language and literature are two sides of a coin. They are inseparable. Language is learnt by studying literature, the class becomes more lively, exciting and motivational when literature is introduced. The learner becomes more sensible and knowledgeable apart from gaining and developing the required communication skills. The story is set in Manor Farm owned by Mr Jones. Mr Jones is not a very responsible farmer. He spends most of his time drinking and does not look after his farming duties. To discuss this problem, Old major (of animals by man and the miserable life they are leading on the farm. He tells them of his dream of all animals living together and managing the farm with no human beings to control them. He urges the animals to join hands and work towards this dream and teaches them a song called Beasts of England. The animals are very excited about the idea of running a farm on their own. When Old Major dies three nights later, the three younger pigs-snowball, Napoleon and Squealer- give shape to Old Major s ideas and call it Principles of

2 Animalism. A few days later, the animals manage to defeat the farmer Jones in a battle chase him off the land.they rename the property Animal Farm, draft their own laws called Seven Commandments on the barn-wall, and decide to work towards achieving Old Major s dream. The two pigs Napoleon and Snowball, compete with each other to be the leader of the farm. Though they do not see eye to eye on a number of issues, they join hands to eliminate their common enemy, Jones and his men, in the Battle of Cowshed. After Mr Jones is thrown out of the farm, for a few days things see good on Animal Farm. All animals work together in peace and this leads to the prosperity of the farm. As time passes, however, Napoleon and Snowball begin to argue with each other over the future of the farm, and a power struggle begins between the two. Snowball proposes an idea to build an electricity generating windmill, and makes a passionate speech to implement it. Napoleon opposes the plan and decides to get rid of Snowball. He sets his nine fierce looking dogs on snowball and they chase him out of the farm. Seizing the opportunity, Napoleon becomes the leader on Animal Farm and declares that there will be no more meetings. He announces that henceforth pigs alone will make all the decisions, and orders the animals to obey them. The first decision he makes is to stop all work on the windmill, but strangely, after three weeks, he asks the animals to build the windmill as though it is his plan. Boxer, the horse, devotes himself to the task and adopts the principle I will harder throughout his life on the farm. The animals led by Boxer, work hard to complete the building of the windmill. On a stormy night, however, the windmill collapses. Napoleon blames Snowball for this and gets the animals that joined hands with Snowball for this and gets the animals that joined hands with Snowball in the destruction of the windmill-killed by the dogs. As time passes, Napoleon becomes more powerful. Napoleon also begins to behave like a human being sleeping in a bed, drinking whisky, and trading with neighbouring farmers. The seven commandments strictly prohibit such activities, but Squealer, Napoleon s propagandist, justifies these actions and tries to convince the animals that Napoleon is a great leader and is making things better for everyone.

3 A few months later, Mr. Frederick, a neighbouring farmer, cheats Napoleon in the purchase of some timber and then attacks the farm and destroys the windmill. After this, there is a battle in which Boxer receives severe wounds. Though the animal drives away the farmers, Boxer fails to recover from the injury. His condition worsens and he is put in a van and sent away. After a few days the animals are informed of his death. Squealer tries to tell the animals that Boxer died in peace in the hospital. The truth was that Napoleon had sold Boxer to a glue maker in order to get money for his drinks. SEVEN COMMANDMENTS BEFORE AND AFTER: 1-Before 4-After Whatever goes upon two legs is a enemy. "No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets" 1-After 5-Before Once the pigs start walking on two legs, two No animal shall drink alcohol. legs become better then four. 5-After 2-Before "No animal shall drink alcohol to excess" Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, 6-Before is a friend. No animal shall kill any other animal. 2-After 6-After The pigs end up thinking any animal that "No animal shall kill any other animal walks on four legs or has wings in inferior. without cause" 3-Before 7-Before No animal shall wear clothes. All animals are equal. 3-After 7-After The pigs all end up wearing clothes. "All animals are equal, but some are more 4-Before equal than others" No animal shall sleep in a bed. Joseph Stalin: Napoleon the pig represents The word mill in Animal Farm represents Joseph Stalin. Stalin is known for his human Stalin five year plans. rights abuses and his harsh five year plans.

4 Leon Trotsky: Snowball the pig represents Leon Trotsky. Just as Napoleon had Snowball chased away, so did Stalin chase Trotsky away. Karl marx: Old major represents Karl marx was very old and wise just like old major was. Proletrait: Boxer the horse represents. The proletariat. Boxer was the proletariat because he was always on Napoleons side and followed his rules. Literature can be interpreted in different ways. An adept facilitator can develop interest in learner by the interesting stories and novels. The readers start analyzing the characters during the process of understanding a piece of text. In other words, the readers start empathizing with the characters one should listen to the other person or group members to be able to show empathy and thereby related oneself to them. The characters in the novel are examples for the different qualities that one has to develop and should not. Thus ethics, values skills and altitudes are essential components of good education. Therefore literature is the one of the means for improving eminent personality. Ethics, values, skills and attitudes are essential components of good education. Literature is one of the means for developing these in the students to attain eminent characters. MORAL VALUES: The story escalates the importance of moral values, stipulation of content, unity and leadership qualities are reflected in the story. As Dr. John Herbert aptly said, the castles build on the base lies and deception by the political parties will destroy and decline at the end. The burning desire is the starting point of all accomplishments. This has exhibited in the story through the characters. VALUES: Values are the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn't, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another.. "Generally speaking, value refers to the relative worth of a quality or object. Value is what makes something desirable or undesirable" (Shockley- Zalabak 1999, p. 425). Through applying our personal values (usually unconsciously) as benchmarks, we

5 continually make subjective judgments about a whole manner of things:...we are more likely to make choices that support our value systems than choices that will not. Hence, 1. Consequences of power and greedy 2. Innocence 3. Unity and integrity 4. Leadership qualities a. Freedom from sin, moral wrong, or guilt t hrough lack of knowledge of evil. b. Guiltlessness of a specific legal crime or o ffense. c. Freedom from guile, cunning, or deceit; si mplicity or artlessness. d. Lack of worldliness or sophistication; nai veté. UNITY AND INTEGRITY: When the great leaders work is done the people say, we did that ourselves unity is the key for success. One of the most striking features of Anthem is its use of language, especially the absence of the word "I." Characters refer to themselves using the first person plural "we" and not the first person singular "I." This use of language is often confusing, but must be understood if the book's meaning is to be clear. The use of the plural rather than the singular selfreference goes to the heart of the books. LEADERSHIP QUALITIES: Definition of a leader: A person or thing that holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of control or influence over others. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards achievement of a goal. A mnemonic for this definition would be 3P s person people and purpose as illustrated by the following diagram. Person: A leader by its meaning is one who goes first and leads by example, so that others are motivated to follow him. This is a basic requirement to be a leader, a person must have a deep rooted commitment to the goal that he will strive to achieve it even if nobody follows him. Purpose: A requirement for leadership is personal vision the ability to visualize your

6 goal as an accomplished fact; a thing already achieved. The leader has to be practical and a realist, yet must talk the language of the visionary and the idealist. - Eric Hoffer People: to be a leader, one must have followers. To have follower, one must have their trust. CONCLUSION: Literature is nothing but mirrors of life. These reflects the culture and to understand the societies in holistic view of life. In the word of Dr. Radha Krishnan, Literature has the supreme function of raising the quality of human life. Literature as an art form is meant to develop an aesthetic and pleasurable experience. It is useful and rewarding in the modern world dominated by materialistic things and technology. Literature is concerned with man s perceptions, passions, desires and thoughts plays a significant role. If aptly envisaged and sensibly implemented the teaching and learning of literature can become a source of great delight and edification for both teacher and the students. Literature can have a cathartic effect on the students mind and it can play an important role in enabling the learner to cope up with various aspects of life. Learner should be able to understand the emotions in the life by reading the story, which leads to positive thinking, creativity, cognitivity, social and emotional development. Literature is concerned with man s perceptions, passions, desires and thoughts plays a significant role. REFERENCES: [1] Life, language and culture exploration. I, Delhi: Cengage learning in India pvt. Ltd. [2] InterNET-2 Published by Board of intermediate education AP-3 rd edition April [3] Widdowson, H.G.( 1975), Stylists and the teaching literature, London: (longman). [4] commandments before and after in animal farm.com [5] morals and valuesprinciples by Chippendale.com [6] of leader [7] of unity and integrity.com [8] www. power and greediness quotes.com

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