"Animal Farm" and Russian History

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1 11 l' "Animal Farm" and Russian History Animal Farm is also a satirical novel, using the device of the animal fable or, as Orwell's subtitle has it, fairy story. The subject of the satire is recent Russian history. The parallels with that history can be stated briefly. Old Major is meant to be Marx, and Major's ideas on the oppression of animals by human beings are Marxist doctrine: man represents Marx's capitalists, while the animals are the workingmen. Major is also Lenin, especially before the Revolution. Jones is Czar Nicolas II. Moses, the raven, represents organized religion. The animals' Rebellion is the Russian Revolution of Napoleon is Stalin, and Snowball is Trotsky. Squealer represents no one figure, but is Stalin's propaganda agent. Pilkington and Foxwood Farm refer to Britain, while Frederick and Pinchfield Farm refer to Germany. The relations between Russia and these two powers are reflected in those between Napoleon and the two farmers. The first invasion of Animal Farm (the Battle of the Cowshed) refers to the anti-revolutionary invasion of the new Soviet Russia by the West; the second invasion of Animal Farm (the Battle of the Windmill) represents the German invasion of Russia during the Second World War. The several attempts to build the windmill are similar to Stalin's Five-Year Plans. The events of Stalin's rule are reflected in Napoleon's gradual enslavement of the animals; Napoleon even has his purges, his trials and executions as Stalin did, as well as his secret police, the dogs. Finally, the Teheran Conference at which Stalin sat down for the first time with the West is alluded to in the last scene of Animal Farm, the drunken party at which Napoleon and the other pigs join with the human beings.

2 ANIMAL FARM GOALS 1. To understand symbols, irony, polical satire and propaganda. 2. To understand the difference of utopian and crnti- utopi'anliterature. 3. To recognize the literary skills of character, plot analysis, and theme identification. 4. To identify the many types of propaganda and to develop persuasive paragraphs and essays. 5. To understand the political history associated with Animal Farm. 6. To complete and present a research product. 7. To increase one's/ocabulary. 8. To critically evaluate the relationships of filct and oplnlon, to predict future outcomes, and to understand the author's intent of the book. \a. OBJECTIVES 1. Students will be able to recognize and interpret symbols, irony, political satire, propaganda devices, and elements of a fairy tale in Animal Farm. 2. Students will be able to compare/contrast utopian and anti-l;itopian 11teriltUl':!. 3. Students will develop the literary skills of character and plot anillysis, and theme identification. 4. Studerits will utilize propaganda techniques in their writing and will compose persuasive paragraphs and essay, bf opinion. 5. Students will draw parallels between Russian history and Animal Farm. 6. Students will conduct research, synthesize information, organize it effectively, and create a differentiated product presented in an appropriate manner. 7. Students will increase their vocabulary based on language used in Animal Farm. 8. Students will perceive cause-effect relationships and read critically to distinguish fact from opinion, to predict probable future actions, and to identify an author's point of view.

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4 ANIHAL FARM '11... ;',. c \),Jd /..../"",? 1. \..lhat happened on Manor Fann? How? What made them think 41 1il _ & b 2. Describe Hr. Jones. 3.Who was Major? \olhat was his importance to <-he story? 4. Tell me about the song,"beast of England". 5. Who took charge? 6.What did the pigs learn to do like humans? 7. How did they let the animals know what they could do? 8. Who was Boxer, and what was he like? 9. What happened to Animal Fann in Chapter IV at The Battle of Cow3led? 10. Who showed bravery and how? 11. What were some of the stories they told in town about Animal Farm? 12. Who was Mollie and what was her importance? 13. What happened to Snowball? 14. \..~at had Napoleon been secretly doing? 15 What was the surprise Napoleon told the other animals? H.> Compar'=! Animal Farm to Russian history.

5 VOCABULARY ANIMAL FARM FIND BACH OF THBSB WORDS IN THE BOOK. GIVB PAGB NUMBERS. WRITB YOUR MBANING BASBD ON ITS USE IN THB BOOK. LOOK THB WORD UP IN THE DICTIONARY IF YOU NBBD TO. l- Benevolent 2 manipulation 3. tyranny 4. procured 5. tushes 6. tractable 7. di.sentients 8. sorid 9. apathy 10. blithely 11. ignominious 12. disinterred 13. spinney 14. manifestly 15. ratified 16. propulsion 17. re.tive 18. contemplating

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