# Chapter 03. After first exam

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1 Chapter 03 After first exam

2 Representing Real Numbers In general, we use sign-mantissa-exponent R = mantissa * 10 exp R = mantissa * 2 exp Depending on the form of the mantissa, we have: Floating-point notation Scientific / engineering notation 2

3 Floating point In the mantissa, the radix point is always at the extreme right! This representation is called floating point because, although the number of digits is fixed, the radix point floats (according to the exponent) 3

4 Scientific notation The decimal point is kept to the right of the leftmost digit is represented E+4 Practice converting to floating point and scientific notation:

5 3.3 Representing Text Basic idea: There are finite number of characters to represent, so list them all and assign each a (binary) number, a.k.a. code. Character set A list of characters and the codes used to represent each one Computer manufacturers (eventually) agreed to standardize Read Character Set Maze on p.67 5

6 The ASCII Character Set ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASCII originally used seven bits to represent each character, allowing for 128 unique characters Later extended ASCII evolved so that all eight bits were used How many characters could be represented? 6

7 The ASCII Character Set 7

8 Practice Encode Hello, world! in ASCII Decode from ASCII (Hint: In Python, you can use the ord() and chr() functions!) 8

9 The ASCII Character Set The first 32 characters in the ASCII character chart do not have a simple character representation to print to the screen What do you think they are used for? 9

10 The Unicode Character Set Extended ASCII is not enough for international use Unicode uses 16 bits per character How many characters can UNICODE represent? Unicode is a superset of ASCII The first 256 characters correspond exactly to the extended ASCII character set 10

11 The Unicode Character Set Figure 3.6 A few characters in the Unicode character set 11

12 Romanian Characters in Unicode Latin-Extended-B character set 12

13 Miscellaneous Characters in Unicode See more online at the official Unicode site 13

14 Text Compression Assigning 8 or 16 bits to each character in a document uses too much file space We need ways to store and transmit text efficiently Text compression techniques: keyword encoding run-length encoding Huffman encoding 14

15 Keyword Encoding Replace frequently used words with a single character, for example here s a substitution chart: 15

16 Keyword Encoding Given the following paragraph: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. 16

17 Keyword Encoding The encoded paragraph is: We hold # truths to be self-evident, \$ all men are created equal, \$ ~y are endowed by ~ir Creator with certain unalienable Rights, \$ among # are Life, Liberty + ~ pursuit of Happiness. \$ to secure # rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving ~ir just powers from ~ consent of ~ governed, \$ whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of # ends, it is ~ Right of ~ People to alter or to abolish it, + to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles + organizing its powers in such form, ^ to ~m shall seem most likely to effect ~ir Safety + Happiness. 17

18 Keyword Encoding How much did we compress? Original paragraph 656 characters Encoded paragraph 596 characters Characters saved 60 characters Compression ratio 596/656 = Could we use this substitution chart for all text? 18

19 Keyword Encoding Extension: Encode parts of words, like common prefixes and suffixes, e.g. pre, ex, ing, tion 19

20 Run-Length Encoding A single character may be repeated over and over again in a long sequence. Replace a repeated sequence with a flag character repeated character number of repetitions *n8 * is the flag character n is the repeated character 8 is the number of times n is repeated 20

21 Run-Length Encoding Encoding example. Original text bbbbbbbbjjjkllqqqqqq+++++ Encoded text *b8jjjkll*q6*+5 (Why isn't l encoded? J?) The compression ratio is 15/25 or.6 Decoding example. Encoded text *x4*p4l*k7 Original text xxxxpppplkkkkkkk Q: This type of repetition doesn t occur in English text; can you think of a situation where it might occur? 21

22 Run-Length Encoding Extension: The number of repeated characters cannot be 0, 1, 2 or 3 (Why?) We can shift the range to represent run lengths between Perform the encoding and decoding on the prev. slide with the convention above. 22

23 See you in the lab for more character fun with Python! 23

24 Huffman Codes Why should the character X" and "z" take up the same number of bits as "e" or "t"? Take a look at some Letter & Word Frequency distributions Conclusion: each language and each topic have specific frequencies of characters and groups of characters (digraphs, trigraphs etc.) 24

25 Huffman Codes Huffman codes use variable-length bit strings to represent each character More frequently used letters have shorter strings to represent them Huffman coding - Wikipedia 25

26 Huffman encoding example ballboard would be compression ratio 28/56 Exercise: Encode roadbed 26

27 Huffman decoding In Huffman encoding no character's bit string is the prefix of any other character's bit string. Codes with this property are called prefix codes. To decode look for match left to right, bit by bit record letter when the first match is found continue where you left off, going left to right 27

28 Try it! Huffman decoding Decode

29 3.3 Representing Audio Information We perceive sound when a series of air waves cause to vibrate a membrane in our ear, which sends signals to our brain 29

30 Representing Audio Information Record players and stereos send analog signals to speakers to produce sound. These signals are analog representations of the sound waves. The voltage in the signal varies in direct proportion to the amplitude of the sound wave. 30

31 Representing Audio Information Digitize the signal by sampling and quantizing periodically measure the voltage record the numeric value How often should we sample? 44,000 for audio CD, to be exact A sampling rate of about 40,000 times per second is enough to create a reasonable sound reproduction 31

32 Representing Audio Information Some data is lost, but a reasonable sound is reproduced Figure 3.8 Sampling an audio signal 32

33 Representing Audio Information pit land Figure 3.9 A CD player reading binary information 33

34 Representing Audio Information CDs store audio information digitally On the surface of the CD are microscopic pits and lands that represent binary digits A low intensity laser is pointed as the disc. The laser light reflects strongly if the surface is smooth and poorly if the surface is pitted??? 34

35 Pit height is about ¼ the laser s wavelength destructive interference 35

36 Both halves of the laser beam reflect off pit or both halves off land. The two halves are in phase. Half of the laser beam reflects off pit and half off land. The 2 halves are out of phase. 36

37 Audio Formats Audio Formats WAV, AU, AIFF, VQF, and MP3 MP3 (MPEG-2, audio layer 3 file) is dominant analyzes the frequency spread and discards information that can t be heard by humans (>16 khz) bit stream is compressed using a form of Huffman encoding to achieve additional compression Is this a lossy or lossless compression? 37

38 Homework for Ch.3, due Wed, Oct 6 47, 48, 51, 52, 53, 55 38

39 Color 3.5 Representing Images and Graphics Perception of the frequencies of light that reach the retinas of our eyes Retinas have three types of color photoreceptor cone cells that correspond to the colors of red, green, and blue 39

40 Representing Images and Graphics Color is expressed as an RGB (red-green-blue) value--three numbers that indicate the relative contribution of each of these three primary colors An RGB value of (255, 255, 0) maximizes the contribution of red and green, and minimizes the contribution of blue, which results in a bright yellow. 40

41 Look at the snow and the barn! Source: Wikipedia RGB color model 41

42 Representing Images and Graphics Can you understand this HTML code? <font color="#ff0000"> Blah blah </font> RGB Color Chart in hex 42

43 Representing Images and Graphics Figure 3.10 Three-dimensional color space 43

44 Representing Images and Graphics color depth The amount of data that is used to represent a color HiColor A 16-bit color depth: five bits used for each number in an RGB value with the extra bit sometimes used to represent transparency TrueColor A 24-bit color depth: eight bits used for each number in an RGB value 44

45 Representing Images and Graphics TrueColor A 24-bit color depth: eight bits used for each number in an RGB value Extra-credit: How many different colors can be represented in TrueColor? Show your work. Give the actual number, in decimal. 45

46 Representing Images and Graphics Are these HiColor or TrueColor? 46

47 Indexed Color A browser may support only a certain number of specific colors, creating a palette from which to choose Figure 3.11 The Netscape color palette EOL 47

48 Digitized Images and Graphics Digitizing a picture Representing it as a collection of individual dots called pixels Resolution The number of pixels used to represent a picture Raster Graphics Storage of data on a pixel-by-pixel basis Bitmap (BMP), GIF, JPEG, and PNG are raster-grahics formats 48

49 GIF format Each image is made up of only 256 colors (indexed color) But they can be a different 256 for each image! Supports animation! Example Optimal for line art PNG format ( ping = Portable Network Graphics) Like GIF but achieves greater compression with wider range of color depth No animations 49

50 Bitmap format Contains the pixel color values of the image from left to right and from top to bottom Great candidate for run-length compression! Losless JPEG format Averages color hues over short distances Lossy compression Optimal for color photographs 50

51 Digitized Images and Graphics Whole picture Figure 3.12 A digitized picture composed of many individual pixels 51

52 Digitized Images and Graphics Magnified portion of the picture See the pixels? Hands-on: paste the high-res image from the previous slide in Paint, then choose ZOOM = 800 Figure 3.12 A digitized picture composed of many individual pixels 52

53 Vector Graphics A format that describes an image in terms of lines and geometric shapes A vector graphic is a series of commands that describe a line s direction, thickness, and color The file sizes tend to be smaller because not every pixel is described Example: Flash 53

54 Vector Graphics The good side: Vector graphics can be resized mathematically and changes can be calculated dynamically as needed The bad side: Vector graphics are not good for representing real-world images 54

55 3.6 Representing Video The problem: huge amount of data! Example: In HDTV, the Frame size is defined as the number of horizontal pixels number of vertical pixels: Calculate: 1] Bandwidth for 25 fps 2] Size of 2-hour movie 55

56 Video codec = COmpressor/DECompressor Methods used to shrink the size of a movie to allow it to be played on a computer or over a network Almost all video codecs use lossy compressions to minimize the huge amounts of data associated with video 56

57 Representing Video Temporal compression A technique based on differences between consecutive frames: If most of an image in two frames hasn t changed, why should we waste space to duplicate all of the similar information? Spatial compression A technique based on removing redundant information within a frame: This problem is essentially the same as that faced when compressing still images 57

58 Ethical Issues MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd. Describe the background for this lawsuit What role did Napster play in this case? What was the decision in this case? Has this case affected you personally? 58

59 Who am I? I was very versatile. Can you name four items on my resume? 59

60 Do you know? What is JamBayes? How many computer character sets existed in 1960? Who described the telegraph as a kind of very long cat? 60

61 Addition to Homework (Now due next Friday, Oct 8): End-of-chapter 3: Exercises 65 through 79 Thought Question 4 61

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