GLONASS STATUS UPDATE

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1 GLONASS STATUS UPDATE Y. Urlichich, G. Stupak, V. Dvorkin, and S. Karutin Federal Space Agency 53 Aviamotornay str. Moscow, , Russia Tel: , Fax: , Abstract The Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) has been put into operation in the early 90s of the last century. It passed a difficult time and has been recovering now. The main aspects of GLONASS s development process are presented in this article, including the current status and international cooperation aspects. There is no doubt that satellite navigation has become an essential part of our day-by-day life. We have already learned the advantages of using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) while driving to an unknown place. You could use GNSS equipment without even noticing it. Today, transportation, energy, communication, agriculture, etc. rely on and have been continuing to introduce GNSS solutions. GNSS systems, like GLONASS or the American GPS, were created to supply military applications, but they have provided a civil service since the beginning, and this service is dominating and playing a critical role for economic growth now. Based on this, the Russian government defined the following state policy principles: GLONASS is a strategic element of national security and economic development GLONASS is a dual-use system No direct user fees for the civil GLONASS service Open access to the GLONASS civil signal structure for user equipment manufacture, applications development, and value-added services Encourage combination of GLONASS/GPS receivers development and manufacture Compatibility and interoperability of GLONASS with GPS and the future GALILEO Promotion of the development of the GNSS global market Russian governmental users shall be equipped by GLONASS or combined GLONASS/GPS receivers. These principles are supported by a number of actions like review of the GLONASS structure now it is a complex system consisting of a space segment, augmentations (wide-area, regional, and local), userequipment (mostly for governmental use), and a fundamental segment, which is responsible for Earth rotation parameter determination and forecasting, time reference frame formation, etc. 115

2 Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV TITLE AND SUBTITLE Glonass Status Update 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED to a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Federal Space Agency,53 Aviamotornay str,moscow, , Russia, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR S ACRONYM(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR S REPORT NUMBER(S) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 39th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting, Nov 2007, Long Beach, CA 14. ABSTRACT see report 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 4 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

3 The system s space segment includes an orbit constellation of 24 satellites, allocated on three circular orbits (eight satellites each) with a height of km, a 64.8 inclination, and a period of 11 hr 15 min. Ground control facilities consist of several one-way and two-way measuring and uplink stations, located in Russia. Currently (27 November 2007), GLONASS has 17 satellites in a constellation of which 10 are operational, 2 are in a commissioning phase, and 3 are in maintenance. The main driver of GLONASS development is the «Glonass-M» satellite with a 7-year lifetime and an additional L2 civil signal. During this satellite development, the phase satellite motion model was also improved and it helps end-users navigation accuracy. An important role in this process is played by the Qvazar-KVO system, determining weekly Earth rotation parameters like world time with an accuracy (RMS) of ms, pole coordinates with an accuracy of 0.7 ms of arc (RMS), and nutation and precession angles with an accuracy of 0.3 ms of arc (RMS). Wide-area augmentation systems, like WASS, EGNOS, or MSAS, provide value-added service to users like integrity and a precise ephemeris. In order to cover the global gap between Europe and the Pacific Ocean and provide a high-quality navigation service, Russia is developing its own System of Differential Correction and Monitoring (SDCM), which would provide unified service with other space-based augmentation systems. The GLONASS development program includes also several important points like: Providing continuous navigation in Russia supported by deployment of 18 satellites in the constellation Providing global continuous navigation supported by deployment of 24 satellites in the constellation Bringing GLONASS features to a level comparable with foreign analogs after 2010 Modernizing the Ground Control segment Introducing a civil signal on a third frequency (starting with the «Glonass-K» satellite lunch) Ensuring compatibility with GPS and Galileo in navigation signals and Earth and time reference frames Following GLONASS modernization based on new satellite generation («Glonass-КМ»). All steps in this program are supported by a federal target program Global navigation system, including five subprograms. Each subprogram has its own objectives, like GLONASS development and operation (Subprogram 1), developing and manufacturing GLONASS user equipment (Subprogram 2), implementation of satellite navigation in transportation (Subprogram 3), Russian Federation geodesic base development (Subprogram 4), and navigation equipment for special application development (Subprogram 5). Another important aspect of GLONASS s developing strategy is international cooperation with objectives of coordinating systems «owners» action during the modernization process and to ensure the system s interoperability and compatibility for effective application in the consumer sector, and the national system s integration into international GNSS. Russian experts are working with USA and EU representatives on intergovernmental agreements. There have been made numbers of fruitful meetings with Indian partners, as well as with Australian, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan experts. In conclusion, it is necessary to mention that GLONASS development has an objective to become a system allowing its users to create value-added products using GLONASS services. 116

4 REFERENCES [1] N. A. Anfimov, 2007, "The role and place of global navigation satellite systems in position, navigation and time service, presented at the 1 st International Satellite Navigation Forum, 9-10 April 2007, Moscow, Russia. [2] Y. M. Urlichich, 2007, GLONASS status, development and use perspectives, presented at the 1 st International Satellite Navigation Forum, 9-10 April 2007, Moscow, Russia. [3] N. A. Anfimov, Y. M. Urlichich, S. G. Revnivich, V. V. Dvorkin, and A. M. Finkelshtein, 2007, GLONASS is a basement of position, navigation and timing service in Russian Federation, presented at the 2 nd Conference on Fundamental and Applied Position, Navigation, and Timing Service, 2007, St. Petersburg, Russia. 117

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