Swedish waste management

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1 Swedish waste management 2014

2 Contents Preface...3 Waste quantities How Swedish waste management works...6 Waste prevention...8 Collection and transport...9 Hazardous waste...12 WEEE and batteries Material recycling Biological treatment...18 Waste-to Energy...22 Landfill Customers, tariffs and costs...26 Non-household waste...28 About Avfall Sverige Personell

3 Preface Preventing the creation of waste is the first step in the waste hierarchy. It is the priority of both Swedish and European waste legislation. The waste hierarchy priority is: waste prevention reuse material recycling other recycling, e.g. energy recovery disposal. Going back further than the five years in the tables in this document, we can see a clear upwards shift in the waste hierarchy. Material recycling has more than doubled since 1994, and biological treatment has almost quadrupled. In the same period energy recovery has increased by 70 percent while waste to landfill has decreased by 98 percent. A growing number of municipalities have introduced the collection of food waste separated at source; and where food waste is collected separately it goes for biological treatment. In 2013 the amount of food waste going to biological treatment increased by 16 percent from Anaerobic digestion is generally on the increase while composting is decreasing. In other words the biological treatment and recycling of household waste is increasing in Sweden, following the same trend as in the rest of Europe. However, the major difference is that almost no household waste goes to landfill in Sweden. Only 0.7 percent of Swedish household waste goes to landfill, compared with 34 percent in Europe as a whole. Swedish Waste Management 2014 is intended for actors in the waste management industry, decision makers, authorities, educational institutions, the media and all other stakeholders. Using text, diagrams and tables we describe the management of household waste in Sweden. Statistics are taken from the Avfall Sverige webbased statistics system, Avfall Web, and from producer organisations. Malmö, June 2014 Weine Wiqvist, Managing Director Avfall Sverige Swedish Waste Management 3

4 Waste quantities 2013 In 2013 the amount of household waste treated was 4,447,880 tonnes. This is an increase of 1.1 percent compared to For the population as a whole every Swede produced kg of household waste in 2013, compared to kg per person in percent of household waste goes to material recycling, which increased by 3.2 percent to 1,467,200 tonnes, kg/person. Biological treatment rose by 5.7 percent to 711,450 tonnes or 73.8 kg/person. 16 percent of household waste went to biological treatment in The amount of food waste collected increased by 16 percent to 370,070 tonnes. Increasing amounts of food waste are sent for anaerobic digestion rather than composting. The amount of food waste going to co-digestion plants has risen by 21 percent, while food waste going to central composting plants has fallen by 14 percent. The amount of food waste going to anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants was 79,320 tonnes. This is an increase of 34 percent, or 20,000 tonnes. Energy recovery dropped by 1.5 percent to 2,235,930 tonnes or kg/person percent of household waste went to energy recovery in The amount of household waste going to landfill increased by 2.1 percent to 33,300 tonnes compared to 2012, or 3.5 kg/person. Landfill accounts for 0.7 percent of total amount of waste managed. The amount of waste in bins and bags decreased by 0.2 percent to 2,208,000 tonnes, 229 kg/person. The amount of bulky waste increased by 3.1 percent to 1,780,000 tonnes or 185 kg/person. Statistics are taken from the Avfall Sverige web-based statistics system, Avfall Web, and from producer organisations. Avfall Web is a tool used by the municipalities for development, benchmarking and statistics. Municipalities and waste treatment plants report on waste management quantities. These details then form the basis of national household waste statistics. OVERVIEW WASTE TREND 2013 tonnes 2,500,000 milj. tonnes 5 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, , Biological treatment Landfill Energy recovery Material recycling Material recycling Biological treatment Energy recovery Landfill

5 TREATED AMOUNTS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE (TONNES) tonnes Material recycling 1,604,400 1,414,410 1,425,690 1,422,250 1,467,200 Biological treatment 617, , , ,450 Waste to Energy 2,173,000 2,123,680 2,235,720 2,270,650 2,235,930 Landfill 63,000 42,000 38,200 32,600 33,300 Total treated amounts 4,458,080 4,203,290 4,352,910 4,398,680 4,447,880 TREATED AMOUNTS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE (KG/PERSON) kg/per capita Material recycling Biological treatment Waste to Energy Landfill Total treated amounts TREATED AMOUNTS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE (%) Proportion, % Material recycling Biological treatment Waste to Energy Landfill Total treated amounts COLLECTED AMOUNTS OF WASTE IN BINS AND BAGS ALONG WITH BULKY WASTE, (TONNES) Waste in bins and bags 2,167,800 2,152,000 2,230,900 2,212,000 2,208,000 Bulky waste 1,498,400 1,518,000 1,638,000 1,727,000 1,780,000 (KG/PERSON) Waste in bins and bags Bulky waste Source: Avfall Web Waste in bins and bags consists of combustible waste, and food waste separated at source. 5

6 6 How Swedish waste management works Waste management should be geared towards achieving the maximum environmental and social benefit. Everyone should participate in this - municipalities, producers, households, and businesses. The municipalities are working to promote the prevention and reuse of waste. The responsibilities of municipalities. The municipalities are responsible for the collection of any household waste not covered by producer responsibility. Transporting waste to a waste treatment plant for recycling or disposal to landfill, is also the responsibility of the municipalities. Preparation for reuse is also their responsibility. This applies to household waste, and similar waste from restaurants, shops, offices, etc. Waste must be dealt with in an environmentally sound manner. Every municipality is required to have its own sanitation policy consisting of a waste plan and regulations for waste management. The waste plan should include details of how the municipality intends to reduce the amount of waste and the danger posed by it. Producer responsibility Producers are responsible for waste that is covered by the statutory producer responsibility for: recovered paper packaging waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) tyres cars batteries pharmaceuticals Producers must ensure that there are suitable collection systems and treatment methods in place. Households are responsible for separating their waste and disposing of it using the various collection systems. They must also follow the municipality s rules for waste management. Other waste Businesses are responsible for disposing of non-household waste and waste that is not covered by producer responsibility. Treatment methods Waste treatment methods are material recycling biological treatment energy recovery (Waste-to-Energy) landfill Preparation for reuse is also a recovery operation. Hazardous waste can be treated using one or more of these methods, depending on the characteristics of the waste. Material recycling reduces environmental impact at the same time as it saves energy and natural resources. Biological treatment closes the eco-cycle and returns nutrients to the soil. Waste is treated by anaerobic digestion or composting. Anaerobic digestion produces digestate and biogas which can be used as a vehicle fuel. Compost is a soil conditioner which can be used in gardens, parks and landscaping. Energy recovery is a method ideally suited for waste which cannot be recycled in any other way. It is an efficient and environmentally sound method of recovering energy from waste, providing both district heating and electricity.

7 Landfill is a treatment method for waste that cannot or should not be recycled. Landfill entails waste being stored in a manner that is safe in the long-term. Sending organic or combustible waste to landfill is prohibited. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES Organisational structures The municipalities must choose themselves how waste management is organised. Local government autonomy is part of the Swedish Constitution, and there are several organisational structures available: self-administration municipal enterprise, owned independently or jointly with other municipalities joint boards municipal association. Number of municipalities Self-administration % Municipal association 29 10% Joint board 9 3% Municipal enterprise 48 17% Municipal enterprise, owned jointly with other municipalities 46 16% Collaboration between municipalities is a natural operational structure, providing the greatest possible environmental and social benefit, managing waste cost effectively and securing the competencies. Municipalities can also cooperate in relation to specific issues, such as joint procurement. In 71 percent of the country s municipalities the collection of waste in bins and bags is carried out by private contractors. 22 percent of municipalities carry out collection themselves, and the others use a combination of private contractors and in-house collection services. Waste treatment is either undertaken by the municipality/municipal enterprise itself, or by an external contractor, which can be another municipality, municipal enterprise or private company. The distribution between the various structures depends on the method of waste treatment. COLLECTION OF WASTE IN BINS AND BAGS Private contractors 71% In-house collection services 22% Combination 7% 7

8 Waste prevention REDUCE REUSE RECYCLE ENERGY RECOVERY LANDFILL Avfall Sverige Preventing the creation of waste is the first step in the waste hierarchy. It is the priority of both Swedish and European waste legislation. The waste hierarchy priority is: waste prevention reuse material recycling, including preparation for reuse other recycling, e.g. energy recovery disposal. Exceptions to this hierarchy may be necessary for technical, financial or environmental reasons. All EU member states must have national programmes to reduce the amount of waste and to reduce the quantity of hazardous substances in waste. In Sweden, the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for this. In its waste prevention plan the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has focussed on four waste streams that have a major environmental impact: textiles food electronics construction and demolition waste Preventing waste leads to the greatest environmental benefit Sweden has a good track record when it comes to recovering material, energy and nutrients from waste. Additional environmental benefits can be achieved by preventing the production of waste and by increasing reuse. Swedish municipalities have an important role in reducing the amount of waste and the quantity of hazardous substances in the waste that is produced. For Avfall Sverige s members preventing waste is of the highest priority, demonstrated by our long-term vision Zero Waste. This vision has two goals for to have broken the relationship between waste quantities and growth, and to have achieved a clear shift upwards in the waste hierarchy. The municipalities are the drivers of this change process and the guarantors of long-term, sustainable waste management. Follow-up tools Up to now there have been no tools with which to follow up the progress of waste management, and to ensure that measures are geared towards established objectives. Avfall Sverige, along with other actors, has therefore developed indicators for resource efficient waste management, and tools for following up progress towards our longterm goals. Avfall Sverige will continue its work and will develop additional tools to support the municipalities in their efforts to increase reuse and prevent waste. Reuse It is becoming more common for the municipalities to collaborate on reuse at recycling centres with various charity organisations. Clothes and other items can be deposited here for reuse. 43 percent of recycling centres accept materials for reuse such as clothes and furniture. To facilitate the prevention and reuse work of the municipalities, Avfall Sverige has published a guide that explains the legal requirements. Avfall Sverige is the national coordinator of the EU project European Week for Waste Reduction, which is also supported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The project runs for one week in November when activities, aimed at reducing the amount of waste and the quantity of hazardous substances in waste are arranged all over Europe. The project began in 2009 and runs until Starting in 2015, Avfall Sverige and the country s municipalities will conduct a joint campaign on the prevention of waste and reuse. 8

9 Collection and transport There are a number of different systems for collecting and transporting household waste. Household waste in bins and bags can be collected either as a mixed fraction for energy recovery or in separate fractions one for food waste and one for combustible waste. Mixed combustible waste from single-family houses is generally collected in 190 litre bins that are emptied every fortnight. There are also a number of different bag and bin sizes emptied at different intervals. Waste from blocks of flats is usually collected on a weekly basis. The most common collection system for food waste separated at source is in separate bins, one for food waste and one for combustible waste. There are also multi-compartment or optical sorting systems. Optical sorting requires households to separate waste into different coloured bags that are placed in the same bin. The bags are transported by the waste collection vehicle to an optical sorting facility where they are separated automatically for the appropriate treatment. A growing number of municipalities have introduced kerbside collection of packaging and newspaper. For houses packaging and newspaper is commonly separated into two four-compartment bins which are collected at different intervals. One bin can be intended for waste such as food waste, combustible waste, paper packaging and coloured glass. This is collected every other week. The other bin, with waste such as clear glass, metal, plastic packaging and newspaper, is emptied every four or eight weeks. Traditional rear-loading vehicles are still the most predominant waste collection vehicles, but the proportion of multi-compartment vehicles is growing, and they are becoming more technically advanced. A growing number of vehicles use biogas as fuel, municipalities can control this through their procurement requirements. In addition, alternative fuels such as RME or Biomax, and various hybrid technologies can be used to reduce climate impact. Through procurement, municipalities can also impose requirements on the adaptation of waste bins and vehicles for health and safety at work. Modern collection systems Waste collection was previously marred by heavy lifting and many work-related injuries. Today bags have been replaced with bins or other types of containers. Manual waste handling is being replaced by new technology using automated systems such as vacuum waste collection and underground container systems. Both of these systems are on the increase, particularly in the cities and in newly built areas. One advantage of these systems is that they do not require as much heavy manual handling and that they are aesthetically more appealing. While the working environment has improved in many respects, there are still problems that the industry is working to resolve. From the perspective of occupational health and safety, vacuum waste collection has the advantage of being a closed and fully automated system. The system also reduces the need for transport, particularly in residential areas. There are two kinds of vacuum waste collection systems, stationary and mobile. The stationary vacuum waste collection system collects waste pneumatically in an automated vacuum system. This is then transported through underground tubes from the refuse chutes to large containers located in a terminal. These containers are collected by a hook loader vehicle. The mobile vacuum waste collection system 9

10 also uses air to collect waste. A storage tank is positioned under each refuse chute. The tanks are connected together to a docking point through an underground system of tubes. The vehicle connects to the docking point for emptying, the vacuum system is switched on and air propels the waste from the storage tanks to the docking point and into the vehicle. Underground container systems are another growing collection system. Containers placed underground reduce the need for space at street level. The temperature underground is relatively low, which prevents odours, and the containers are easily emptied using a vehicle with a loader crane. There are also underground containers that can be emptied using a front loader vehicle. Because underground containers hold larger volumes, the number of waste collection trips can be reduced. Liquid waste Collecting liquid waste such as sludge, wastewater, grease separation sludge and frying fat is the responsibility of the municipalities. The 212 municipalities that have reported data to Avfall Web have a total of 540,000 individual wastewater treatment plants. These handle about 1.3 million tonnes of sludge. 13 percent of municipalities use sludge dewatering vehicles, the rest use conventional sludge tankers. 150 municipalities have reported that they handle 67,500 latrine waste removals per year, and a total of 1,690 tonnes of latrine waste. The scope varies from one latrine waste removal per year in certain municipalities up to almost 11,000 removals in municipalities with many second homes. New solutions, such as phosphorous traps and micro sewage works for reducing phosphorous in individual plants, have been installed in recent years. This is because more stringent requirements have been imposed on the reduction of emissions that cause eutrophication. Filter material from phosphorous traps and sludge from small wastewater treatment plants, is classed as household waste, and it is municipal waste management services that are responsible for removal and treatment. Recycling centres At manned municipal recycling centres, households can drop off bulky waste, WEEE and hazardous waste. Bulky waste is household waste that is too heavy, too bulky or otherwise inappropriate for collection in bags or bins. In 2013, 1,780,000 tonnes of bulky waste was collected, mainly at manned municipal recyclign centres. This amount of bulky waste corresponds to 185 kg/person. There are approximately 630 recycling centres throughout the country, they receive about 25 million visits annually. The quantity of bulky waste and hazardous waste dropped off at recycling centres has increased significantly in recent years. The municipalities have therefore adapted and modernised their recycling centres. Smaller recycling centres have closed and been replaced by new, larger centres, better suited to current waste quantities and number of visitors. In the neighbouring nordic countries, minirycycling centres have been introduced in larger cities. The mini centres usually collect small bulky waste and weee. Tests with mini recycling centres are also underway in Sweden. There are also mobile recycling centres, manned mobile centres that accept hazardous waste, some bulky waste and also WEEE. These mobile centres visit a number of permanent collection points according to a schedule. Many of Sweden s recycling centres have been subject to thefts and break-ins. Personnel have also been threatened by visitors. Most of the larger, newly-built recycling centres have therefore installed electric fences or surveillance cameras which have reduced the number of breakins. Several municipalities have also introduced a barrier system at their recycling centres; this improves safety, provides a functional access control system and boosts visitor statistics. This system is often combined with an entry pass giving households a certain number of free visits. In several municipalities owners of small businesses may also use the services provided at the recycling centres for a fee. Recycling stations The producer system, with some 5,800 unmanned recycling stations for handling packaging and newspaper, is designed to cover the entire country. Collection systems should be based on consultation between the producers and municipalities. The recycling stations have separate containers for newspaper and various packaging materials. A growing number of municipalities are introducing the kerbside collection of packaging and newspaper from blocks of flats and houses. 10

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12 Hazardous waste 72,240 tonnes of hazardous waste was collected from households in 2013, an increase of 9 percent on the previous year. This also includes 44,000 tonnes of impregnated timber and 5,300 tonnes of asbestos. Compared to 2012, impregnated timber increased by 19 percent and asbestos decreased by 9 percent. In some products hazardous substances may occur in extremely small quantities, but taken as a whole they can cause substantial damage if they end up in the wrong place. It is therefore important that hazardous waste be separated and handled properly in the right place. Hazardous waste can contain substances that are toxic, carcinogenic, flammable or environmentally hazardous. The municipalities are responsible for hazardous household waste. This responsibility includes collection, transport and treatment. The Swedish Environmental Code, the Swedish Waste Ordinance and the Municipal Waste Regulation Ordinance regulate this responsibility. Households have an obligation to separate hazardous waste from other household waste. Most municipalities have regulated this obligation in the municipal refuse collection regulations. There are no exact details on the amount of hazardous waste produced by industry, but according to official Swedish waste statistics, reported to the EU by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2.7 million tonnes of hazardous waste were produced in Sweden in Collection systems The most common collection system for hazardous household waste is dropping it off at manned municipal recycling centres. Many municipalities provide kerbside collection for hazardous waste, often in combination with several other collection systems, such as hazardous waste collection vehicles and collection bins in shops. Treatment methods Hazardous waste handed in at collection or waste treatment plants often requires pre-treatment. As hazardous waste may contain substances that are to be phased out of the eco-cycle, treatment is often aimed at destroying these substances. Substances that cannot be rendered harmless or reused are taken to landfill. In this case it is important that the waste be chemically and physically stable, so that hazardous substances do not leak out into the surrounding environment. To recycle material from hazardous waste, hazardous substances are separated and the residue is recycled. This method is used for the disposal of paint tins and oil filters among other things. Toxic and persistent substances, such as pesticides and other hazardous chemical waste, are incinerated in special furnaces at high temperatures. Contaminated soil can be decontaminated through biodegradation, thermal treatment or soil washing. Impregnated timber contains substances hazardous to the environment such as arsenic, creosote and copper. Collected timber is chipped and incinerated in specially licensed energy recovery plants. 12

13 SWEDISH WASTE MANAGEMENT 2014 tonnes 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10, Collected quantities of hazardous waste (incl. asbestos and impregnated timber) Collected amounts of hazardous waste (including impregnated timber) Collected amounts of hazardous waste (including asbestos and impregnated timber)

14 WEEE and batteries 140,240 tonnes of WEEE with producer responsibility, excluding batteries, were collected in This is a small reduction compared to On average 14.5 kg of WEEE was collected per capita in The previous year 14.7 kg was collected per capita. In 2013, 2,600 tonnes of portable batteries and 520 tonnes of built-in batteries were collected. An average of 0.32 kg per capita. This is a reduction of 10 percent compared to In 2013, 6,850 tonnes of car batteries were collected, on average 0.71 kg per capita. This is an increase of 6 percent compared to the previous year. Collection systems Since producer responsibility for WEEE was introduced in Sweden in 2001, municipalities and producers have cooperated on the collection of WEEE. Avfall Sverige, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR), and the electrical producers service company, El-Kretsen, are collaborating on the El-retur system. The municipalities undertake, in return for remuneration, to be responsible for the collection of WEEE from households, while the producers are responsible for its treatment. In turn El-Kretsen collaborates with Elektronikåtervinning i Sverige, that also represents the producers. WEEE from households is primarily collected at manned municipal recycling centres, of which there are approximately 630 throughout the country. In about 80 percent of municipalities there are three or more municipally organised collection systems for WEEE. Kerbside collection by municipalities or contractors covers a total of about 1,200,000 households. Collection in shops, including the electronics industry s own collection system, is available at more than 1,500 collection points. Avfall Sverige and El-Kretsen collaborate with several municipalities on different projects to develop these collection systems. One such system is the collection container for light bulbs and small WEEE. There are around 100 of these collection containers placed in shops and other public places all over Sweden. The development of different recycling technologies has simplified the collection process for consumers, who can now put all their small light sources into the same container. The battery producers are responsible for the collection, treatment and recycling of all batteries, regardless of when they appeared on the market. Producers are also responsible for conducting nationwide information activities. In approximately 70 percent of municipalities, the producers organisation, El-Kretsen, handles the collection of portable batteries. In the others the municipality handles collection in return for agreed remuneration from the producers. 14

15 Treatment methods WEEE is pre-treated separated and dismantled before being sent for further treatment. Pretreatment is carried out at certified facilities, after which the waste is sent for final treatment or recycling. Components containing hazardous substances, are treated at approved treatment plants. Once the hazardous substances are removed, a lot can be recycled. Plastic cases are incinerated in energy recovery plants, and metals are sent to smelting plants for recovery. Recovered copper, aluminium and iron are used as raw materials in new products. Computers, mobile phones and other IT products contain small amounts of precious metals that are also recovered. For example, some printed circuit boards contain gold and/or silver. Fluorescent tubes and low-energy bulbs contain mercury. These products are therefore separated and treated in a closed process. The fluorescent powder and mercury can be reused in the production of new light sources. The glass is cleaned and reused. All batteries should be collected and recycled as far as possible. The batteries are sorted by chemical content before being sent for recovery or disposal. COLLECTED AMOUNTS OF PORTABLE AND BUILT-IN BATTERIES kg/person 0,40 0,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0, Built-in Portable Small batteries COLLECTED WEEE FOR RECOVERY tonnes 200, , ,000 50, Includes WEEE not covered by producer responsibility Source: El-kretsen and Avfall Web. 15

16 Material recycling 1,467,200 tonnes, 33 percent of household waste went to material recycling in This corresponds to kg per person. This is an increase of 3.2 percent compared to The total amount includes packaging and paper collected from households left for material recycling. These fractions amounted to 720,580 tonnes or 74.7 kg per person. Collection systems Most producers of packaging and newspaper have organised their collection and recovery undertakings through the company Förpacknings- och tidningsinsamlingen FTI. A small number of producers are organised through the company TMR. Packaging and paper is mainly collected through unmanned recycling stations owned by the producers. Collection can also be available using manned municipal recycling centres. Several municipalities have introduced the kerbside collection of packaging and newspaper. Households, and sometimes also small businesses, can drop off their bulky waste, WEEE and hazardous waste at manned municipal recycling stations. A lot of bulky waste, for example scrap metal, can be recycled. Wood can often be turned into fuel, garden waste can be composted or go for energy recovery, rock and soil can become fill material, etc. Today there are also recycling methods for plaster, flat glass and non-packaging plastic. Material recycling plays a key role in a sustainable society. It is therefore vital that waste must be viewed as a resource, and handled correctly. Material recycling means that separated materials can replace other production or construction materials. Material recycling not only results in a reduction in the consumption of virgin material; it also leads to energy savings. For example, by using one tonne of recycled steel we can save the same amount of virgin material, and more than one tonne of carbon dioxide. More can be recycled About 60 percent of the contents of household waste bags can be recycled. In households where there is no separation of food waste the figure is almost 80 percent. This is shown in a study from Avfall Sverige. This study has compiled 246 waste component analyses carried out in Swedish municipalities. Generally speaking, house owners are better at sorting out recyclable material. Approximately 30 percent of the content of a rubbish bag from a household in a single-family detached home consists of packaging and newspaper. For households in blocks of flats this figure is 36 percent. Half a percent of the contents of the rubbish bag consists of hazardous waste, batteries and WEEE. Most is WEEE. The chosen collection system also affects the degree of separation. Households in single-family detached homes are best at sorting. They leave half as much packaging and newspaper in the rubbish bag as other households. 5 U 2011:04 Nationell kartläggning av plockanalyser av hushållens kärl- och säckavfall 16

17 AMOUNTS OF PACKAGING AND PAPER COLLECTED FROM HOUSEHOLDS FOR MATERIAL RECYCLING 2013 [tonnes] [kg/person] Paper 332,780 34,5 Paper packaging 128,880 13,4 Metal packaging 16,530 1,7 Plastic packaging 53,840 5,6 Glass packaging 188,550 19,5 Total 720,580 74,7 Source: Avfall Web and Förpacknings- and tidningsinsamlingen (FTI) The information relates only to waste collected from households through recycling stations and by kerbside collection. MATERIAL RECYCLING HOUSEHOLDS tonnes 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , , Material recycling Material recycling excluding office paper, including new fractions for recovery COLLECTED HOUSEHOLD WASTE FOR MATERIAL RECYCLING (TONNES) Paper 420, , , , ,780 Packaging made from cardboard, metal plastic and glass 852, , , , ,650 WEEE 117, , , , ,780 Cooling units 26,080 26,730 26,760 24,620 24,460 Portable batteries 1,720 2,750 3,200 3,460 3,120 Car batteries 5,280 7,000 6,780 6,450 6,850 WEEE not covered by producer responsibility 5,000 5,500 5,050 6,610 6,030 Oil filters 1,800 1,800 1,820 1,690 1,740 Water-based paint 4,000 3,750 4,100 4,010 4,210 Scrap metal 169, , , , ,030 Plaster ,090 17,520 22,410 Flat glass - - 1,630 1,250 1,400 Plastic, non-packaging - - 5,400 4,010 4,170 Corrugated board from recycling centres 36,320 43,420 Other material for recycling 69,860 99,150 Total 1,604,400 1,414,410 1,425,690 1,422,250 1,467,200 Source: Avfall Web, El-kretsen and Förpacknings- och tidningsinsamlingen (FTI) The amounts of packaging also include packaging collected from businesses. A lot of this material is comparable household waste. Statistics on the recycling of plaster, flat glass and plastic (not packaging) by municipalities have been collected from and including From and including 2012 corrugated board and other materials are included in material recycling from recycling centres. 17

18 Biological treatment In 2013, 711,450 tonnes of household waste went to biological treatment - anaerobic digestion or composting. This is an increase of 5.7 percent over kg household waste per person underwent biological treatment in Biological treatment now makes up 16 percent of the total amount of treated household waste. The biological treatment of food waste, excluding home compost, was 370,070 tonnes in The amount of food waste going to co-digestion plants has risen by 21 percent, while food waste going to central composting plants has fallen by 14 percent. According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency s calculations, there is approximately 81 kg food waste per person annually in Swedish households. Increased collection of source-separated food waste The collection and treatment of source-separated food waste increased by 16 percent in 2013 compared to A survey carried out by Avfall Sverige shows that 64 percent of the country s municipalities collect source-separated food waste. About ten of them only collect food waste from restaurants and catering kitchens, while the remaining municipalities have systems for households as well. The survey also shows that an additional 70 municipalities are planning to introduce systems for the source-separation of food waste. Avfall Sverige has published a report to help municipalities and enterprises get started with the collection of source-separated food waste. Among other things, this report shows that it takes many years to introduce a collection system for source-separated food waste, from initial planning to the introduction of the system. It also shows that factors such as planning, adequate personnel resources, information and monitoring are more important for success than the collection system selected. The report outlines the systems currently available in the market, and describes the experience of those municipalities that have already introduced source-separated food waste collection. Collection systems The most common collection system for source-separated food waste from households in single-family detached homes, is in two separate bins, one for food waste and one for combustible waste. A multi-compartment system is also available in which different fractions are sorted into separate containers. Another collection system in use is the optical separation of different coloured bags that are put into the same bin. The system is now being used in more municipalities than previously. Treatment methods Anaerobic digestion is the most common method of treating food waste. Anaerobic digestion produces biogas, which consists mainly methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas is renewable, and following refining, can be used as a vehicle fuel. It can also be used for heating or electricity generation. Anaerobic digestion also produces digestate, a fertilizer with a high nutrient content. In 2013, 939,800 tonnes of digestate were produced. Using digestate instead of mineral fertilizer recycles plant nutrients back into the eco-cycle. This includes phosphorus, which is a finite resource. Compost is mainly used in soil conditioners or soil mixtures. 18

19 Certified recovery Plants that produce compost or digestate from separated biowaste, including food waste from the food industry, can quality label their products by being certified. Avfall Sverige has developed the certification system in consultation with agriculture and food industry, compost and digestate producers, soil producers, public authorities and researchers. LRF (the Federation of Swedish Farmers), Svenska Kvarnföreningen (the Swedish flour milling industry organisation) and LRF Mjölk (the Swedish Dairy Association), are some of the organisations that approve digestate based on source-separated food waste certified in accordance with the Avfall Sverige SPCR 120 system. The Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP) is the inspection body for this certification system. Today, approximately 90 percent of all digestate produced in co-digestion plants and used in agriculture, is certified. Certification places demands on the entire production chain, from incoming waste to the final product. There are also requirements related to the implementation of the process. Minimising methane emissions Avfall Sverige is engaged in a voluntary initiative to minimise emissions from biogas and refining plants. Although emissions are low from biogas facilities they should be minimised for several reasons. Some 40 biogas and refining plants have signed up to the voluntary undertaking. 19

20 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE (TONNES) Food waste to co-digestion plants 103, , , ,320 Food waste to central composting plants 101,720 77,520 73,370 63,030 Food waste that undergoes anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants 45,000 68,000 59,310 79,320 Food waste that undergoes anaerobic digestion at farm-based plants ,400 Food waste that is home composted 58,800 51,500 51,800 48,700 Garden waste to central composting plants 314, , , ,680 Total 623, , , ,450 Food waste is household waste and thus comparable when it comes from households, restaurants, food shops, schools and similar businesses. Waste from the food industry and slaughterhouses is not included. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE tonnes 700, , , , , , , BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT IN TOTAL INCLUDING HOUSEHOLD WASTE (TONNES) Anaerobic digestion 2 535, , , , ,550 Composting 630, , , , ,470 Total 1,166,430 1,227,830 1,245,150 1,254,770 1,474,190 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (TONNES) Digestate 498, , , , , ENERGY PRODUCTION (MWH) Vehicle gas 262, , , , ,470 Electricity Heating 41,280 50,980 17,380 15,540 24,400 Flaring 13,560 12,450 10,390 25,640 31,760 Total (MWh) 317, , , , ,630 Source: Avfall Web 1) These amounts refer to co-digestion plants that treat household waste. They do not provide a complete picture of biological treatment in Sweden. 2) The decrease in 2011 is due to two plants which were previously included in our statistics but have since been removed. Refers to facilities at wastewater treatment plants and is included in the statistics that the Swedish Water and Wastewater Association produces.

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22 Waste-to Energy In 2013, 2,235,930 tonnes of household waste went to energy recovery. This is a reduction of 1.5 percent from This means that every inhabitant of Sweden sent kg household waste to energy recovery in Waste-to- Energy makes up 50.3 percent of the total amount of treated household waste. Waste is an important fuel in Swedish district heating systems. In 2013, a total of 15.6 TWh of energy was produced, of which 13.8 TWh was used for heating and 1.8 TWh for electricity. Sweden recovers most energy from the incineration of waste in Europe, approximately 3 MWh per tonne. In addition to household waste, Swedish plants also treated 3,043,160 tonnes of other waste, primarily industrial waste. This is included in the statistics. Avfall Sverige s statistical information mainly refers to plants treating household waste. Energy recovery also takes place in energy recovery plants where household waste is not treated, but there is no comprehensive data on the total energy produced through the incineration of waste in Sweden. There is residue from combustion. Slag from the furnace makes up percent by weight of the amount of input waste, and flue gas treatment residues make up 3 5 percent by weight. Slag is mainly used as a construction material in landfill. Flue gas treatment residues are either transported to landfills or used as a neutralization agent when refilling mines and pits. Expansion and import There are 32 incineration plants for household waste in Sweden. According to a study by Avfall Sverige, the capacity for energy recovery in Sweden is greater than the domestic availability of combustible waste, and this is expected to continue to increase over the next few years. 301,500 tonnes of household waste was imported to Sweden in 2013, mainly from Norway. The total import of waste for energy recovery was 831,400 tonnes. Swedish energy recovery is helping Europe to climb the waste ladder by diverting waste flows from landfill. Recovery methods According to the EU Framework Directive on Waste, waste incineration with efficient energy recovery is regarded as recycling. Swedish facilities fulfil the energy recovery criterion by a good margin. It is a hygienic and environmentally sound treatment method for waste that cannot or should not be treated in any other manner. Emission figures from Swedish incineration plants are reported to the authorities according to requirements. 22

23 ENERGY RECOVERY Incineration (tonnes) Household waste 2,173,000 2,123,680 2,235,720 2,270,650 2,235,930 Other waste 2,322,120 2,704,370 2,671,760 2,771,370 3,043,160 Total 4,495,120 4,828,050 4,907,480 5,042,020 5,279,090 Production (MWh) Heating 11,502,820 11,752,870 12,798,018 13,031,240 13,762,940 Electricity 1,637,360 1,696,400 1,872,204 1,703,350 1,786,910 Total 13,140,180 13,449,270 14,670,222 14,734,590 15,549,850 Slag, bottom ash (tonnes) 736, , , , ,760 RGR, fly ash (tonnes) 216, , , , ,600 WASTE TO ENERGY RECOVERY ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WASTE tonnes 6,000,000 MWh 18,000,000 5,000,000 14,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 10,000,000 2,000,000 6,000,000 1,000, Total amount of waste to energy recovery Of which household waste 2,000, Total energy production (electricity and heat) Of which heat Source: Avfall Web 23

24 Landfill In 2013, 33,300 tonnes of household waste were sent to landfill. This is an increase of 700 tonnes, 2.1 percent, compared to Per capita this is 3.5 kg. 0.7 percent of household waste was sent to landfill in In 2013, a total of 1,391,900 tonnes of waste was sent to Swedish municipal landfill sites, a reduction of 163,400 compared to the previous year. However, at individual plants the total amounts of waste going to landfill can vary significantly from year to year, depending on a varying need to send contaminated excavated material to landfill. In 2013, household waste was sent to landfill at 47 waste treatment plants. Landfill is the method used for waste that cannot be treated in any other way, for example tiles, porcelain, ceramics and window glass. Landfill is only a small part of the operation at a modern waste treatment plant. Most waste treatment plants also sort waste materials for transport to reuse and recycling and for energy recovery. Sometimes landfill sites also serve as temporary storage for waste fuel and waste that falls under producer responsibility, such as paper and glass. Plants often also treat biodegradable waste and contaminated excavated material. Closed landfill sites must be capped. Together these landfills cover an estimated area of 25 km 2, and the estimated total cost for capping is approximately SEK 6 billion. Every year, approximately 6-8 million tonnes of material is used for capping landfill sites. Today, materials such as slag, sludge, ash and contaminated soil are used in the various capping layers. Most of the landfill sites closed due to stricter regulations, introduced in 2008, will be capped by In 2013, approximately 245 GWh of landfill gas was collected in total at 58 waste treatment plants, of which 194 GWh was used for energy. Energy recovery consisted of 12 GWh in the form of electricity and the rest in the form of heating. In all, 51 GWh of landfill gas was flared. Flaring does not produce energy but reduces methane emissions. Gas is recovered from 43 active landfill sites. In 2013 just over 7.1 million cubic metres of leachate was handled at 99 waste treatment plants. Only 60 of these plants are still sending waste to landfill. Dilution due to leakage of groundwater and surface water can also vary considerably between plants. Less than half of the plants report that leachate is diverted to municipal wastewater treatment plants after various degrees of local treatment. Other plants report that leachate is treated locally before being released to recipients. Gas and leachate recovery 24

25 AMOUNTS OF WASTE SENT TO LANDFILL (TONNES) Amount sent to landfill 1,030,000 1,271,000 1,515,500 1,555,300 1,391,900 Of which household waste 63,000 42,000 38,200 32,600 33,300 Avfall Sverige s landfill statistics do not provide a complete picture of landfill in Sweden. Initially the idea was to keep statistics of plants that accepted household waste. Today, many of these plants no longer accept household waste. There is some uncertainty about the figures for household waste as it is not always possible to distinguish flows of household waste from other waste. ENERGY RECOVERY LANDFILL SITES (MWH) Useful energy 294, , , , ,800 of which electrical energy* 17,400 20,400 16,000 10,500 12,600 Flaring 43,600 36,600 32,200 49,300 50,800 * Other energy is used for heating Source: Avfall Web LANDFILLED QUANTITIES tonnes 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000, Landfilled quantities of which household waste 25

26 Customers, tariffs and costs Municipalities and producers handle the management of household waste. The municipal costs are charged as a separate waste collection fee while the producers costs as a fee included in the price of the product. The producers determine what this fee should be themselves. As a rule, the waste collection charge covers the total cost of municipal waste management, but deficits may be funded through taxation. Administration, such as waste planning, customer service, invoicing and information are included in the costs. In addition, the charge must cover the cost of service at recycling centres, such as collection of bulky waste and hazardous household waste. The charge is often based on a fixed and a variable fee, for example one fee for waste collection and one for waste treatment. According to the prime cost principle in the Local Government Act, the municipalities revenue from the waste collection charge may not exceed their costs for waste management. Average charge The average annual waste collection charge for a Swedish household in a single-family detached home is SEK 2,032, according to data from Avfall Sverige s statistics system Avfall Web. Households in blocks of flats pay an average of SEK 1,303, and the average fee for second homes is SEK 1,165 annually. Many municipalities, that introduced the voluntary collection of food waste, use the charge as an incentive. For example, those who choose a food waste subscription, pay a lower charge than those who choose to leave mixed waste for collection. To achieve a higher recycling rate for waste, several municipalities have introduced a weight-based charge, where households pay an additional rate per kilo of waste collected on top of the basic charge. 29 municipalities have introduced a weight-based tariff in In this case, collection vehicles are equipped with a scale and equipment to identify each individual bin. The total annual cost for weight-based charges varies depending on the quantity of waste left for collection. The charge varies between SEK per kg for waste in bins and bags, combined with various types of bin charges and the fixed basic charge. Some municipalities with food waste collection have lower weight charges for food waste, in some municipalities it is free. The cost for waste management is on average SEK 733 per person each year, excluding VAT. The municipal cost for collecting waste in bins and bags is on average SEK 240 per person each year. Treatment of the waste is not included in this cost. The annual basic fee of SEK 313 per person covers the cost of recycling centres, the treatment of hazardous household waste, planning, information and administration. There are several mechanisms to reduce the environmental impact of waste management, improve resource efficiency and increase recovery. These can be information, administrative or financial instruments. Examples of administrative instruments include regulations and prohibitions, such as limits to emissions and prohibiting sending organic waste to landfill. Financial policy instruments can either be an incentive, for example tax relief and subsidies, or a penalty, for example taxes and charges. One basic principle is that the polluter should pay. 26

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