1 RAPID PROTOTYPING Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc JURUSAN TEKNIK INDUSTRI FAKULTAS TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS MALIKUSSALEH 2016
2 CONTENTS OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RP APPLICATION PRODUCT EXAMPLE
3 Prototyping By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc Prototyping or model making is one of the important steps to finalize a product design. It helps in conceptualization of a design. Before the start of full production, a prototype is usually fabricated and tested. Manual prototyping by a skilled craftsman has been an age-old practice for many centuries. Second phase of prototyping started around mid-1970s, when a soft prototype modeled by 3D curves, simulated and tested with exact material from other properties. The latest trend of prototyping, i.e., Rapid Prototyping (RP) layer-by-layer material deposition, started during early 1980s with the enormous growth in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technologies.
4 INTRODUCTION What is Rapid Prototyping? The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data. RP- can be defined as a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a part or assembly using three-dimensional CAD data. This CAD data may be generated by 3D CAD Modelers, CT and MRI scan data or model data created by 3D digitizing systems. RP - one of the fastest growing new technologies since its introduction in 1986.
5 Why Rapid Prototyping? To increase effective communication To decrease development time To decrease costly mistakes To minimize sustaining engineering changes Visualization of complex shapes not easily seen or understood on conventional drawings Allow design engineers to verify the form, fit, and function of a particular object
6 Classification of RP Additive Subtractive
7 What is Additive RP In additive prototyping, the machine reads data from a CAD drawing, and lays down layers of liquid plastic, powdered plastic or some other engineering material, and builds up the model from a long series of cross sections. These layers glued together or fused (often using a laser) automatically to create the final shape. Because RP technologies are being increasingly used in non-prototyping applications, such systems are also known by the general names freeform fabrication (FFF) solid freeform fabrication (SFF) layered manufacturing.
8 Subtractive RP Subtractive: the machine starts out with a block of plastic or wax and uses a delicate cutting tool to carve away material, layer by layer to match the digital object. The subtractive method is older and less efficient. Similar to a computer numerical control (CNC) device such as a lathe or a milling machine. Complex shapes and forms with undercuts are more difficult to accomplish with the subtractive method
9 Limitations of RP What are the limitations? RP systems can't yet produce parts: in a wide enough range of materials, at a fast enough rate, to match anywhere near the entire spectrum of requirements of industry and science.
10 Methodology of RP 5 Basics Steps: Create a CAD model of the design Convert the CAD model to STL format Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers Construct the model one layer atop another Clean and finish the model
11 CAD for RP By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc The first step in the Rapid Prototyping process is nearly identical for all of the various systems, this involves generating a 3-dimensional CAD model of the object. Design Part CAD (best: 3D solid model) CAD File (.stl or.iges) Building of a Prototype (Use of different Processes)
12 Create a CAD of Model Design Object must be a skin or solid STL (stereolithography files) triangles connected at vertices SLC (Stereolithography contour files) successive cross-sections taken at ascending Z direction intervals
13 Example - CAD model of the knee replacement femoral component First, a computer model is created by means of Unigraphics - the CAD software package. The model is fully parametric; therefore it is possible to work with the model geometry in order to optimize the model and fulfill new requirements.
14 Example - CAD model of the knee replacement femoral component (cont.) Next, the CAD model is exported as STL data. The RP model is prepared by means of Insight software, which was provided with Prodigy Plus. The STL model is sliced into horizontal layers. Then the support structures and extrusion head trajectories are generated. By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
15 Example - CAD model of the knee replacement femoral component (cont.) As a result of working with Insight software, a file containing the control code for Prodigy Plus is obtained. Then Prodigy Plus, following through the control code, builds the RP model without any operator intervention Prototype parts
16 Example - CAD model of the knee replacement femoral component (cont.) The RP model made of ABS thermoplastic is molded into silicon rubber and the tool obtained in this way is used to produce ceramic semi products by the cold isostatic pressing method Final Product
17 Types of RP Systems Stereolithography (SLA) Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) Inkjet Systems (IJS)
18 Stereolithography (SLA) A layered manufacturing method that utilizes a photo-curable liquid resin in combination with an ultraviolet laser Most widely used rapid manufacturing and rapid prototyping technologies
19 How SLA works? 1. SLA involves building of objects a layer at a time. 2. By tracing laser beam on surface of liquid photopolymer. 3. The photopolymer is solidified by the laser light. 4. Once each layer is completely traced, it is lowered exactly one layers thickness allowing fresh polymer to flow in. 5. Self-adhesive material property bonds it to one another 6. Eventually form a complete 3D object. 7. A complete 3D model is formed by combining many layers.
20 Schematic Diagram of SLA By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Completed part Step 4
21 Stereolithography (SLA) Why support is necessary? During fabrication, support is required if extremities of the part becomes too weak.
22 Stereolithography (SLA) By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc Advantage Capable of produce extremely accurate parts with very good surface finish. Suitable for a wide range of applications, from form and fit to actual testing Repeatability Drawback / Limitation Capital investment Cannot be installed in a typical office environment (handling liquid polymers) require manual processes for removal
23 Stereolithography (SLA) By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
24 VIEW MOVIE By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
25 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) A layered manufacturing method that extrudes a thin bead of plastic, one layer at a time. Works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers Second most widely used RP technology, after stereolithography. Favored technology for prototyping plastic parts requiring strength
26 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 1. Plastic filament supplies material to an extrusion nozzle 2. Heated nozzle melts the plastic 3. Deposits thin bead of extruded plastic as the nozzle is moved over the required geometry 4. Plastic hardens and bonds to the layer below 5. The entire system in chamber kept at temperature just below Tm of plastic. By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
27 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Variety of nontoxic materials exist like wax, ABS and other types of elastomers. Acrylonitrile, Butadiene and Styrene. Polysulfone/ polycarbonate Custom colors are available. FDM = office-friendly/ quiet/ fast for tall, thin small parts/ slow for wide parts
28 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) High accuracy Functional parts High quality parts with the finest details Water-soluble support structure Production materials Durable parts with great stability No post curing is required functional snap fit parts without the need of secondary processes
29 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Advantages: Operates unattended Accommodates several users Durable, functional, low cost materials Capability to build hollow or honeycombed parts Limitations: Small size of prototype parts and models Limited material selection Low dimensional accuracy/poor surface finish Slow build speed By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
31 VIEW VIDEO By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
32 3-D Printing A rapid prototyping process developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Layers of powder are bonded by inkjet to form a part They are no larger than a photocopier, run just as cleanly and quietly. 3-D Printer prints cross-sections of a model on a bed of plaster dust, using a sugar-water binding agent instead of ink. Advantages over other rapid prototyping techniques: the machines have lower purchasing costs parts are cheaper to construct
33 How 3-D Printing works? 1. The 3D Printer spreads a thin layer of powder. 2. An ink-jet print head prints a binder in the cross-section of the part being created. 3. Build piston drops down, making room for the next layer, and the process is repeated. 4. Once the part is finished, it is surrounded and supported by loose powder, which is then shaken loose from the finished part.
34 3-D Printing no external supports required speedy fabrication and low materials cost used as a direct manufacturing process and RP recently color output is available
35 3-D Printing Limitation Models constructed using the 3D printer method are weak and can easily be damaged and distorted Resolution and surface finish, and also available materials depending on fine powder.
36 3-D Printing By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
37 VIEW MOVIE By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc
38 PEOPLE CHOOSE FOR RP? Color variations. Including white, which is the most frequently used colour, ABS comes in eight material colours. The colour options include blue, yellow, orange, red, green, black and grey. The medical grade ABSi offers translucency for applications such as automotive light lenses in clear, red or yellow.
39 Property Stability - FDM By Dr. M. Sayuti, ST.,M.Sc Unlike SLA and PolyJet resins, the material properties of the FDM materials do not change with time or environmental exposure. Just like their injection moulded counterparts, these materials retain their strength, toughness and colour in nearly any environment.
40 Current RP Object sizes range from microscopic to entire buildings. Materials range from paper and plastics, to metals and ceramics. Applications range from toys to aerospace and advanced medicine.
41 Examples of RP system 1. FDM (fused deposition modeling) is a rapid prototyping process patented by Stratasys, Inc.
42 Examples of RP system The SGC 5600, Cubital's Rapid Prototyping System.
43 Example prototype products of RP Paintball mask by selective laser sintering (SLS)
44 A surgical planning model using fused deposition modeling (FDM)
RAPID PROTOTYPING Learning Objectives: By the end of the lecture the student should be able to: Explain the fundamentals of Rapid Prototyping Outline and explain differences of Rapid Prototyping Technologies
SERVICES AND CAPABILITIES 1. Rapid prototyping What is rapid prototyping? Rapid prototyping (RP) or more recently Free Form Fabrication refers to the fabrication of a physical, three-dimensional part of
RAPID PROTOTYPING Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus 4.-5. February 2010 15/02/2010 SEPPO AARNIO THREE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO RAPID PROTOTYPING MANUAL PROTOTYPING SOFT or VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING
Training Objective After watching the program and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will understand the principles and practical applications of Rapid Prototyping. Basic concepts are explained
1. Introduction Tutorial: Rapid Prototyping Technologies Rapid prototyping (RP) is a new manufacturing technique that allows for fast fabrication of computer models designed with three-dimension (3D) computer
Rapid Prototyping T A R E K A. T U T U N J I Prototype A prototype can be defined as a model that represents a product or system. This model is usually used for functionality testing and product visualization.
1) Introduction to 3D Printing General explanation of 3D Printing: A method of manufacturing known as Additive manufacturing, due to the fact that instead of removing material to create a part, the process
COURSE: ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Module No. 5: OTHER PROCESSES Lecture No-2 Rapid Prototyping Technology (RPT) Background: In this age of fast growth (rapid technology age), customer demands are
GLOBAL MANUFACTURING ARAUJO, Anna Carla AUG, 2015 Mechanical Engineering Department POLI/COPPE/UFRJ Workpiece Presentation Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing [#7] Powder Metallurgy PM parts can
1 Rapid prototyping is: Rapid prototyping is an additive (layered) digital fabrication technology Layers of material are added forming the final 3d physical model The digital data of the virtual 3d model
Manufacturing Processes Chapter 8 Manufacturing involves making products from raw materials by various processes, machinery, and operations Manufacturing has the important function of adding value Manufacturing
Leaving Certificate Engineering prescribed topic 2016 Basic principles of operation and applications of rapid prototyping processes Presented by: Ciaran O Loughlin Department of Mechanical & Automobile
Advanced Manufacturing Choices MAE 195-MAE 156 Spring 2009, Dr. Marc Madou Class 8: Rapid Prototyping By Dr. Miodrag Micic, firstname.lastname@example.org Two Ways for Fabrication: Substractive manufacturing Additive
TUTOR NOTES How to use this pack This pack is aimed at students studying for both Intermediate 2 and Higher Product Design. Students of other subjects might find it useful, and a Curriculum Map has been
Brief Report on machines available in the 3D Printers market and their characteristics by AJIU Asociaciòn de investigacion de la industria del juguete, conexas y afines, Contenido 1. 3D PRINTING... 3 2.
Fused Deposition Modeling: A Technology Evaluation Todd Grimm T. A. Grimm & Associates, Inc. Selecting the best rapid prototyping process can be challenging. Without hands-on experience, uncovering both
A Seminar report On Rapid Prototyping Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree Of Mechanical SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: www.studymafia.org www.studymafia.org Preface
I. The Premise A lot has changed in the last 20+ years. Just two short decades ago our top speed personal computer processors were clocked at 386 MHz, hard drive space and RAM memory were still measured
Rapid prototyping is the automatic construction of physical objects using solid freeform fabrication. The first techniques for rapid prototyping became available in the late 1980s and were used to produce
Prototyping Process Choosing the best process for your project Proto Labs, Inc. 5540 Pioneer Creek Dr. Maple Plain, MN 55359 P: (763) 479 3680 F: (763) 479 2679 www.protolabs.com 2009 Proto Labs. All rights
Annals of the University of Petroşani, Mechanical Engineering, 14 (2012), 104-111 104 DESIGN OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS BY RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION JOZEF NOVAK-MARCINCIN 1 Abstract: Rapid
As published in PIM International www.pim-international.com 64 Powder Injection Moulding International September 2012 Rapid prototyping of highperformance ceramics opens new opportunities for the CIM industry
New Advances in Rapid Prototyping using Inkjet-based 3D Printing April 2011 Objet Geometries Ltd. DISCLAIMER: Objet Geometries Ltd. ("Objet") does not guarantee the final release and availability of materials,
Chapter 5 POWDER-BASED RAPID PROTOTYPING SYSTEMS 5.1 3D SYSTEMS SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING (SLS) 5.1.1 Company 3D Systems Corporation was founded by Charles W. Hull and Raymond S. Freed in 1986. The founding
Orange County Chapter 3D Printing and Structural Analysis: Is There an Alternative to FE Analysis for Quick Design Info & for FEM Validation? FW Palmieri, Ph.D. 3/24/2014 Copyright 2014 Raytheon Company.
PROTOTYPING What is 3D printing? CONTENT What is 3D printing Short history Applications WHAT IS 3D PRINTING? Additive Manufacturing (AM) = The process of joining materials to make three- dimensional solid
3D Rapid Prototype Printer Introduction Risks & Hazards General Safety Operating Safety Maintenance Operating Procedures Introduction The information contained in this SOP is general in nature. It is advised
CAD/CAM in schools initiative 10 years on... where are we now? John Lee June 2009 what is CAD/CAM? Engineering Design & development Rapid prototyping Virtual testing DATA management Production scheduling
RAPID PROTOTYPING Principles and Applications RAFIQ NOORANI, Ph.D. Professor of Mechanical Engineering Loyola Marymount University Los Angeles, CA WILEY JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments
Allison Rae Paramount Industries Rhode Island School of Design ID 87 Prototyping Overview Prototyping for Mechanical Parts Paramount Industries Started as prototyping vendor, then added: Industrial Design
3D Printing & Medical Technology: New Risks & Potential for Liability Joe Coray, Vice President Corey LaFlamme, Assistant Vice President The Hartford http://www.thehartford.com/business-insurance/life-science-insurance
How to Effectively Move from 3D Printing to Injection Molding Tony Holtz Technical Specialist, Proto Labs Overview 3D Printing CNC Machining Injection Molding Design Considerations for Injection Molding
WHITE PAPER BENEFITS OF 3D PRINTING VACUUM FORM MOLDS AUTHORS COLE HARTMAN (MECHANICAL ENGINEER) & VERONICA DE LA ROSA (INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER) FATHOM is driven by advanced technologies. We leverage our expertise
2002 NASA FACULTY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA Development of Processing Parameters for Organic Binders Using Selective Laser Sintering Prepared By: Academic
Glossary # 2D Control Drawing A line drawing showing various views of a product with details such as material, surface finish, volume, tolerances and critical dimensions. 3D Animation Using computer software
Choosing optimal rapid manufacturing process for thin-walled products using expert algorithm Filip Górski, Wiesław Kuczko, Radosław Wichniarek, Adam Dudziak, Maciej Kowalski, Przemysław Zawadzki Poznan
RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGIES, APPLICATIONS AND PART DEPOSITION PLANNING Pulak M. Pandey Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Email: email@example.com 1. INTRODUCTION
Industrial Design Product Development Rapid Prototypes 3D Mold Design Short Run Production Legacy Data Translation Paradigm Engineering, Inc. is built on a foundation of innovation. Our unique expertise
f a l l 2 0 1 3 High productivity rapid manufacturing systems for general applications DWS profile DWS, Additive Manufacturing DWS - Digital Wax Systems, is an innovative Italian company founded in Vicenza
Application of Rapid Manufacturing Technologies to Integrated Product Development in Clinics and Medical Manufacturing Industries. by Francis Owusu-Dompreh Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
Discover The Magic Of Unlimited Design Sauber Aerodynamik AG I I 2016 Page 1 Your Advantages Discover the magic of rapid prototyping What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid Prototyping (RP) is magical. In conventional
Rapid Product Development and Rapid Prototyping service American Engineering Group (AEG) offer rapid product development service, a rapid and more costeffective solution for manufacturing. Bringing new
Section Number 3563 Tool Design and Concurrent Engineering using Rapid Tooling Construction Methods Nicole Hoekstra Engineering Technology Department Western Washington University Abstract Prior to rapid
3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing Proof-of-Concept Services Calit2 @ the University of California Irvine The RapidTech Center How can we help you? AM Technology & Process Consulting Early Stage Concept
Redeye On Demand Direct Digital Manufacturing Redeye on Demand Jeff Hanson Manager, Business Development Business Unit of Stratasys Inc Global Business with Digital Production facilities in North America,
Rapid Prototyping Technologies May, 2016 WE HAVE ALL THE NECESSARY TOOLS TO ENSURE THE FINAL SUCCESS OF YOUR PROTOTYPE. Andaltec can help you in all the steps, from the design to fully finished prototype
Volume 17, Number 1 - November 2000 to January 2001 Integrating Rapid Prototyping Technology into the Curriculum By Dr. Kenneth Stier & Dr. Ryan Brown KEYWORD SEARCH CAD CAM Curriculum Manufacturing Rapid
outerspace.co design & engineering resources Introduction to 3D Printing & Rapid Prototyping You may have heard references to 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping or Additive Manufacturing before. If you have
Poznan 11. 12.10.2010 RAPIDPROTOTYPINGSERVICE MODEL BY THE CDIO *) EDUCATIONAL FRAMEWORK *) Conceive Design Implement Operate Lauri Tenhunen Seppo Aarnio CDIO INNOVATION PROCESSES OF INDUSTRY RPS ELEMENTS
3D Printing Design Guidelines Sierra College CACT Prepared by ARW Consulting June 30, 2009 Table of Contents Scope of this Document.. 1 General Overview... 2 File Format.. 3 SST Support Material.. 4 Venting
3D printing: Additive processes in dentistry Following metal casting and dental ceramics,3d printing is the latest step in in the manufacture of replacement teeth. Professor Dr Constantin von See and Dr
Z Corporation 3D Printing Technology Fast, Affordable and Uniquely Versatile Introduction Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1993, Three- Dimensional Printing technology
ON-DEMAND PARTS MANUFACTURING Quickparts On-demand parts manufacturing services Using our additive and traditional manufacturing technologies, bring your design to life and create real functional end-use
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA FACULTY OF MACHINE BUILDING Theoretical and Experimental Contributions Regarding the Optimization of Rapid Prototyping Technologies Doctoral thesis ABSTRACT Scientific
Details FDM Standard lead time: Layer thickness: Standard accuracy: Surface finish: Maximum part dimensions: Capacity: Materials: 4-5 days 0.25 mm (for ABS, ABSi) 0.18 0.25 mm (for ABS-M30, ABS-M30i, PC,
3 D Printing Threat or Opportunity? 13:45 p.m./29 April 2014 Additive Manufacturing Printing...Evolutionary Revolutionary Additive Sensors and Micro Flex Circuits 3 D Printing Prototypes and Production
Tech Transfer to Start-up and Manufacturing - Fabrication Chris Moody Fabrication Incubators Business incubators can be just office space with business services and advice or they can provide early manufacturing
Rapid Prototyping of Human Implants with Case Study Varatharaj Kannan. S 1, Yogasundar. S. T 2, Suraj Singh. R 3, Tamilarasu. S 4, Bhuvanesh Kumar. M 5 UG Student, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu
1 of 5 3/24/2015 10:52 AM print close Machine Design Jeff Kerns Tue, 2015-03-24 09:28 Here s a look at 3D printing s potential and how it may grow. 3D printing is a fast-growing segment of the manufacturing
3D Printing Consumer vs Professional TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 2 A Brief History of 3D Printing... 2 The 3D Printing Process... 3 3D Printing Technologies... 3 Consumer vs. Professional 3D Printing...
Rapid Prototyping and Reverse Engineering A rapid prototyping primer Part 1: Stereolithography...4 Rapid Prototyping...4 Stereolithography...4 The process...4 Supports...5 Post-processing...6 Speed...6
Technical white paper HP Multi Jet Fusion TM technology A disruptive 3D printing technology for a new era of manufacturing The three-dimensional printing of objects and highly functional parts is becoming
Digital Architectural Tools Computer Graphics for Architects in 2001-02 (Arch6025) Marc Aurel Schnabel Wednesday, 26 September, 2001 Introduction It was only within the last few years that the advances
Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal Volume 9, No. 26, June 2015, pages 20 27 DOI: 10.12913/22998624/2360 Research Article APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES
By Lior Zonder, Applications Team Leader Nadav Sella, Solutions Sales Manager, Global Field Operations Injection molding (IM) the process of injecting plastic material into a mold cavity where it cools
Creation of 3D printed phantoms for clinical radiation therapy Eric Ehler, PhD Assistant Professor University of Minnesota ehler firstname.lastname@example.org Overview Background of 3D Printing Practical Information Current
FOR A 3D W ORLD TM The Power of Prototyping. Maximized. The Design Series About our technologies Our Objet 3D Printers employ patented PolyJet technology, which works by jetting state-of-the-art photopolymer
1 PERSONAL 3D PRINTERS Cube Home 3D Printer Our first 3D printer designed to bring your creations to life in brilliant colors right in your home just plug in and print! Wi Fi Printing Print up to a 5.5
WHITE PAPER RHINO TO STL BEST PRACTICES AUTHOR VERONICA DE LA ROSA RHINO TO STL BEST PRACTICES INTRODUCTION In order to get the best quality 3D prints from RHINO CAD models it is important to be familiar
Choosing the Right Rapid Prototype Source for Your Product Development Program Phillips Plastics Corporation November 2009 Introduction Being able to create prototype injection molded components and assemblies
Choosing the Right Rapid Prototyping Source for Your Product Development Program Phillips Plastics Corporation November 2009 Successful prototyping begins with mechanical design that will operate properly
Choosing the Right Rapid Prototyping Source for Your Product Development Program Phillips-Medisize Corporation November 2009 Successful prototyping begins with mechanical design that will operate properly
ISSN 1339-2972 (On-line) Rapid Tooling: A Major Shift In Tooling Practice Azhar Equbal 1 Anoop Kumar Sood 2 Mohammad Shamim 3 1 Department of Manufacturing Engineering, National Institute of Foundry and
envisiontec.com M-CAD Xtreme 3SP and Xede 3SP Vector 3SP ULTRA 3SP and ULTRA 3SP HD Perfactory 4 Standard and Standard XL Perfactory 4 Mini and Mini XL Perfactory 3 Mini Multi Lens Micro Plus Hi-Res and
Investigating Methods of Prototyping with ABS Ben Chapman, Shivam Desai, Mark Muraoka, Teodora Vidolova 1 Abstract In this comparative study of the mechanical properties of plastic parts produced by three
Application of Subtractive Rapid Prototyping (SRP) For RSP Tooling Prepared by: Pratik E. Nikam Research Assistant John L. Frater, Ph.D., P.E. Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Cleveland State
November 2010, Volume 4, No.11 (Serial No.36) Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1934-8959, USA A Study on Investment Casting Directly with Plastic Rapid Prototype Patterns Songhao Wang
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp.396 409, Article ID: IJMET_07_03_036 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=3
Prime Faraday Technology Watch Utilising Rapid Product Development and Late Customisation Methodologies within Manufacturing SMEs In this report, methodologies of rapid product development (RPD) and late
Fourth LACCEI International Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology (LACCET 2006) Breaking Frontiers and Barriers in Engineering: Education, Research and Practice 21-23 Jun