# PowerWorld Simulator for Market Analysis

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1 Quick Start for Using PowerWorld Simulator for Market nalysis

2 Overview This is a quick tutorial of PowerWorld Simulator s Optimal Power Flow (OPF) tool for analyzing power markets. The examples may be performed with the free evaluation software, which may be downloaded at The tutorial is intended for those who are familiar with navigating PowerWorld Simulator and have some familiarity with power flow studies. Free online training videos are available at powerworld asp to teach program navigation and basic functions in PowerWorld Simulator Live training sessions are also available. Please visit / l d Market nalysis Quick Start-2

3 Objectives Provide background on the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Problem Show how the OPF is implemented in PowerWorld Simulator OPF Explain how Simulator OPF can be used to solve small and large problems Provide hands-on examples Provide sample OPF results and visualization on a realistic large power system Market nalysis Quick Start-3

4 Optimal Power Flow The goal of an optimal power flow (OPF) is to determine the best way to instantaneously operate a power system. Usually best = minimizing operating cost. OPF can incorporate and enforce transmission limits, but we ll introduce OPF initially ignoring gtransmission limits Market nalysis Quick Start-4

5 Ideal Power Market: No Transmission i System Constraints t n ideal power market is analogous to a lake generators supply energy to the lake and loads remove energy no transmission limits and no losses There is a single marginal cost associated with enforcing the constraint that supply = demandd buy from the least-cost unit that is not at a limit the price of that unit sets the marginal cost Market nalysis Quick Start-5

6 Two Bus Example Total Hourly Cost :8459 \$/hr rea Lambda : Bus Bus B MW MW MW GC ON GC ON MW Market nalysis Quick Start-6

7 System Marginal Cost is Determined by Net tgeneration Cost Below are graphs associated with this two bus system. The graph on the left shows the marginal cost tfor each of fthe generators (which meet the equal lambda criteria). The graph on the right shows the system supply curve, assuming the system is optimally dispatched Generator Power (MW) Total lrea Generation (MW) Current generator operating point Market nalysis Quick Start-7

8 Typical Supply Curve for Northeast tu.s. Marg ginal Co ost (\$ / MWh) For each value of generation there is a single, system-wide marginal cost Total Generation (GW) Market nalysis Quick Start-8

9 Real Power Market Different operating regions impose constraints, e.g. total supply in region must equal total demand plus scheduled exports Transmission system imposes constraints (transmission limits) Marginal costs become localized Market nalysis Quick Start-9

10 Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Minimize cost function, such as operating cost, taking into account realistic equality and inequality constraints Equality constraints Bus real and reactive power balance Generator voltage setpoints rea MW interchange Transmission line/transformer/interface flow limits Market nalysis Quick Start-10

11 Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Inequality constraints Transmission line/transformer/interface flow limits Generator MW limits Generator reactive power capability curves vailable Controls Generator MW outputs Load MW demands Phase-shifting transformers (or phase angle regulators) rea Transactions DC Transmission i Line St Setpoints it Market nalysis Quick Start-11

12 Two Bus Example: No Constraints t Total Hourly Cost : 8459 \$/hr rea Lambda : Transmission line is not overloaded Bus Bus B \$/MWh \$/MWh MW MW MW GC ON GC ON MW Marginal cost of supplying power to each bus (locational marginal price or LMP) Market nalysis Quick Start-12

13 Two Bus Example: Constrained dline Total Hourly Cost : 9513 \$/hr rea Lambda : Bus Bus B \$/MWh \$/MWh MW MW MW GC ON GC ON MW With the line loaded to its limit, additional load at Bus must be supplied locally, causing the marginal costs to diverge. Market nalysis Quick Start-13

14 Hands-on: Three Bus Example Load the B3LP.pwb case.* Switch to Run Mode Go to the dd Ons ribbon tab Click Primal LP in the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) ribbon group to solve the case LP = linear program, a technique used to solve the OPF Initially the transmission line limits are not enforced *This case and others referenced herein by file name are included with both the full commercial software and the free evaluation software. They are found in the Sample Cases subdirectory where Simulator is installed. Market nalysis Quick Start-14

15 Three Bus Example Bus 2 Bus 1 60 MW MV MV 10 \$/MWh 0 MW 10 \$/MWh 0 MW MV 120% MV slack 180 MW Total Cost 1800 \$/h 60 MW 120 MW MV 120% MV Bus 3 10 \$/MWh 180 MW 0 MW Line from Bus 1 to Bus 3 is over-loaded; all buses have the same marginal cost or LMP (\$10/MWh) Market nalysis Quick Start-15

16 Three Bus Example ll buses are connected through 0.1 pu reactance transmission lines (no MW losses), each with a 100 MV limit The generator marginal costs are Bus 1: 10 \$ / MWhr; Range = 0 to 400 MW Bus 2: 12 \$ / MWhr; Range = 0 to 400 MW Bus 3: 20 \$ / MWhr; Range = 0 to 400 MW single 180 MW load is at bus 3 Ignoring transmission limits, all load is served by the least-cost generator, at bus 1 Market nalysis Quick Start-16

17 Three Bus Example To enforce transmission line limits: From the OPF ribbon group, Select OPF Options and Results to view the main options dialog Select Constraint Options Tab Clear the checkbox Disable Line/Transformer MV Limit Enforcement Click Solve LP OPF Market nalysis Quick Start-17

18 Line Limits Enforced Bus 2 Bus 1 20 MW MV MV 10 \$/MWh 60 MW 0 MW 12 \$/MWh 80% MV 100% MV slack 120 MW Total Cost 1920 \$/h 80 MW 100 MW 80% MV 100% OPF redispatches MV to remove violation. Bus marginal 180 MW costs are now 0 MW different. Bus 3 14 \$/MWh Market nalysis Quick Start-18

19 Why is bus 3 LMP \$14 /MWh? The least-cost source of marginal power at buses 1 and 2 is the local generator. Each LMP matches the marginal cost of the local generator. However, the generator at bus 3 has a marginal cost of \$20, and no generator has a marginal cost of \$14. Power flow in the network distributes inversely to line impedance, and all line impedances are equal. For bus 1 to supply 1 MW to bus 3, 2/3 MW would flow on direct path from 1 to 3, while 1/3 MW would loop around from 1 to 2 to 3. Likewise, for bus 2 to supply 1 MW to bus 3, 2/3 MW would go directly from 2 to 3, while 1/3 MW would go from 2 to 1 to 3. Market nalysis Quick Start-19

20 Why is bus 3 LMP \$14 /MWh? With the line from 1 to 3 limited, no additional power may flow on it. To supply 1 more MW to bus 3 we need Pg1 + Pg2 = 1 MW 2/3 Pg1 + 1/3 Pg2 = 0; (no more flow on 1-3) Solving requires we increase Pg2 by 2 MW and decrease Pg1 by 1 MW: a net cost increase of \$14. Market nalysis Quick Start-20

21 Bus Marginal Controls In the OPF Options and Results, go to the Results Bus Marginal Controls tab to identify the marginal units for each bus Market nalysis Quick Start-21

22 Three Bus Example To verify marginal cost, first set the present case as the base case (from Tools Ribbon, choose Difference Flows Set Present as Base Case) Change bus 3 load to 181 MW Solve the OPF View the difference case (from Tools Ribbon, choose Difference Flows Difference Case) Market nalysis Quick Start-22

23 Verify Bus 3 Marginal Cost Bus 2 Bus 1 1 MW MV MV 0 \$/MWh 2 MW 0 \$/MWh slack -1 MW 0 MW Total Cost 14 \$/h MV MV 1 MW 0 MW MV MV Bus 3 0 \$/MWh 1 MW 0 MW One additional MW of load at bus 3 raised total cost by 14 \$/hr, as G2 went up by 2 MW and G1 went down by 1MW Market nalysis Quick Start-23

24 Marginal Cost of Enforcing Constraints t Similarly to the bus marginal cost, you can also calculate the marginal cost of enforcing a line constraint For a transmission line, this represents the amount of system savings which could be achieved if the MV rating was increased by10mv 1.0 MV. Market nalysis Quick Start-24

25 MV Marginal Cost Switch Difference Flows back to Present Case From the dd Ons ribbon, Choose OPF Case Info OPF Lines and Transformers to access OPF Constraint Records Look at the column MV Marg. Cost Market nalysis Quick Start-25

26 Why is MV Marginal Cost \$6/MVhr? If we allow 1 more MV to flow on the line from 1 to 3, then this allows us to redispatch as follows Pg1 + Pg2 = 0 MW 2/3 Pg1 + 1/3 Pg2 = 1; (no more flow on 1-3) Solving requires we drop Pg2 by 3 MW and increase Pg1 by 3 MW: a net savings of \$6 Verify by changing the limit on the line to 101 MV Market nalysis Quick Start-26

27 Increased Line Limit Bus 2 Bus 1 21 MW MV MV 10 \$/MWh 59 MW 12 \$/MWh 0 MW 80% MV 100% MV slack 122 MW Total Cost 1929 \$/h 80 MW 101 MW 80% MV 100% Bus 3 14 \$/MWh MV Limit 1-3=101 MV; Total Cost decreases \$6 181 MW 0 MW Market nalysis Quick Start-27

28 How do Marginal Generators ffect Constraints? t In the OPF Options and Results, gotolp Solution Details LP Basis Matrix tab to identify the sensitivity s ty of each marginal a control on each constraint Increasing output of Gen 2 by 1 MW decreases flow on the binding constraint (Line 1-3) by 1/3 MW. The values assume marginal power is absorbed at the slack. Market nalysis Quick Start-28

29 Both lines into Bus 3 Congested For bus 3 load above 200 MW, the marginal load must be supplied locally Restore line 1-3 limit to 100 MV Change bus 3 load to 250 MW Market nalysis Quick Start-29

30 Both lines into Bus 3 Congested Bus 2 Bus 1 0 MW MV MV 10 \$/MWh 100 MW 0 MW 12 \$/MWh 100% MV 100% MV slack 100 MW Total Cost 3202 \$/h 100 MW 100 MW 100% MV 100% MV Bus 3 20 \$/MWh 250 MW 50 MW LMP at bus 3 is set by the cost of the generator at bus 3 (\$20) Market nalysis Quick Start-30

31 Loss of Generator at Bus 3 Now if the generator at Bus 3 is taken out of service, the 250 MW load cannot be served without overloading the lines, which have a total capacity of 200 MW Both constraints cannot be enforced The marginal cost is now arbitrary, given by a penalty function The Maximum Violation Cost is \$1000/MWh by default, but may be changed on the OPF Options and Results dialog, Constraint Options tab Market nalysis Quick Start-31

32 Unenforceable Constraint Bus 2 Bus 1 53 MW MV MV 10 \$/MWh 47 MW 0 MW 12 \$/MWh 100% MV 152% MV slack 203 MW Total Cost 2593 \$/h 99 MW 151 MW 99% MV 151% MV Bus \$/MWh 250 MW 0 MW Both constraints cannot be enforced. One is unenforceable and bus 3 marginal cost is arbitrary. Market nalysis Quick Start-32

33 Unenforceable Limits The cost minimization algorithm naturally tries to remove the line violations. High marginal prices and the OPF Constraint Records will identify binding and unenforceable transmission limits Look for generators that are in/out of service near the constraints There may be a load pocket without enough transmission: the 3 bus case with generator 3 out of service is an example of a load pocket Market nalysis Quick Start-33

34 OPF Line/Transformer Constraint trecords Marginal costs are non-zero only for active constraints Indicates if constraint is binding or unenforceable Market nalysis Quick Start-34

35 Cost of Energy, Losses and Congestion Some ISO documents refer to cost components of energy, losses, and congestion Simulator can resolve the LMP into these components Open the B7OPF.pwb case for an example, using a slightly more complex system with transmission losses Market nalysis Quick Start-35

36 Cost of Energy, Losses and Congestion From the dd Ons ribbon tab, select OPF Case Info OPF reas. For each area: Set GC Status to OPF Toggle Include Marg. Losses column of each area to YES Market nalysis Quick Start-36

37 Cost of Energy, Losses and Congestion Change the load at Bus 5 to 170 MW From the dd Ons ribbon, click Primal LP to solve The line between buses 2 and 5 is a binding constraint Now open OPF Options and Results Go to the Results Bus MW Marginal Price Details page Here you will find columns for the MW Marg Cost, Energy, Congestion, and Losses Market nalysis Quick Start-37

38 Cost of Energy, Losses and Congestion Note that the only value that is truly unique for an OPF solution is the total MW Marginal Cost k Impact of k Ek Ck Lk constraints on LMP Market nalysis Quick Start-38

39 Cost of Energy, Loss, and Congestion Reference The costs of Energy, Losses, and Congestion are dependent on the reference for Energy and Losses, specified for each region on OPF control: either an area or super area Return to OPF Case Info OPF reas Right-click on rea Top and choose show Dialog The Cost of Energy, Loss, and Congestion Reference option group is in the lower left Similar settings may be found on the Super rea dialog Market nalysis Quick Start-39

40 Super reas Super areas are a record structure used to hold a set of areas Super reas work like ISOs: a number of control areas are dispatched as though they were a single area, without fixed interchanges between the individual areas rea records are preserved for calculation of average prices, exports, and other quantities For a super area to be used in the OPF, its GC Status t field must be OPF Market nalysis Quick Start-40

41 Super rea Control For comparison, set the present case as the base case again (from Tools Ribbon, choose Difference Flows Set Present as Base Case) From the dd Ons ribbon, select OPF Case Info OPF Super reas Right click in the empty grid and select Insert Market nalysis Quick Start-41

42 Super rea Control Right-click in the empty grid and select Insert Select all areas and click OK Choose Optimal Power Flow Control from the option group on the right Optionally click the Rename button and rename the super area ISO Market nalysis Quick Start-42

43 Super rea Control Market nalysis Quick Start-43

44 Super rea Control Click OK to close the dialog Toggle Include Marg. Losses to YES Solve the OPF Market nalysis Quick Start-44

45 Super rea Control Replacing the 3 area interchange constraints and with a single power balance constraint for the Super rea allowed a redispatch that decrease the total cost by \$89/hour LMP changes vary by location. LMPs drop at buses 1-3, but increase at buses 4-6 Generator MW output increased at buses 4 and 6, but decreased at buses 2 and 7 The line between buses 2 and 5 is still a binding constraint Market nalysis Quick Start-45

46 Super rea Control Change in bus marginal costs with ISO Super rea control vs. individual area control Market nalysis Quick Start-46

47 Options for Further nalysis What are the marginal costs of enforcing the line constraints? How do the system costs change if the line constraints are relaxed (i.e., not enforced)? For example, try solving without enforcing line 2 to 5. Try these other scenarios Reduce the fuel cost of the generator at bus 1 Take the generator at bus 4 out of service Take the line between buses 2 and 5 out of service Increase the load at bus 3 to 200 MW Scale the load by 150%, system-wide Change the minimum MW limit of the generator at bus 2 to 50 MW and numerous other possibilities Market nalysis Quick Start-47

48 Summary In nodal markets, clearing prices and winners and losers may be greatly influenced by inputs and assumptions, including Generator costs or bids Generator availability Network topology (lines in service or out) Transmission limits Load: system-wide and at individual buses The concepts analyzed in these simple models apply to real-world power markets as well Market nalysis Quick Start-48

49 pplication of OPF to a Large System Next case is based upon the FERC Form Summer Peak case filed by NEPOOL Case includes NEPOOL, NYPP, PJM, and ECR, representing a significant portion of the Eastern Interconnect (9270 buses and 2506 generators) The system was modeled both as a single Super rea and as separate power pools with fixed interchanges Most generators e have estimated costs (others default to \$10/MWh) Market model and results developed in joint project between PowerWorld and U.S. Energy Information dministration Such cases are now generally only available in North merica from ISOs, Transmission Operators, and NERC entities. They are proprietary and subject to Critical Energy Infrastructure Information (CEII) restrictions on distribution. Market nalysis Quick Start-49

50 NEPOOL/NYPP/PJM/ECR Supply Curve Marg ginal Co ost (\$ / MWh) Super area has about 160 GW generation, with imports of f262gw Total Generation (GW) Market nalysis Quick Start-50

51 System-Wide Super rea: Transmission i Loading at Optimal Solution The constrained lines are shown with the large red pie charts Market nalysis Quick Start-51

52 System-Wide Super rea: Bus Marginal Price Contour Market nalysis Quick Start-52

53 System-Wide Superarea: 85 MW Gen in Western NY is offline Note the load pocket created and difference in LMPs based on operation of a single 85 MW generator Market nalysis Quick Start-53

54 Individual Power Pools: Bus Marginal Pi Price Contour Total operating cost = \$4,494, / hr, an increase of \$48,170 / hr Fixed interchange yields seams between power pools Market nalysis Quick Start-54

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