1 Direct Metal Deposition: Tomorrow s Technology Today
2 Session Agenda Introduction of Speaker Overview of Direct Metal Deposition Technology. Review Unique Applications Enabled by DMD. Case Studies Tool Reconfiguration Bi-Metallic High Productivity Molds Increasing Die Life for Forging / Stamping
3 Position: Brian A. Ziskie V.P., Business Development POM Group, Inc. Northwood Institute, B.B.A. Prior to POM: Haden International Group Education: Prior to POM: Awards: Global PACE Award for Innovative Tooling Applications Affiliations: Michigan Minority Business Development Council, Board of Directors 2000 MMBDC President s s Award
4 Who Are We? The POM Group: - has commercialized a revolutionary laser based metal fabrication process called Direct Metal Deposition (DMD). - DMD was developed by U of M (Dr. Mazumder) - POM uses its DMD technology to create a unique competitive advantage for its moldmaking operation. - POM operates one of the most advanced tooling facilities in North America.
5 Awards & Accomplishments Supplier of the Year 2002 (MMBDC) Copyright 2000 The POM Group Inc. All rights reserved 2002 National Supplier of the Year
6 Clients Served
7 Origins of DMD Technology Copyright 2001 POM Company Inc. All rights reserved
8 What is DMD? DMD is: A CAD driven metal fabricating process. A laser-fusion process that produces a metallurgical bond between like or dis-similar metals. A process which is capable of creating bi-metallic components. A fully dense (99.8%) metal fabrication process. A process that relies on powder metal as the raw material for construction.
9 What is DMD? DMD is not: Spray metal tooling 3D metal printing Laser sintering Laser melting Welding
10 Comparisons of RP Processes DMD: The Only 100% Metal Art-to-Part Technology Cleaning Postcuring CNC Finishing Tool Steel StereoLithographic Apparatus (SLA) X X X No Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) X No Fused Deposit Modeling (FDM) X X No Laminated Object Model (LOM) X X No Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) X Yes Full Dense Tool Steels DMD is the only direct art-to-part, multi-material, pure metal rapid prototyping process.
11 What Does DMD Enable? DMD Technology Enables: Double-digit productivity improvement in molding & die casting Optimized thermal management of molds. Tooling cost reduction Only tooling restoration process. Reduced lead time for tooling Additive metal changes. Tooling reconfiguration process.
12 Reconfiguration of Active Molding Surface Use of Several Tool Steels Across Molding Surface Copper-Steel Bi-Metallic Mold Inserts Conformal Cooling Lines Can Be Used for Tool Restoration or Repair Proto-Production Conversion Additive Metal Changes DMD Tooling Conventional Selective Laser CNC Tooling Sintering (SLS) Benefits of Direct Metal Technology
13 DMD Process Overview
14 What Is DMD? LASERS CAD CAM SENSORS Patent Awarded Powder Metallurgy DMD: Blending of Five Common Technologies
15 DMD is is closed loop additive metal fabrication process Patent Awarded
16 Laser beam channel Powder deliver channel Concentric Laser- Powder-Gas Nozzle Used in DMD Copyright 2001 P O M Company Inc. All rights reserved
17 DMD used optical sensors for closed loop melt pool control during deposition Patent Awarded Copyright 1999 POM Company Inc. All rights reserved
18 How does DMD s closed loop deposition process help? Closed loop deposition improves dimensional accuracy no need for intermediary machining of parts when deposit builds irregularly. Example of direct metal fabrication with POM s closed loop height controller. Left: w/height controller; Right: no height controller (as used Copyright 1999 POM Company Inc. All rights reserved
19 DMD can add small detailed tool steel changes to mold surfaces
20 Micro-photograph of best-in-class H13 Tool Substrate with H13 over-clad by DMD Process H13 by DMD longitudinal crosssection interface Industry standard H13 mold pre-form Copyright 1999 POM Company Inc. All rights reserved
22 Frequently Asked Questions Can you weld on deposited tool steel? Yes, it is pure tool steel What are the approach limitations? 45 degrees Over 45 degrees we break set-up and rotate part Is it possible to grain a DMD deposited surface? Yes What tolerances can POM build to?
23 DMD Materials S7 (S ).. Molds & Dies (Rc 62) H13 (1.2344). Molds & Dies (Rc 48) H19 (1.2678). Molds & Dies (Rc 50) P20 (1.2311)... Injection Molds (Rc 35) 420 SS (1.4034).. Injection Molds 17-4 SS (1.4542). Injection Molds 15-5 SS (1.4545)... Injection Molds Cobalt Super Alloys Warm & Hot Forge Tooling Nickel Super Alloys Warm & Hot Forge Tooling WC-Cobalt Cermet. Abrasive Wear Surfaces WC-Iron Cermet. Abrasive Wear Surfaces
24 What does DMD machinery look like? Copyright 2001 POM Company Inc. All rights reserved
25 GEN-III Direct Metal System
26 Production Process Steps Conceptualization CAD Data Input CAM Slicing
27 Production Process Steps Direct Metal Fabrication Near Net Shape Creation to Post Finish by CNC/ EDM
28 Tooling Development Center
29 Tooling Development Center
30 Fully Automated Graphite Making Bay
31 High Speed CNC Machining Bay
32 Direct Metal Systems Are Used for Additive Metal
33 DMD Technology Enables Unique Applications in Tooling 1. Tool Reconfiguration 2. Tool Restoration 3. Thermal Management 4. Increased Tool Life 5. Additive Metal Changes
34 CASE STUDIES for Tooling Reconfiguration
35 Overview of Program PROBLEM Production Tooling Tool fabricated in China for $200,000. Need to change 4 cavities on tool to reflect a new design which is driven by the client s marketing group. Tool must be reconfigured in less than 2 weeks. RISK ASSESSMENT Heat input associated with traditional welding processes would result in significant tool distortion & warpage. Re-fit lifter shut-off tooling surfaces. Tool is highly polished and contains textured areas which will not color match if traditional welding is used. Tool is high volume and additive metal change must be robust.
36 NuTool Reconfigurable Tooling BENEFITS Cost Avoidance (85%) P Reconfiguration vs purchase of new tooling Time Compression (90%) 1 st shot parts in 2 weeks vs 20 weeks to achieve marketing release of new product at major trade show.
37 Tooling Reconfiguration
38 Reconfigured Part Design Original Part Design
39 Hardened DMD deposited Original Part Design Tool Reconfigured Part Design
42 Summary of Reconfigured Tooling CNC and DMD technology are used as enabling technologies. Laser Scanning technology is usually required to obtain surface data for legacy tool. Lead time reductions of about 65% for reconfigured tools have been realized. Cost reduction of 35% for reconfigured tools have been realized. Process is applicable to Class A, highly polished tool cavities. Process is applicable to production tooling as well as prototype.
43 DMD Technology Enables Unique Applications in Tooling 1. Tool Reconfiguration 2. Tool Restoration 3. Thermal Management 4. Increased Tool Life 5. Additive Metal Changes
44 Current repair methods Manually repair of mold hard-facing by welding (90%) thermal spray coat (10%) Insert the mold if repair is on the non-show surface ( B side of the tool) OR Replace the new, expensive mold
45 Commercial Issues of Welding of Tools Most clients forbid welding on production tools due to: lack of color match to parent material reduced life of tool due to HAZ unpredictable results during operation repair is noticeable on the molded part unless hidden by texturing Copyright 2000 The POM Group Inc. All rights reserved
46 Weld Repair of Tooling Partially Melted Zone (transformed part of HAZ Weld Fusion Zone Heat Affected Zone
47 Tooling Restoration / Repair Laser Powder Fusion is used by GE to repair its turbine blades
48 Metallurgical Study of Interface Region of Tools Repaired Using DMD DMD Repair Zone interface Original Tooling Surface
49 Color Match Repair of Tooling Color match test block H13 tool steel Reconstruction zone by DMD Copyright 2000 The POM Group Inc. All rights reserved
50 Case Study: Reconstruction of Catastrophically Damaged Tooling Inserts
51 P Pre-DMD (damaged insert) DMD Restored Insert with amputated detail alongside (right)
52 Restoration of Heat Checked Die Casting Insert P Pre-machined Insert DMD Restored Insert
53 Lens Tooling Engraving Change Area of Mold to be Reconstructed
54 Lens Tooling Engraving Change Reconstruction zone by DMD
55 Color-matched Material Additions Class A Molding Surfaces DMD shown adding tool steel to finished production BSM molds for GM Program DMD shown modifying gate dimensions and material used for gate area on P20 tool.
56 Case Study: Color Match Texture Repair
57 Logo Change on Textured Mold Surface Required Texture Repair
58 DMD is Used to Deposit New Steel Onto Existing EDM Logo
59 Texture Repair Matching After DMD Process
60 DMD Technology Enables Unique Applications in Tooling 1. Tool Reconfiguration 2. Tool Restoration 3. Thermal Management 4. Increased Tool Life 5. Additive Metal Changes
61 Key Factors for Sucess Short Cycle Times with Good Quality Economic Efficiency of a Molding Production Process is Tied Directly to the Hourly Production Rate That Can Be Achieved with the Mold. The requirements for a short cycle time must be combined with good molding quality.
62 Requirements for Shortest Possible Cycle Time An optimal heat exchange between the injection plastic and the mold, and An even temperature distribution in the mold surface from cycle-to-cycle.
63 In molding, the mold performs three basic functions: Forming molten material into the product shape, Removing heat for solidification, Ejecting the solid part. Of the three, heat removal takes the longest time and has the greatest impact on cycle time.
64 Conventional Molds & Dies Cooling Time Represents the Largest Element Eject Part 10% Close Mold 6% Fill Mold 8% Part COOL 44% Pack & Hold 32% Copyright 1999 POM Company Inc. All rights reserved
65 SteelCLAD High Conductivity Inserts Combinatorial Tooling Technology POM produces advanced thermal management tooling by combining two technologies: DMD laser-based metal fabrication, + Traditional CNC & EDM machining Copyright 2001 The POM Group Inc. All rights reserved
66 SteelCLAD Inserts Tool Steel Molding Surfaces Copper Alloy Heat Sink as Tool Base Copyright 2000 The POM Group Inc. All rights reserved
67 Case Study: Creation of High Productivity Bi-Metallic Inserts
68 Copper Alloy Heat Sink as Tool Base Productivity Improvement 25% Cycle Time Improvement Tool Steel Molding Surfaces
70 Base substrate Highly conductive copper is machined to form the base substrate. This base has been engineered and tested to achieve superior cooling results.
71 Tool steel deposition Tool steel is added to the substrate Base through the DMD process. The tooling steel is deposited at various hardness to achieve maximum tool life.
72 Semi finished Insert After the DMD process the insert is at a semi finished state. It can be finished in or out of house.
73 Finished Insert The semi finished insert will have stock left on all sides. Once removed the high performance insert is complete
74 Finished Insert The semi finished insert will have stock left on all sides. Once removed the high performance insert is complete
75 Finished Insert The high performance inserts may also be sub-inserted during the finishing process.
76 Cross section of Finished High performance copper clad insert Highly conductive Copper substrate Hardened DMD deposited tool steel Hardened sub-insert Water cooling lines trough insert
77 Copper Alloy Heat Sink as Tool Base Tool Steel Molding Surfaces Productivity Improvement
78 Copper Alloy Heat Sink as Tool Base Productivity Improvement Tool Steel Molding Surfaces This insert produced a 40% productivity increase for GW Plastics
79 Copper Alloy Heat Sink as Tool Base Productivity Improvement Tool Steel Molding Surfaces
80 Productivity Improvement ( 8 seconds vs 12 seconds) Steel mold surface applied by DMD
81 DMD Technology Enables Unique Applications in Tooling 1. Tool Reconfiguration 2. Tool Restoration 3. Thermal Management 4. Increased Tool Life 5. Additive Metal Changes
82 Case Study: Forging Tool Life Improvement
83 Forging Tools : Service Life Improvement Current Tooling is made from S7 Tool Steel. Tool Service Life is approx pieces before failure.
84 POM Solution Laser deposited super wear resistant alloy applied by DMD process to current tool blank.
85 POM Process S7 tooling blank Wear Alloy applied by POM Post deposition Tool insert after DMD and after final machining
86 POM Results POM s bi-metallic forging tool produces 19,000 pieces before failure. 4X tool life!
87 Case Study: Improved Life of Stamping Trim Steels
88 Ford Woodhaven Trim Steel for Aluminum Hood Before DMD: 2000 hits before need for repair. After DMD: hits without sign of wear, 10x Life Improvement of Trim Steels.
89 DMD Technology Enables Unique Applications in Tooling 1. Tool Reconfiguration 2. Tool Restoration 3. Thermal Management 4. Increased Tool Life 5. Additive Metal Changes
90 Case Study: Additive Metal Changes to Large Production Molds
91 Overview of Program PROBLEM Production Tooling - 1.5mm wall stock variation Epoxy used to build-up tooling surface during tooling development phase Epoxy need be replaced by tool steel No CAD geometry for surfaces created with epoxy RISK ASSESSMENT Heat input associated with traditional welding processes would result in significant tool distortion & warpage. Re-fit lifter shut-off tooling surfaces (14 to 20 days) Oxidation resulting from pre heat and post heat treatment would require refinishing the entire tooling surface (10 days).
92 Pre-DMD Area for DMD deposit Mating surface for other insert
94 DMD Technology Enables Unique Applications in Tooling 1. Tool Reconfiguration 2. Tool Restoration 3. Thermal Management 4. Increased Tool Life 5. Additive Metal Changes
95 Case Study: Additive Metal Changes to High Appearance Parts
96 Additive Metal Change to S7 Injection Mold
97 Mold Insert Before DMD Additive Change
98 Mold Insert After DMD Additive Change & EDM Finish
99 Summary of Applications & Benefits for Tooling Copyright 1999 POM Company Inc. All rights reserved
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