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1 inclusion equal opportunity recognition Employment Statistics for Persons with Disabilities in Nova Scotia A Statistical Report

2 Persons with Disabilities in Nova Scotia. A Statistical Report on Employment. Disabled Persons Commission Table of Contents. Introduction... 1 Overview of the Labour Force for People With Disabilities... 2 Changes in the Labour Market Between 2001 and Provincial Employment Differences...8 Gender and Employment...9 Severity of Disability and Employment Type of Disability and Employment Occupations of People With Disability Hours Worked Per Week Limitations and Barriers to Employment Workplace Accommodations Appendix A. Definitions of Disability Used in the PALS Survey Appendix B. Defining Severity of Disability Used in the PALS Survey Appendix C. Definitions of Types of Disability Used in the PALS Survey Appendix D. Defining Age Standardization Standard Symbols Used in Statistics Canada Tables i

3 Dartmouth Professional Center. 277 Pleasant Street, Suite 104. Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4B7. Phone: (902) Toll Free: Fax: (902) TTY: (902) Toll Free TTY: ii

4 Introduction. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of employment statistics for persons with disabilities in Nova Scotia. The publication is intended to provide a quick reference for individuals and/or organizations who may be involved in developing policies or programs that impact directly upon persons with disabilities in Nova Scotia. The information provided in this publication has been obtained from the latest Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) collected in In several tables and figures, information from the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) and 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS) have been included for comparison purposes with the 2006 data. This publication is the second in a series of PALS statistical reports by the Nova Scotia Disabled Persons Commission. It contains survey results on employment for persons with disabilities in Canada and Nova Scotia. Table totals and percentages for each category have been included wherever possible. In some cases the table totals and the accompanying percentages have been calculated by the Nova Scotia Disabled Persons Commission, and therefore are not the responsibility of Statistics Canada. Errors, omissions or questions should be directed to the Disabled Persons Commission. 1

5 Overview of the Labour Force for People With Disabilities. Participation in the labour market is an important part of life for Nova Scotians with Disabilities seeking personal independence and long-term financial security. Participation in the labour market can be especially challenging for people with disabilities because they often face additional barriers compared to persons without a disability. In addition to finding employment, a person with a disability may be limited in the amount or kind of work they can do; they may require workplace accommodations such as modified hours or duties or structural modifications; they may experience discrimination, or they may encounter any combination of these barriers. This report uses information from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) to explore the employment experiences of people with disabilities to gauge their success in the labour market in People without disabilities are frequently utilised as a comparative group. In some cases only Canadian data are used as Nova Scotian data were not available. In addition, this report provides analysis of changes in the labour market experiences of people with disabilities between 2001 and The final sections of this report explore occupations, hours worked, workplace accommodations and barriers to employment for people with disabilities. 2

6 Changes in the Labour Market Between 2001 and 2006 for People With and Without Disabilities. Evidence of Canada s strong economy was obvious in the rate as it fell in nearly all parts of Canada between 2001 and The rate for people with disabilities also demonstrated this strong economic growth, decreasing from 13.2% to 10.4%. While people with activity limitations experienced a higher rate in 2006 than the non-disabled population (10.4% versus 6.8%), the gap narrowed between the two groups considerably. In 2001, the rate for people with activity limitations was nearly double that of the population without disabilities at 13.2% compared to 7.4%. By 2006, a decrease in the rate for people with disabilities and a smaller decline for people without disabilities narrowed the gap in the rates by roughly one third. As the following section on employment will show, nearly all of these gains appear to result from growth in employment for people with disabilities rather than people leaving the labour force. 3

7 Table 1 Labour force status for adults 15 to 64 for Canada, 2001 and 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2001 and 2006 Labour force status Canada Total 2001 Without disability With disability Total labour force 15,221,660 14,198,000 1,023,650 Employed 14,105,950 13,194, ,130 Unemployed 1,115,710 1,003, ,520 Not in labour force 4,632,580 3,691, ,050 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment Age standardized Labour force status Canada Total Without disability With disability Total labour force 16,390,810 15,021,930 1,368,880 Employed 15,320,500 14,069,780 1,250,720 Unemployed 1,070, , ,150 Not in labour force 4,784,100 3,715,950 1,068,150 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment Age standardized

8 Table 2 Labour force status for adults 15 to 64 for Nova Scotia, 2001 and 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2001 and 2006 Labour force status Nova Scotia Total 2001 Without disability With disability Total labour force 440, ,610 39,480 Employed 388, ,170 34,370 Unemployed 51,550 46,440 5,110 Not in labour force 167, ,650 47,810 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment Age standardized Labour force status Nova Scotia Total Without disability With disability Total labour force 462, ,220 54,560 Employed 423, ,380 48,430 Unemployed 38,970 32,840 6,130 Not in labour force 156, ,600 49,170 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment Age standardized

9 Figures 1A and 1B provide a pie chart representation of the labour force status for persons with and without disabilities for Canada and Nova Scotia. As these charts show, the labour force activity of people with and without disabilities is substantially different. For people with disabilities, the proportions of the population who were not in the labour force versus employed were nearly equal compared to three quarters (75%) of the non-disabled population that is employed and about one fifth (20%) that is not in the labour force. It should be noted that the age distributions of the populations with and without disabilities are also very different. For example, the median age of the working age (15 to 64) population with disabilities is 49.0 years compared to 39.0 years for the non-disabled population. 1 Figure 1A Labour force status for people with and without disabilities, Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2001 and 2006 People with disabilities People without disabilities 44% 51% 20% 5% 5% 75% Employed Unemployed Not in labour force Note: Excludes Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut 1 For this reason, all, employment and labour force participation rates presented in this report for the population with disabilities have been age standardised to the age distribution of the non-disabled population. (See Appendix D) 6

10 As Figure 1B shows, the labour force status of persons with and without disabilities was very similar for Nova Scotia as that of Canada in Nova Scotia s rate was 6% for persons with disabilities compared to 5% for Canada, while the corresponding not in the labour force figures were 47% and 44% respectively. For Nova Scotia, the more important comparison is that there were only 47% of persons with disabilities in the labour force in 2006 versus 73% for persons without disabilities. Figure 1B Labour force status for people with and without disabilities, Nova Scotia, 2006 People with disabilities People without disabilities 47% 47% 21% 6% 6% 73% Employed Unemployed Not in labour force 7

11 Provincial Employment Differences. The gap in the rates between people with and without disabilities was relatively consistent between genders and age groups yet there were some notable differences across the provinces and territories. The largest gap in was in Quebec where the rate for people with limitations was nearly double that of people without limitations (14.7% versus 7.9%). Similarly, Quebec s labour force participation rate for people with limitations (52.0%) was also below the national average (59.6%). Alberta had the smallest gap in the rate between people with and without disabilities (5.5% versus 3.5%) and the Yukon Territory were also very close (11.8% versus 9.2%). Labour force participation in Alberta (70.8%) and the Yukon Territory (75.4%) was also above the national average. Figure 2 Employment rates for people with and without disabilities by province, Canada, 2001 and 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2001 and 2006 percentage NL PE NS NB QC ON MB SK AB BC CAN With disability 2001 Without disability 2001 With disability 2006 Without disability 2006 Note: Excludes Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut 8

12 Gender and Employment. Women with disabilities in Canada experienced more growth in employment than their male counterparts between 2001 and This larger growth for women aged 15 to 64 equated to 188,790 more women with disabilities being employed after the five years, the bulk of whom were 45 or older. Table 3 Labour force status for adults 15 to 64, by sex, Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Labour force status Age 15 to 64 Total Female Without disability With disability Total labour force 7,808,750 7,116, ,110 Employed 7,263,150 6,629, ,560 Unemployed 545, ,060 58,550 Not in labour force 2,921,120 2,317, ,070 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment Age standardized Labour force status Age 15 to 64 Total Male Without disbility With disability Total labour force 8,582,060 7,905, ,770 Employed 8,057,360 7,440, ,160 Unemployed 524, ,090 59,610 Not in labour force 1,862,980 1,398, ,080 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment Age standardized

13 Severity of Disability and Employment. The severity of a disability can also affect a person s experience in the labour market. For example, the rates for people with mild (8.3%) or moderate (9.1%) limitations were much closer to their non-disabled counterparts (6.8%) while the rate for people with severe or very severe disabilities was higher (15.1%). Table 4 Labour force status for adults 15 to 64, by severity, Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Labour force status Age 15 to 64 Mild Moderate Severe or very severe Total labour force 595, , ,180 Employed 554, , ,280 Unemployed 40,150 28,100 49,900 Not in labour force 254, , ,640 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment Age standardized About 700,000 Canadians with an activity limitation reported that their condition limited the amount or kind of work they could do. About three-quarters of employed people with a severe activity limitation reported they were limited at work, three times the proportion of those with a mild limitation. 10

14 Type of Disability and Employment. In 2006, nearly two-thirds of people 15 to 64 with an activity limitation and not working self-reported that they were completely prevented from working by their activity limitation. It is interesting to note that some with severe limitations reported they could work while others with less severe limitations reported they could not because of their limitation. The severity of the activity limitation had a major impact on a person s ability to participate in the labour force. Nevertheless, more than onequarter of people with severe or very severe disabilities selfreported that their activity limitation did not completely prevent them from working. On the other hand, nearly one-quarter of people with mild activity limitations self-reported that they were not able to work. According to Statistics Canada, 2006 the type of disability also impacted outcomes in the labour force (See Table 5). People with hearing limitations reported the lowest rate (10.4%) and highest labour force participation of all the types of disability (64.1%). At the other end of the scale the highest rates were observed for people with memory (15.7%) and psychological limitations (14.3%) while the lowest labour force participation rate was found for people with developmental disabilities (32.7%; see table 5). However, it should be noted that many people with disabilities have more than one type of disability so there is overlap between the categories. 11

15 Table 5 Labour force status for adults 15 to 64, by disability type and severity, Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Labour force status Total Mild Moderate Severe or very severe HEARING Total labour force 301, , ,410 91,330 Employed 277, ,070 98,130 79,240 Unemployed 23,690 5,320 E 6,280 E 12,090 E Not in labour force 222,210 35,850 42, ,320 Participation Age standardized participation Unemployment E 6.0 E 13.2 E Age standardized E 7.2 E 17.4 E SEEING Total labour force 210,480 30,990 65, ,650 Employed 183,690 28,000 60,010 95,690 Unemployed 26,780 E F 5,830 E 17,960 E Not in labour force 232,000 15,610 E 44, ,890 Participation participation Unemployment 12.7 E F 8.9 E 15.8 E E 8.0 E 20.2 Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

16 Table 5 continued Labour force status Total Mild Moderate Severe or very severe COMMUNICATION Total labour force 115,930 9,880 22,150 83,900 Employed 100,870 8,670 20,080 72,120 Unemployed 15,060 E 1,210 E 2,070 E 11,790 E Not in labour force 216,230 8,030 E 24, ,220 Participation participation Unemployment 13.0 E F 9.4 E 14.0 E MOBILITY E 9.1 E 16.0 E Total labour force 772, , , ,100 Employed 704, , , ,250 Unemployed 67,970 10,840 16,280 40,850 Not in labour force 794, , , ,790 Participation participation Unemployment AGILITY Total labour force 754, , , ,690 Employed 688, , , ,090 Unemployed 66,240 9,090 E 17,560 39,600 Not in labour force 770, , , ,870 Participation participation Unemployment E E Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

17 Table 5 continued Labour force status Total Mild Moderate Severe or very severe PAIN Total labour force 1,010, , , ,810 Employed 921, , , ,510 Unemployed 88,930 18,400 23,220 47,300 Not in labour force 803, , , ,140 Participation participation Unemployment LEARNING Total labour force 242,040 53,440 54, ,490 Employed 214,630 48,160 49, ,450 Unemployed 27,420 5,290 5,090 E 17,040 E Not in labour force 284,320 29,810 42, ,740 Participation participation Unemployment E 9.4 E 12.7 MEMORY E 9.1 E 15.0 Total labour force 119,490 4,480 E 25,270 E 89,740 Employed 102,290 4,080 E 23,590 E 74,610 Unemployed 17,200 E x 1,680 E 15,130 E Not in labour force 198,680 F 13,990 E 181,420 Participation E participation Unemployment 14.4 E F F 16.9 E 15.5 F F 17.4 E Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

18 Table 5 continued Labour force status Total Mild Moderate Severe or very severe DEVELOPMENTAL Total labour force 39,430 3,980 8,300 E 27,150 Employed 33,250 3,440 E 7,630 E 22,190 Unemployed 6,170 E 540 E F F Not in labour force 88,270 6,510 E 15,020 E 66,750 Participation E 35.6 E 28.9 participation E Unemployment 15.7 E 13.6 E F 18.3 E EMOTIONAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL 12.8 E F F 14.9 E Total labour force 215,520 21,020 60, ,430 Employed 185,310 17,260 52, ,550 Unemployed 30,210 F 7,570 E 18,880 E Not in labour force 287,300 13,590 E 42, ,210 Participation participation Unemployment E 12.6 E 14.0 E OTHER E 11.4 E 14.8 Total labour force 49,840 46,520 3,320 E 0 Employed 46,550 43,800 E F 0 Unemployed 3,280 E 2,710 E x 0 Not in labour force 17,570 16,020 F 0 Participation E 0.0 participation Unemployment 6.6 E 5.8 E F E 6.6 E F 0.0 Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

19 Occupations of People With Disabilities Table 6A Occupations of people with disabilities by age group, Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Occupations Age 15 to to to 64 % % % Management 5,400 E , , Business, finance, and administrative Natural and applied science and related 34, , , , , , Health 5, , , Social science, education, government service and religion Art, culture, recreation and sport 17, , , , ,480 E ,000 E 48.7 Sales and service 104, , , Trades, transport, and equipment operators and related Unique to primary industry Unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities 25, , , , , , , , , Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

20 Table 6B Occupations of people with disabilities by sex, Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Occupations Total Female Male % % Management 106,560 41, , Business, finance, and administrative Natural and applied science and related 262, , , ,280 23, , Health 86,820 74, ,580 E 14.5 Social science, education, government service and religion Art, culture, recreation and sport 138,920 96, , ,110 23, ,930 E 46.2 Sales and service 465, , , Trades, transport, and equipment operators and related Unique to primary industry Unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities 276,760 26, , ,640 13,340 E , ,040 46, , Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

21 Hours Worked per Week Table 7A Hours worked per week by age group for people with disabilities in Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Hours worked per week Age Canada Median hours worked per week to 14 74,320 19,810 19,660 34, to ,430 27,940 40,570 99, to ,950 71, , , to ,670 16,820 60, , or more 30,040 3,440 E 9,620 E 16,980 E Table 7B Hours worked per week by age group for people with disabilities in Nova Scotia, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Hours worked per week Age Nova Scotia Median hours worked per week to 14 3, ,030 E 1,800 E 15 to 29 5,010 1, E 2,970 E 30 to 40 21,680 2,010 6,130 13, to 60 9, E 2,830 5,520 E 61 or more 1,220 E x 630 E x Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

22 Limitations and Barriers to Employment Table 8A Limitations and barriers to employment by age group for people with disabilities in Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Limitations and barriers Age Canada Limited in ability to work 731, , , ,410 Completely prevented from working Barriers to employment Would lose some or all of current income Would lose some or all of additional supports Family or friends discourage working Prevented by family responsibilities Information about jobs is not adapted Worried about being isolated by other workers Have been a victim of discrimination 534,190 48, , , E E 4.4 E 4.4 E E E E Feel training is not adequate Lack of accessible transportation E No jobs available Others Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

23 Table 8B Limitations and barriers to employment by age group for people with disabilities in Nova Scotia, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Limitations and barriers Age Nova Scotia Limited in ability to work 27,920 3,820 7,720 16,320 Completely prevented from working Barriers to employment 19,890 1,260 4,570 14,060 Would lose some or all of current income Would lose some or all of additional supports Family or friends discourage working Prevented by family responsibilities Information about jobs is not adapted Worried about being isolated by other workers Have been a victim of discrimination 4.5 E 6.6 E F F 5.7 E 12.9 E F F Feel training is not adequate E 10.1 E 14.1 E Lack of accessible transportation 15.5 F F 13.3 E 11.5 E 4.3 E F F F 5.1 E F 6.3 E F 5.9 E 7.2 E F 6.8 E 8.3 E 14.2 E F 7.6 E No jobs available E 11.9 E 7.9 E Others E 17.3 E 20.5 E Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

24 Workplace Accommodations. Workplace accommodations are modifications to the job or work environment that can enable a person with an activity limitation to participate fully in the work environment. These modifications can include many things ranging from modified hours or duties and software or hardware modifications to structural items such as handrails or accessible washrooms. There are some major differences between the workplace modification requirements of people with disabilities who were employed versus those who were unemployed or not in the labour force. People who were unemployed or not in labour force tended to report much higher needs for workplace accommodations, which may have played a role in being unemployed or not in the labour force. Workplace accommodations for employed people with activity limitations The most common workplace accommodation required for employed people with activity limitations was modified hours or days or reduced work hours, which was reported by about one in five (20.1%) people in this group. Approximately one in six people required a special chair or back support (16.5%) or a job redesign (14.2%) while about one in ten required a modified or ergonomic workstation (10.7%). Consistent with previous results, the severity of the disability played a role in the type of workplace accommodations that were needed (See Table 9). For each type of modification, people with a severe or very severe disability were more likely to need each of the workplace modifications. 21

25 Table 9 Types of modifications required in order to be able to work, by severity, Canada, 2006 Source: Statistics Canada, Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006 Type of workplace accommodation Mild or Moderate Severe or very severe Modified hours or days Special chair or back support Job redesign Modified or ergonomic workstation Other equipment, help, or work arrangement % 3.2 E 5.1 E Accessible elevator 2.0 E 6.9 E Appropriate parking 2.9 E 10.3 Accessible washrooms 1.9 E 9.7 Accessible transportation 1.6 E 6.4 E Human support 1.6 E 6.6 E Technical aids 1.0 E 3.5 E Computer modifications 0.6 E 5.2 E Handrails or ramps 0.5 E 7.3 E Communication aids 0.3 E F Note: Includes Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut Note: See standard symbols used in Statistics Canada tables page

26 Appendix A. Definitions of Disability Used in the PALS Survey. Disability. The Participation and Activity Limitation Survey uses the World Health Organization s (WHO) framework of disability provided by the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). This framework defines disability as the relationship between body structures and functions, daily activities and social participation, while recognizing the role of environmental factors. For the purpose of PALS, persons with disabilities are those who reported difficulties with daily living activities, or who indicated that a physical, mental condition or health problem reduced the kind or amount of activities they could do in their daily lives. The respondent s answers to the disability questions represent their perception of the situation and are therefore subjective. Disability Rate. Refers to the total number of persons who reported activity limitations expressed as a percentage of the population. For example, the calculation of the disability rate for the population aged 15 to 64 in Nova Scotia is as follows: ( of persons with disabilities aged in Nova Scotia/Total population aged in Nova Scotia) x

27 Appendix B. Defining Severity of Disability Used in the PALS Survey. Severity of Disability. An index measuring the severity of the disability was constructed based on the answers to the survey questions. Points were given according to the intensity and the frequency of the activity limitations reported by the respondent. A single score was computed for each type of disability. Each score was then standardized in order to have a value between 0 and 1. The final score is the average of the scores for each type of disability. Since the survey questions differ depending on the age of the respondent, a different scale was constructed for adults (15 years and over), for children under 5 and for children aged 5 to 14. Each scale was then divided into different severity levels. The scale for adults and for children aged 5 to 14 was divided into four groups (that is, mild, moderate, severe and very severe), while the scale for children under 5 was divided into two groups (that is, mild to moderate and severe to very severe). 24

28 Appendix C. Definitions of Types of Disability Used in the PALS Survey. Hearing. Difficulty hearing what is being said in a conversation with one other person, in a conversation with three or more persons, or in a telephone conversation. Seeing. Difficulty seeing ordinary newsprint or clearly seeing someone s face from 4 meters away (12 feet). Speech. Difficulty speaking and/or being understood. Mobility. Difficulty walking half a kilometre or up and down a flight of stairs, about 12 steps without resting, moving from one room to another, carrying an object of 5 kg (10 pounds) for 10 metres (30 feet) or standing for long periods. Agility. Difficulty bending, dressing and undressing oneself, getting into or out of bed, cutting own toenails, using fingers to grasp or handle objects, reaching in any direction (for example, above one s head) or cutting own food. Pain. Limited in the amount or kind of activities that one can do because of a long-term pain that is constant or reoccurs from time to time (for example, recurrent back pain). 25

29 Learning. Difficulty learning because of a condition, such as attention problems, hyperactivity or dyslexia, whether or not the condition was diagnosed by a teacher, doctor or other health professional. Memory. Limited in the amount or kind of activities that one can do due to frequent periods of confusion or difficulty remembering things. These difficulties may be associated with Alzheimer s disease, brain injuries or other similar conditions. Developmental disabilities. Cognitive limitations due to an intellectual disability or developmental disorder such as Down s syndrome, autism or an intellectual disability caused by a lack of oxygen at birth. Psychological. Limited in the amount or kind of activities that one can do due to the presence of an emotional, psychological or psychiatric condition, such as phobias, depression, schizophrenia, drinking or drug problems. Other. The type of disability is other if the respondent answered YES to the general questions on activity limitations, but did not provide any YES to the questions about type of disability that followed. In 2006 the disability type unknown was renamed other. 26

30 Appendix D. Defining Age Standardization When the characteristics of two separate populations are very different, age standardization can be used to adjust the statistics for one population so that they are more comparable with statistics from the other population. In the example of people with and without disabilities, people with disabilities in the labour force are older so their labour force characteristics will be different, therefore making comparisons with the nondisabled population more difficult. By age standardizing the population of people with disabilities to the age structure of the population of people without disabilities, the differences noted between the two groups reflect actual differences between the two groups and not the difference in their age structures. Thus, the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) data are standardised to the 2001 non-disabled population and the 2006 PALS data are standardised to the 2006 non-disabled population. The age distributions have not been standardised to a common year. Standard Symbols Used in Statistics Canada Tables E F X use with caution too unreliable to be published suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note: When the figure is not accompanied by a data quality symbol, it means that the quality of the data was assessed to be acceptable or better according to the policies and standards of Statistics Canada. 27

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