VETERINARY LABORATORIES IN KENYA

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1 VETERINARY LABORATORIES IN KENYA Dr. J. M. Macharia and Dr. D.M. Mwangangi

2 MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONAL CHART DIRECTOR OF AGRICULTURE PERMANENT SECRETARY DIRECTOR OF VETERINARY SERVICES DIRECTOR OF FISHERIES DIVISIONS: TRAINING ANIMAL BREEDING VECTOR CONTROL VETERINARY CLINICAL/FIELD SERVICES VETERINARY LABORATORY & REGULATORY SERVICES VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH SUPPORT SERVICES VETERINARY EXTENSION EPIDEMIOLOGY SERVICES QUALITY CONTROL SERVICES RESEARCH/ EXTENSION LIAISON REGIONAL INVESTIGATION SERVICES CENTRAL VETERINARY LABORATORIES FMD/VESICULAR DISEASES LABORATORY MARIAKANI LABORATORY ELDORET LABORATORY KERICHO LABORATORY NAKURU LABORATORY KARATINA LABORATORY GARISSA LABORATORY ACAROLOGY LABORATORY CHEMISTRY LABORATORY LABORATORY ANIMAL SERVICES VIROLOGY LABORATORY BACTERIOLOGY LABORATORY PARASITOLOGY LABORATORY PATHOLOGY LABORATORY

3 Laboratory Network National referral laboratories Central Veterinary Laboratories (CVL) Kabete National Veterinary Quality Control Lab., Embakasi Regional laboratories Nakuru - Serves Southern Rift Valley Kericho - For Nyanza, Western, Western Rift Valley Eldoret - Serves Northern Rift Valley Has a Satellite lab. at Lodwar Karatina - Serves Central and Eastern Provinces Has a Satellite lab. at Isiolo Mariakani - Serves Coast Province Has 2 satellites at Ukunda and Witu Garissa - Serves North Eastern Province

4 S U D A N Kenya: Laboratory Network E T H I O P I A T U R K A N A M A N D E R A M A R S A B I T U G A N D A M T. E L G O N B U N G O M A B U S I A K A K A M E G A S I A Y A H O M A _ B A Y M I G O R I K U R I A W E S T P O K O T T R A N S - N Z O I A E. M A R A K W E T V I H I G A K I S U M U U A S I N G I S H U N A N D I N Y A M I R A K I S I I T R A N S - M A R A K E R I C H O B O M E T N A R O K B A R I N G O L A I K I P I A S A M B U R U N Y A M B E N E M E R U T H A R A K A N Y A N D A R U A N I T H I N A K U R U N Y E R I K I R I N Y A G A E M B U M U R A N G A M W I N G I T H I K A K I A M B U N A I R O B I M A C H A K O S I S I O L O W A J I R G A R I S S A S O M A L I A M A K U E N I K I T U I T A N A R I V E R K A J I A D O L A M U T A N Z A N I A T A I T A T A V E T A K I L I F I N K W A L E M O M B A S A

5 Role of the Laboratories To safeguard human health, animal health and productivity as it relates to food security, safety and trade. To undertake prompt disease diagnosis investigation of outbreaks, quality control of acaricides, vaccines, drugs, livestock, food and feed. In line with international conventions such as those of World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), WHO, Codex, FAO, etc.

6 CENTRAL VETERINARY LABORATORIES KABETE : Comprises the following laboratories Pathology Chemistry Bacteriology Parasitology Virology, and Acarology

7 CVL Mandated to:- Confirm animal diseases diagnosis Disease search and surveillance Monitor the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns Quality regulation of veterinary inputs and outputs Certification of exports/imports. - to be free from diseases, to be acceptable. Teaching institution

8 Organization of diagnosis Farmers and other Stakeholders Veterinary field staff, Private Practioners, RVILS Other Institutes and Countries NVQCL and KARI s NVRC Vaccine Quality Control Virus detection and typing SEROLOGY Infertility diseases, Brucellosis, Johne s disease, CCPP, CBPP etc ACAROLOGY Acaricide evaluation Tick identification Mange identification BACTERIOLOGY Bacterial and fungus isolation and typing Drug sensitivity tests Media and antigen preparation RECEPTION HELMINTHOLOGY Worm identification Worm burden surveys VIROLOGY Isolation of viruses in tissues culture or animals, Serological tests including ELISA PATHOLOGY Histopathology Post mortem Microscopy Anthrax surveillance Clinical work Reports dispatch CHEMISTRY Dip strength and milk quality testing Toxicological analysis Detection of mineral def. diseases Drug evaluation

9 The Reception Pathology Laboratory Reception Post-mortem Histopathology Poultry diseases Farm visits/dse Investigations

10 Post mortem in progress

11 Post mortem in progress

12 Helminthology Laboratory Worm Identification Egg worm counts Worm larvae identification Worm egg cultures

13 Bacteriology Laboratory Bacterial isolation and identification Mycoplasma isolation Serology Media preparation Antigen preparation Preparation of antigen for use in bacterial assays

14 Virology Laboratory Virus dse diagnosis Egg work section Expt. animals section Tissue culture section Serology ELISA in Virology Laboratory

15 ELISA in progress

16 ELISA laboratory

17 Assays in progress

18 Real time PCR in progress

19 PCR

20 PCR work station

21 Acarology Laboratory Tick and Mange identification Acaricide resistance testing Acaricide evaluation (acaricide efficacy trials)

22 Chemistry Laboratory Toxicology lab Dip wash testing Nutrition lab Mineral analysis lab Assay for pesticides in Chemistry Laboratory

23 Challenges Emerging diseases such as HPAI and Leptospirosis, ASF and no accompanying extra funds Inadequate notice for lab. tests which are very expensive, before shipment of animals destined for export. Tests requiring repeat after 21 days not even repeated

24 Emergency preparedness

25 Achievements in general CVL Kabete has continued to play the role of the Government national referral Veterinary Investigation Laboratories and also in support of the Eastern and Central African region s diagnostic activities. In collaboration with other relevant stakeholders, CVL has continued to support 2 of the 10 core functions of the Department of Veterinary Services, namely,: Management and control of animal pests and diseases; Regulatory management and quality assurance of animals, animal products, by-products and animal health/production inputs.

26 Specific achievements Facilitating the provision of accessible, costeffective, prompt, efficient and effective disease diagnosis and investigations, disease surveillance, epidemiological surveillance and vaccine performance monitoring. Provision of diagnostic reagents, materials and kits to both government and private health institutions for the diagnosis of zoonotic diseases. Providing quality assurance and certification of animal production inputs, vaccines and other biologics, drugs, pesticides, feeds, premixes and livestock products.

27 Specific achievements Facilitating the establishment of an inspection and compliance system for animal health and production inputs, animals, animal products and by products. Promoting the use of appropriate, accredited and validated technologies with potential for improved and sustained agricultural growth. Provision of training to Department of Veterinary Services staff and students from universities and tertiary institutions.

28 Training Institution

29 Training Institution

30 Challenges Management Information System (MIS) The bulk of information in the Laboratory is managed manually. This information include disease reports, annual and quarterly reports and staff matters. Training updates for staff on data processing and analysis is highly recommended.

31 Collaborations Local collaborators include: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), National Council for Science & Technology (NCST) Universities Ministry of Health International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) International collaborators include: European Union (EU) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, U.K. Staff internal training CVL Seminar CIRAD-EMVT, Montpellier, France African Union Inter-Africa Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) Onderstepoort Institute for Exotic Diseases, Republic of South Africa Food an Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) Office International Epizooties (OIE) World Health Organisation (WHO) World Trade Organisation (WTO) International standards Organisation (ISO) CISA - INIA Spain USDA s National Veterinary Research Laboratories (NVSL), Ames Iowa, USA OIE Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Rome Italy Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

32 THANKS

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