The Danish veterinary preparedness for avian influenza and Newcastle disease

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1 The Danish veterinary preparedness for avian influenza and Newcastle disease Sten Mortensen, Veterinary R&D manager, Animal Health Division, Deputy head

2 Livestock statistics, Denmark 2015 Species Number of holdings Number of animals Cattle Pigs Sheep Goats Fur Layers Broilers

3 Import of animals to Denmark Horses 1 1,764 1,639 2,034 2,170 2,665 Cattle Pigs Sheep/goats Poultry 3 3,196,315 3,219,119 4,200,682 3,030,025 4,067,303 1 Horses, donkeys, mules and hinnies. 2 Bovine animals. 3 Fowls of the species Gallus domesticus, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowls.

4 Export of animals from Denmark Horses 1 1,379 1, ,675 1,080 Cattle 2 20,711 38,787 61,300 69,886 62,700 Pigs 8,603,152 8,923,358 9,908,293 10,267,659 12,464,579 Sheep/goats 3,335 4,751 4,028 1,050 1,710 Poultry 3 38,803,025 39,366,730 44,890,074 43,041,217 55,079,921 1 Horses, donkeys, mules and hinnies. 2 Bovine animals. 3 Fowls of the species Gallus domesticus, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowls.

5 Other poultry operations, Denmark 2014 Type of production No of farms (>1000 birds) Turkeys 21 Geese 4 Ducks 15 Mallards - game 12 Pheasants - game 60 Backyard poultry Approximately

6 Status - Danish livestock disease OIE Listed diseases: Low pathogenic avian influenza 2013 Highly pathogenic avian influenza 2006 Newcastle disease 2005 Foot and mouth disease 1983 Classical swine fever (hog cholera) 1933 African swine fever (never recorded) Vesicular stomatitis (never recorded) Swine vesicular disease (never recorded) Bluetongue 2008 (BTV 8) Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia 1886 Sheep pox and goat pox 1879 Rinderpest 1782 Lumpy skin disease (never recorded) Rift Valley fever (never recorded) Peste des petits ruminants (never recorded) African horse sickness (never recorded) 6

7 Notification duty Laboratory Farmer Private veterinary practitioner Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Local Veterinary Control Office Central Veterinary Authorities

8 Strategy for disease control Targets Clinical suspect farms must be investigated within 5 hours by the local Veterinary Control Office Killing of outbreak herds within 24 hours Killing of contact herds within 48 hours Preliminary cleaning and disinfection completed within 72 hours after the disease is diagnosed 8

9 Surveillance programme for AI in poultry Passive: Farmers MUST check the health of animals every day - Notify specific clinical signs of AI to the DVFA - Notify an early warning to the DVFA Active: EU coordinated surveillance (since 2003) - Risk based sampling in different species in the commercial production (since 2006) 9

10 Active surveillance for AI risk based Commercial flocks >100 birds Breeder flocks - all species (1/year) Pullets (before release to egg-production) Outdoor layers (4/year) Outdoor slaughter poultry (before slaughter) Turkeys (before slaughter) Game birds breeders and off spring (4/season Feb Aug) AI certificate for trade of live poultry and game birds

11 Suspicion of avian influenza A holdings under suspicion is placed under official restrictions The holding is investigated and samples for virological examination is collected Movement restrictions is imposed on the farm and on contact farms until the suspicion is ruled out 9 Notifications of suspected AI/ND in 2015

12 AI - Early warning EU regulation The farmer has to contact the DVFA when: Drop in feed and water intake by more than 20% within 24 hours Drop in egg production by more than 5% for more than two consecutive days Increased mortality of 3% above normal levels in 3 days Samples collected and tested by PCR Samples also tested for Newcastle disease No restrictions on the holding during testing In total 13 early warnings in DK in

13 AI outbreaks in poultry in Denmark Year Type of production Surveillance category 2006 Backyard flock Mallards for hunting purposes Mallards for hunting purposes Mallards for hunting purposes Passive Active Active Active Avian influenza HPAI H5N1 LPAI H5N2 LPAI H5N3 LPAI H5N Ducks (breeding animals) Active LPAI H7N Mallards for hunting purposes Mallards for hunting purposes Active Active LPAI H7 LPAI H7N Mallards for hunting purposes Active LPAI H7N7

14 Surveillance programme for AI in wild birds EU coordinated passive and active surveillance EU coordinated passive surveillance from 2011 (ongoing) Surveillance of sick or dead wild birds for HPAI National active surveillance from 2011 (ongoing) Surveillance of live wild birds for LPAI (species with higher risk 900 birds in 2016)

15 Newcastle disease vaccination Since autumn 2004 compulsory vaccination in: Hens breeding and layer flocks Turkeys - breeding and layer flocks Free range broilers or slaughtered older than ten weeks Poultry brought to gatherings, exhibition and markets Wintering game birds for breeding Vaccination status checks by serology in commercial sector (blood samples or eggs)

16 Outlook Poultry products as a food source is on the increase.. Economic pressure on poultry production cut costs A move towards outdoor farming in Europe Influenza virus epidemiology in a One Health context Influenza viruses in animals and birds Influenza viruses in humans Influenza viruses in the environment Enjoy your meeting! 18

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