EDUCATOR S RESOURCE GUIDE

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1 Behind the Color Wheel Using Color in Art & Design EDUCATOR S RESOURCE GUIDE Copyright 2013 Learning Seed Suite West Lake Street Chicago, IL

2 What s in this Guide...and How to Use It! Program Overview Video chapter titles and key concepts pp. 3-4 Before & After Viewing the Program Prompts for writing or discussion Use prompts to initiate a: - class discussion - pair-share (partners discuss the prompt; each partner reports one of the other person s ideas) - quick-write (unplanned, written response) Suggested activities to extend learning p. 5 Graphic Organizer Tool for taking notes during the video p. 6 Check Your Understanding Short-answer questions. Can be used: - during the video to keep students on track - after the video for in-class review or assessment - after the video as homework pp. 7-8 Answer key pp Assessment Quiz - Matching p. 11 Answer key p. 12 Glossary Definitions of key words and phrases from the video p. 13 Resources for Educators Changing Value: Tints & Shades handout see After Viewing activities, page 5 Creating Color Schemes handout see After Viewing activities, page 5 National Standards addressed in the video Useful Internet resources p Legal Niceties What you can do, and what you shouldn t p. 18 Related Learning Seed Programs Color in Everyday Life (video) Color for Interior Design (PowerCourse) Jobs in Housing and Interior Design (video) Jobs in Clothing, Textiles & Fashion (video)! 2

3 Program Overview This film takes both an in-depth and practical view of color by teaching about the science of color, the color systems used in various media, the basic color schemes that please the eye, and some general rules to follow for creating unique color combinations. Chapter 1 - What is Color? Colors are the way the brain interprets wavelengths of light that stimulate the eyes. Many artists and designers find it useful to use the color wheel created by Isaac Newton in 1666, which shows the spectral and extraspectral colors arranged in a circle. Different media use different color systems. Additive systems, like the RGB system, are used in digital media. Subtractive systems, like the CMYK system, are used in print media. Primary colors are those which cannot be made from any other colors. In painting, the primaries are yellow, red, and blue. Secondary colors are made by mixing two primaries. Tertiary colors are made of a secondary color and a primary color beside it on the wheel. Colors affect our feelings - we perceive half of the color wheel as warm, active, and advancing and the other half as cool, restful, and receding. Complementary colors are opposite directly across from each other on the color wheel. We can create a variety colors by changing the value and intensity of the hues. Adding white makes tints, adding black makes shades, and adding grey creates tones. Chapter 2 - Basic Color Schemes A color scheme is two or more colors chosen for the purpose of creating visual harmony. The brain generally likes some stimulation, but not too much. A monochromatic color scheme, which is composed of varying tints and shades of one hue, creates a restful and unified feeling. An analogous color scheme includes colors (usually three) that sit side-by-side on the color wheel. A complementary color scheme is based on colors opposite each other on the color wheel. Harmony is created through contrast. A triadic color scheme uses the colors at the points of an equilateral triangle drawn within the color wheel.! 3

4 Chapter 3 - Creating Color Harmony Use similar values to unify a look, such as all dark values or all light values (pastels). Balance the intensity of colors - not all highly-saturated, for example. Avoid 50/50 proportions. Proportions such as 1:2 or 1:3 tend to be more interesting. Use strong color sparingly think of intense color as an accent, like a spice in food. Include neutrals in a scheme, knowing that even white isn t pure white it generally has a small amount of a cool or warm color added to it.! 4

5 Before and After Prompts to generate interest, ideas, and inquiry Before viewing To spark interest, activate prior knowledge, and set a purpose for viewing Think about the last time you consciously chose two or three colors you thought looked good together perhaps for an outfit, a graphic design, or a home decorating project. How did you choose the colors? How did you determine they looked good together? After viewing To promote critical thinking Is it helpful or limiting for artists and designers to work with color scheme formulas such as the ones described in this program? Think of a product or brand you buy or use often (remember, even an Internet browser or a social networking site is a product). What color scheme does that brand or product use for its advertisement, logo, or packaging? Why does that particular color scheme work? On a scale of 1-10, how important is color compared to other elements of design such as shape, size, space or texture? Give an example that supports or explains your rating. After viewing To extend and apply learning Direct students to create examples of the four color schemes taught in the program using the Creating Color Schemes handout (p.15) OR make a handbook of 3-4 examples of each color scheme or general color rule by finding pictures online or in magazines. Instruct students to create the 12-color wheel using acrylics (Hansa Yellow Medium, Quinacridone Red, Pthalo Blue) or the RGB sliders in software programs with illustrating tools. To extend the activity, have students make a graduated color wheel with a tint and a shade of each hue, or use the Changing Value: Tints & Shades handout (p. 14). Using an online color scheme generator or design tool (such as kuler.adobe.com) have students create their own color schemes and state what feeling they intend to convey. Ideas for schemes can come from students imaginations or from uploaded photos. Guide students in researching Impressionist and Post-impressionist artists ideas about color and light. Possibilities: Degas, Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir, Gaugin, and Seurat.! 5

6 Name Date Class Period While You Watch...use the graphic organizer to record key words and information. Chapter 1: What is Color? Color is: Color Systems Creating Variety Chapter 2: Basic Color Schemes A color scheme is: Color Schemes Examples Chapter 3: Creating Color Harmony #1 #2 #3 #4 #5! 6

7 Name Date Class Period Check Your Understanding Write short answers for the following questions about Behind the Color Wheel: 1. What is the visible spectrum? 2. Why is the RGB system used in digital media called an additive system? 3. In a subtractive color system, what happens when all the colors of the spectrum are absorbed by a surface? 4. Which side of the color wheel would you use to make a room appear cozy and inviting? Name some colors on that half of the wheel. 5. What effect do complementary colors have on each other?! 7

8 Check Your Understanding (continued) 6. What is a color scheme? 7. Why does a monochromatic color scheme create a unified feeling? 8. Using the primary colors in a design is an example of what kind of color scheme? 9. If you re using three colors in a room, what proportions usually work well? 10. What s a good general rule for using bright, strong colors?! 8

9 Check Your Understanding - Answer Key Write short answers for the following questions about Behind the Color Wheel: 1. What is the visible spectrum? The bands of color we see when sunlight is split apart using a prism. OR The wavelengths of light humans perceive as color. 2. Why is the RGB system used in digital media called an additive system? Different proportions of the colors are used together to create all the other colors. OR Red, green, and blue light combine to make white. 3. In a subtractive color system, what happens when all the colors of the spectrum are absorbed by a surface? We see black. 4. Which side of the color wheel would you use to make a room appear cozy and inviting? Name some colors on that half of the wheel. The warm side, which includes red, orange, and yellow. 5. What effect do complementary colors have on each other? They intensify each other. When side-by-side, they can seem to vibrate.! 9

10 Check Your Understanding - Answer Key (continued) 6. What is a color scheme?! Two or more colors chosen for the purpose of creating visual harmony. OR A combination of colors that please and engage the viewer. 7. Why does a monochromatic color scheme create a unified feeling? All the colors are variations (shades, tints, or tones) of one basic color. 8. Using the primary colors in a design is an example of what kind of color scheme? Triadic color scheme. 9. If you re using three colors in a room, what proportions usually work well? What s a good general rule for using bright, strong colors? Use strong color in small areas the stronger the color, the less you need.! 10

11 Name Date Class Period Quiz - Matching Match each term with one of the definitions below: Terms: A. complementary E. pastels I. tint B. monochromatic F. intensity J. neutrals C. triadic G. value D. shade H. analogous Definitions: 1. The result of adding white to a hue. 2. The result of adding black to a hue. 3. The term for black, gray, white, taupe, and ivory. 4. The brightness or dullness of a color. 5. Colors opposite each other on the color wheel. 6. The lightness or darkness of a color. 7. The term for the group of very light colors, or tints. 8. A color scheme that includes colors beside each other on the color wheel. 9. A color scheme made up of variations of one hue. 10. A color scheme made up of colors at the points of an equilateral triangle drawn on the color wheel.! 11

12 Quiz - Answer Key Match each term with one of the definitions below: Terms:! A. complementary E. pastels I. tint B. monochromatic F. intensity J. neutrals C. triadic G. value D. shade H. analogous Definitions: 1. I The result of adding white to a hue. 2. D The result of adding black to a hue. 3. J The term for black, gray, white, taupe, and ivory. 4. F The brightness or dullness of a color. 5. A Colors opposite each other on the color wheel. 6. G The lightness or darkness of a color. 7. E The term for the group of very light colors, or tints. 8. H A color scheme made up of colors that lie beside each other on the color wheel. 9. B A color scheme made up of variations of one hue. 10. C A color scheme made up of the colors found at the points of an equilateral triangle drawn on the color wheel.! 12

13 Glossary analogous color scheme complementary colors CMYK system A combination of two or three colors that are next to each other on the color wheel. Analogous schemes feel harmonious. Colors exactly opposite one another on the color wheel, such as yellow and purple. Complementary colors can be combined in a color scheme for a vibrant look. Stands for cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, the four colors of ink used to create all colors in print media. extraspectral colors Colors such as purple, magenta, and very intense red that are a combination of several different wavelengths of light. We can see these colors when the red and violet ends of the visible spectrum are overlapped. hue intensity monochromatic color scheme primary colors RGB system secondary color shade spectral color tertiary color tint The name of a color; a color in its purest form. Also called chroma. The brightness or dullness of a color. A combination of two or three colors that are variations of one hue, such as burgundy, red, and pink. A set of colors from which all other colors may be derived. With pigments, the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. Red, green, and blue are the primary colors for human vision. Stands for red, green, and blue, the three colors of light that are used to create all colors in digital media. An equal mixture of two primary colors. For example, green is a mixture of blue and yellow. On the color wheel, secondary colors are found midway between two primary hues. A color with black added. The colors we perceive when white light (sunlight) is split with a prism. Each color in the visible spectrum red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet corresponds to a specific wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. A secondary color plus one of the primary colors on either side of it. Tertiary colors are red-orange, yellow-orange, blue-green, yellow-green, blue-violet, and red-violet. A color with white added.! 13

14 tone triadic color scheme value A color with gray added. A color scheme made up of three colors equidistant from one another on the color wheel, such as orange, green, and purple. The lightness or darkness of a color.! 14

15 CHANGING VALUE: TINTS & SHADES Name Period 4 SHADES HUE 1 4 TINTS 4 SHADES HUE 2 4 TINTS 4 SHADES HUE 3 4 TINTS! 15

16 CREATING COLOR SCHEMES Name Period Monochromatic 1 2 Analogous 1 2 Complementary 1 (include a tint or shade of each complement) 2 Triadic 1 2! 16

17 Resources for Educators Educational Standards! National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Determine the psychological impact the principles and elements of design have on the individual Determine the effect that the principles and elements of design have on aesthetics and function Apply basic and complex color schemes and color theory to develop and enhance visual effects. National Standards for Visual Arts Content Standard #1: Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes Students apply media, techniques, and processes with sufficient skill, confidence, and sensitivity that their intentions are carried out in their artworks. Students conceive and create works of visual art that demonstrate an understanding of how the communication of their ideas relates to the media, techniques, and processes they use. Useful Internet Resources In Living Color inform.umd.edu/mctp/courses/colorlesson/index.html From the University of Maryland, this site goes into depth on the science and mathematics of color. It includes easy-to-understand explanations of the various color systems and excellent diagrams. The digital media section walks students through exercises using a freeware color selection program. Science, Art, & Technology artic.edu/aic/education/sciarttech/2a1.html The Art Institute of Chicago offers lessons and resources for the high-school level, as well as videos and summaries of lectures given by experts on topics such as Perception, Light, & Color and The Science of Good Taste. Under the The Chemistry & Physics of Light and Color lecture, click Phenomena of Light and Color to find an excellent extension activity: The Relativity of Color. Pigments Through the Ages webexhibits.org/pigments/intro/pigments.html This site is packed with information about the pigments used in painting and dyeing. Click on any pigment, like ultramarine blue, to find out its history, its name in several languages, what it s made of, and examples of its use in art. The Make Paintings sections explains different kinds of paints (oil, acrylic, watercolor, etc.) shows how to mix them, and allows you to click through a step-by-step creation of a painting.! 17

18 Legal Niceties WHAT CAN I DO WITH THIS RESOURCE GUIDE? Copyright 2013 Learning Seed This resource guide is copyrighted according to the terms of the Creative Commons noncommercial license ( It may be reproduced, in its part or its entirety, for classroom use. No part of this guide may be reproduced for sale by any party. You are free: to copy, distribute, display, and perform this work. to make derivative works. Under the following conditions: Attribution. You must attribute the work to Learning Seed. Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Resource Guide Credits Writer: Jodi Libretti Editor: Jennifer Smith Copy Editor(s): Kari D. McCarthy WHAT CAN I DO WITH THE VIDEO? Copyright 2013 Learning Seed This video is protected under U.S. copyright law. No part of this video may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the Publisher, except where permitted by law. DVD LS DVD ISBN Closed Captioning This program is closed captioned. Questions, suggestions, or comments? us at or call ! 18

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