FOOD GROUPS HACCP PROCESS ANALYSIS

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1 FOOD GROUPS HACCP PROCESS ANALYSIS I II III IV V HACCP Process Groups (USDA HACCP, 9 CFR 417) Prerequisite / GMPs working Raw, not heat treated. Not TCS / no RPG: sprouts; raw meat, fish; sushi, sashimi; eggs, raw fruits and vegetables, flour, salt, sugar, spices, oil Not fully cooked, with inhibitors to make shelf stable. Water activity: nuts, sugar icing, butter honey, dried fish, fresh pasta, peanut butter Fermentation: pepperoni, salami; olives; dairy (cheese, yogurt, sour cream / milk / crème fraîche); bread; sauerkraut; kimchee; beer, wine Acidified: salad dressing; cole slaw; salsa; condiments Fully cooked, not shelf stable. hot or cooled, refrigerated ready-to-eat food; meat, fish, poultry; fruits, vegetables, dairy, pastry filling, pudding Fully cooked, with inhibitors to make shelf stable. marinara sauce; fruit pie fillings; cake icing, bread and pastry, dry cereals, dry pasta, smoked fish; packaged, low-ph fruits and vegetables Commercially sterile, shelf stable. "packaged" meat, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables, dairy / UHT milk Control Grown safe, with H 0 that meets May require Temperature Control for Quality. With H 0 that, with +ΣI-ΣR (5-log Salmonella reduction), meets Does not require TCS because of product a w, ph, or additives. A w <0.86 (Staphylococcus) ph <4.2 (Salmonella) (or fermentation) Pasteurized (5-log to 7-log Salmonella) so that +ΣI-ΣR meets Requires TCS. Pasteurized (5-log to 7-log Salmonella) so that +ΣI-ΣR meets A w <0.92; ph <4.6 Does not require TCS because of product a w, ph, or additives. Sterilized, Clostridium botulinum spores reduced 9 log to 12 log. Does not require TCS. PHF=Potentially Hazardous Food; RPG-Rapid and Progressive Growth; UHT=Ultra High Temperature; H o =Starting Hazard; FSO=Food Safety Objective; Σ=summary; I=Increase; R=Reduction; TCS=Temperature Control for Safety; a w =water activity Shelf life <14 days or longer (bact. spoilage) >2 years, 70 F (chem. spoilage) 41 to 135 F, 4 hours or Cold 41 F, days >5 years >5 years 000lh2&webDocs09: USDA-process-groups-list-flows-plans orig 8/21/09 rev print 3:57 PM 8/21/09 (combinedto5-feb09-withkey; flow ; flow-diag-reno; QARP; plan) 1

2 FIVE RETAIL USDA-BASED FOOD PROCESS FLOWS (Physical and chemical hazards controlled by prerequisite programs) GROUP I. Grown safe / H 0 Not heat treated, not shelf stable / no added preservatives (no TCS); NHT / NP Sprouts; raw meat, fish; sushi, sashimi; eggs, raw fruits and vegetables Raw, grown safe, refrigerated Raw, frozen ingredients. Pre-prep. Cut, grind, mix. If necessary, wash fruits and vegetables to remove dirt. Remove physical hazards. Transport. Serve. Store. Refrigerate / freeze for quality. Competitive exclusion / spoilage for spore control. GROUP II. Not heat treated, with inhibitors / preservatives to make shelf stable (no TCS); NHT / P Water activity control: flour, corn meal, nuts, salt, sugar, sugar icing, honey, spices and herbs, oil, lard; salted, dried fish, fresh pasta Fermentation control: pepperoni, salami; olives; dairy (cheese, yogurt, sour cream / milk / crème fraîche); bread; sauerkraut; kimchee; beer, wine Acid control: salad dressing; cole slaw; salsa; condiments Raw and RTE ingredients, room temperature, refrigerated, frozen. B,C,P hazard level Transport. Serve. CCP. B,C,P hazard > Store. Shelf stable. ph <4.1, aw <0.92, or combination, or additives / fermentation. meets Preservatives adequate. Package Mix, inject, add flavor, add inhibitor, ferment, dry to reduce hazard. GROUP III. Fully cooked (pasteurized), not shelf stable (requires TCS); HT / NP / TH or TC Hot or cooled, refrigerated ready-to-eat food; meat, fish, poultry; fruits, vegetables, dairy, pastry filling, pudding Raw and RTE ingredients, refrigerated and frozen. Pre-prep. Mix. Assemble. Formulate for flavor Package (sous vide). CCP. Cook process for 5-log Salmonella / Transport, >130ºF. Vibrio / parasite kill. (Spores survive.) Package (cook-chill). Serve hot. CCP. Cool 135 to 41ºF, 6 hours. Store. Refrigerate / freeze for spore control. GROUP IV. Fully cooked (pasteurized), with inhibitors / preservatives to make shelf stable (no TCS); HT / P Marinara; fruit pie fillings; cake icing, bread and pastry, dry cereals, dry pasta, smoked fish; packaged, low-ph fruits and vegetables Ingredients, raw, refrigerated and frozen, RTE. Pre-prep. Mix. Assemble. CCP Pasteurize, dry, smoke for a 5-log Salmonella, Vibrio, parasite kill. Add inhibitors to bacterial growth. Adjust flavor. Transport. Packaged. Serve. Store, shelf stable. GROUP V. Commercially sterile, shelf stable (no TCS); Sterilized "Packaged" meat, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables, dairy / UHT milk Raw, ambient, refrigerated and frozen ingredients. Pre-prep. Mix. Cut. Assemble. No package. Package hermetically sealed. CCP. Sterilize, low-acid ph, 6- to 12-log proteolytic Clostridium botulinum reduction. Transport. Serve. Packaged. Store, shelf stable. Key: H0 = Initial level of the hazard (log10); FSO = Food Safety Objective; TCS = temperature control for safety; NHT = no heat treatment; HT = heat treatment; NP = no preservative; P = preservative; TH = temperature control, hot; TC = temperature control, cold 000lh2&webDocs09: USDA-process-groups-list-flows-plans orig 8/21/09 rev print 3:57 PM 8/21/09 (combinedto5-feb09-withkey; flow ; flow-diag-reno; QARP; plan) 2

3 FLOW CHART: FIVE PROCESS GROUPS Prerequisite processes are in place. Process flow with controls Tasks Steps or a menu item if only one CCP Hazard and Risk Analysis B,C,P hazard identification Tolerable level / size Risk assessment Severity (cost) Probable hazard levels / size Probable occurrence) Acceptable risk Significant risk (Basis) Yes; next step Yes Is this step the best CCP? No; next step Yes Control(s) Critical limit, FMEA and process control(s) to reduce / prevent / eliminate a significant risk to an ALOP Validation and reference Expected process deviations Process criterion to achieve a Cpk>1 within expected process deviations Monitoring / Self-check Who, how, when, what to measure process variation and keep inside the critical limit(s) Where is it recorded? Corrective Action (by HACCP Team) If deviation created a significant risk, what corrective action was taken and preventive action of future occurrence? Where was it recorded? Direct observation / Records Review / Verification and Analysis for Process Improvement Who, how, when, what Supplier Safe Get ingredients Supplier Unsafe; TCS I. Trim, wash Yes, TCS II. Additives, ferment III. Pasteurize Yes TCS IV. Pasteurize + Additives V. Sterilize Combine, Serve 000lh2&webDocs09: USDA-process-groups-list-flows-plans orig 8/21/09 rev print 3:57 PM 8/21/09 (combinedto5-feb09-withkey; flow ; flow-diag-reno; QARP; plan) 3

4 RECIPE NAME -- CATEGORY (FULLY COOKED, NOT SHELF STABLE) I, II, III, IV, V Yield Written by Date Ingredient Description Amount Wt/Vol Wt % All prerequisites are in place. Foods with allergens:,,,,, I II III IV All supplier-certified safe ingredients. No CCP. 2. Wash, peel, combine / chop / cut. End temperature <55 F; time <60 minutes. 3. Label for days. Store F. 2. Wash ( ). 3. CCP. Acidify, ferment, reduce water activity. Reduce Salmonella 5 log, ph <4.2 or water activity <0.86 / Label. Store F. Shelf stable.. 2. Wash, peel, combine / chop / cut. <1-log increase Listeria. End temperature < F; time < minutes. 3. CCP. Cook, >5-log meat / 7-log poultry Salmonella reduction. Temperature > F; time > minutes. 4. CCP. Pump / package. Cool, <1-log increase Clostridium perfringens. Temperature to F, in < hours. 5. Label, date. Store F, days. TCS. OR 4. CCP. Cool, <1-log increase Clostridium perfringens. Package (prevent cross-contamination with Listeria, <1-log increase). Temperature to F, in < hours. 5. Label. Store <41:F, <30 days. TCS 2. Wash, peel, combine / chop / cut. End temperature < F; time < minutes. 3. CCP. Cook, >5-log meat / 7-log poultry Salmonella reduction. Temperature > F; time > minutes. 4. CCP. Combine, stabilize with so that ph is <4.6 / 4.2; a w < CCP. Pump / package. Cool, 1-log increase Clostridium perfringens. Temperature to F, in < hours. 6. Label, date, store (ambient).. OR 5. CCP. Cool, <1-log increase Clostridium perfringens. Package (prevent cross-contamination with Listeria, <1-log increase). 6. Label, date. Store (ambient).. 000lh2&webDocs09: USDA-process-groups-list-flows-plans orig 8/21/09 rev print 3:57 PM 8/21/09 (combinedto5-feb09-withkey; flow ; flow-diag-reno; QARP; plan) 4

5 RETAIL PROCESS HACCP BASED ON FIVE USDA HACCP PROCESSES Process I. Not heat treated, not shelf stable Raw mushrooms, green onions, salad greens, fruit, fruit juice, fresh fruit and vegetable salads, fish, beef, pork, shellfish, eggs II. Not heat treated, with inhibitors to make shelf stable Combine flour, nuts, salt, sugar, vinegar, eggs, milk, etc. to make foods such as butter with honey, herbs, acid, salad dressing, pickles, olives, kimchee, wine. III. Fully cooked*, not shelf stable Ready-to-eat meat, fish, poultry, butter, cheese, ice cream, salads with cooked safe ingredients IV. Fully cooked*, with inhibitors to make shelf stable Smoked, salted, canned meat, fish, poultry; canned fruit; jam, jelly, syrup, processed cheese, acidic sauces (BBQ sauce, catsup), acidic beverages, bread, bagels, cake, cookies, dry cereals, taco shells) V. Commercially sterile**, shelf stable Hermetically / anaerobically packaged food (vegetables, beans, meat, poultry, fish, soup, dairy products) Purchase CCP. Farmer has HACCP and guarantees safe levels of hazards on food. CCP. Farmer / supplier has HACCP and guarantees safe levels of hazards on food. <10 3 Salmonella. <10 3 Salmonella. <1 Clostridium botulinum / gram Receive / Store Pre-Prep Preparation No B,C,P No B,C,P crosscontamination. crosscontamination Wash fruits and vegetables, 2 log. No cross-contamination. No B,C,P crosscontamination Wash fruits and vegetables, 2 log. No cross-contamination. CCP. 5-log Salmonella kill with acid if eggs added or ph <4.1 or aw <0.92 or combination. CCP. Cooking gives a 5-log to 7- log Salmonella kill; spores survive. No inhibitors. CCP. Cooking gives a 5-log to 7- log Salmonella kill. ph, aw, and chemical inhibitors prevent spore outgrowth. CCP. Product receives a 9-log to 12-log Clostridium botulinum reduction. Transport, Hold, Serve No B,C,P crosscontamination. Cool N/A Customer Consumption Raw food spoils safe. No B,C,P crosscontamination. CCP. >130ºF. CCP. <14 hours, 120 to 55ºF. CCP. <40ºF or <3 log growth of vegetative pathogens before consumption. B,C,P = biological, chemical, and physical Not shelf stable = pathogenic vegetative cells can grow, and spores can outgrow *Fully cooked = 5-log to 7-log Salmonella treatment or Food Safety Objective (FSO) of <1 Salmonella / 25 grams **Commercially sterile = 9-log to 12-log Clostridium botulinum treatment 000lh2&webDocs09: USDA-process-groups-list-flows-plans orig 8/21/09 rev print 3:57 PM 8/21/09 (combinedto5-feb09-withkey; flow ; flow-diag-reno; QARP; plan) 5

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