OBJECTIVES By the end of this segment, the community participant will be able to:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "OBJECTIVES By the end of this segment, the community participant will be able to:"

Transcription

1 Cancer 101: Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Linda U. Krebs, RN, PhD, AOCN, FAAN OCEAN Native Navigators and the Cancer Continuum (NNACC) (NCMHD R24MD002811) Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 1 OBJECTIVES By the end of this segment, the community participant will be able to: 1. Describe what is meant by the term biopsy 2. Describe how tumors may behave differently from one another 3. Give two examples of the stages of cancer and their meanings 4. Give two reasons why staging is important Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 2 1

2 Introduction Review: What Is Cancer? Cancer develops when cells grow and multiply without order or control. Under normal circumstances, new cell growth and old cell death are kept in balance. In cancer, this balance is disrupted. Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 4 2

3 Review: Normal Tissue Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 5 Review: Beginning of Cancerous Growth Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 6 3

4 Review: Cancerous Tumor Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 7 Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis Review: Benign versus Malignant Tumors Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 8 4

5 Review: Benign versus Malignant Tumors Malignant tumors are cancer. Cells in malignant tumors can grow out of control and invade or damage other parts of the body. When cancer (malignant tumors) spreads from the original site to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 9 Diagnosing Cancer 5

6 Diagnosing Cancer A cancer diagnosis is made by examining cells or a piece of tissue under the microscope. A diagnosis of cancer can only be confirmed by examining the cells/tissue; other tests only suggest the presence of cancer The cells/tissue can be collected in a variety of methods Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway & Krebs) 11 Diagnosing Cancer Tissue or cells can be collected and examined in a variety of ways: Cytology (pap smear) Biopsy Surgical excision Tissue analysis (staining of tissues; frozen section) 12 6

7 Diagnosing Cancer A biopsy (bye-op-see) is the removal of a small piece of tissue (a group of cells) for microscopic examination Biopsy is the most common and best method used to diagnose cancer 13 Diagnosing Cancer Types of biopsies: Punch Biopsy Needle Biopsy Fine needle Core Surgical Biopsy Incisional Excisional Biopsy types for breast cancer 14 7

8 Diagnosing Cancer All biopsy tissues should be examined by a pathologist The microscopic examination helps the doctor determine: If the biopsy tissue is cancer If it is cancer, how aggressive the cancer may be ( will it spread easily or be harder to treat). 15 Diagnosing Cancer: Next Steps Once the cancer diagnosis has been made, more testing may be needed to find the primary site (where the cancer started). The primary site helps determine the type of treatment for the cancer. 16 8

9 Diagnosing Cancer: Additional Methods History and physical exam Radiologic studies MRI Ultrasound Nuclear Medicine scans PET scans Visualization (endoscopy) Laboratory studies Tumor markers Diagnosing Cancer: Next Steps It also is important to know if the cancer is fast or slow growing and where it is in the body (is it localized in one place or has it spread to other places?) The next steps are to look at the primary tumor (grading) and look to see where the tumor is located in your body (staging) 18 9

10 Tumor Grading Tumor Grading Review of the cells can show how close the cells look to the original tissue where the tumor is located For example, how close does the tumor in your breast look to normal, noncancerous breast tissue? 20 10

11 Tumor Grading A pathologist assigns a grade to the cancer The more different from the original tissue, the more likely the cancer is to be very aggressive and/or fast growing Usually, a lower grade means a slowergrowing cancer, which is less likely to spread 21 Histologic tumor grade Grade 1 (well differentiated): Do not appear to be growing rapidly Grade 2 (moderately differentiated) Between grades 1 and 3 Grade 3 (poorly differentiated) Highest grade, lacks normal features and tends to grow and spread more aggressively

12 Tumor Grading Well differentiated tumor cells look and function similarly to normal cells of the same type. Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumor cells look abnormal and disorganized. Prostate cancer 23 Cancer Staging 12

13 Cancer Staging Staging is the process used to: Identify the location of the tumor Show how far the cancer has spread in the body. Staging helps determine the type and amounts of treatment to be used 25 Cancer Staging Staging helps determines a person s prognosis In general, the smaller the tumor and the less it has spread at the time of diagnosis, the more likely the patient will survive for a long time 26 13

14 Cancer Staging: Types Clinical staging Surgical staging Pathologic staging TNM Staging Other staging methods/systems Staging for recurrence 27 Cancer Staging: TNM Staging Classification System Most common staging system; used throughout the world T = Tumor (primary tumor location and size) N = Nodes (spread to lymph nodes; how many) M = Metastasis [ma-tas-ta-sis] (spread to other parts of the body; other organs) 28 14

15 Cancer Staging: Pathologic Staging Stages 0-IV are also used by health care providers Stage 0: cancer is only in the cells in which it began; no invasion of underlying tissues Stage I, II, III: higher numbers indicate more extensive disease; greater tumor size; and/or spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the tumor Stage IV: cancer has spread to another organ 29 Example: Colon Cancer Stages 30 15

16 Cancer Staging: Role of the Bloodstream and Lymphatic System Some cancer cells may break away from the primary cancer and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to another part of the body 31 Spread of Cancer The four common designations for the spread of cancer are: In situ: Early cancer that has not spread to neighboring tissues. Local: Cancer is found only in the organ where it started to grow. Regional: Cancer has spread to the surrounding tissues or lymph nodes. Distant: Cancer has spread to other organs and systems of the body

17 Example of Cancer Diagnosis and Staging: Breast Cancer Possible Breast Cancer Evaluate signs and symptoms Imaging tests to evaluate breast health Biopsy Breast cancer grading and staging Next steps 34 17

18 Breast Anatomy and Physiology 35 18

19 37 Signs and symptoms A new lump or mass Swelling of all or part of a breast Skin irritation or dimpling Breast or nipple pain Nipple retraction (turning inward) Redness, scaling or thickening of the nipple or breast skin Nipple discharge other than breast milk 38 19

20 Signs and symptoms (cont d) If breast symptoms and/or the results of a physical exam suggest breast cancer might be present, more tests will be done. These might include imaging tests, blood tests, looking at samples of nipple discharge, or doing biopsies of suspected areas. 39 Imaging tests used to evaluate breast disease Diagnostic mammograms Digital mammograms Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast Breast ultrasound Ductogram 40 20

21 Diagnostic Mammogram Follow up after on breast problems or abnormal screening mammogram. More pictures are taken to carefully study the area of concern Results of the diagnostic mammogram: That the abnormality is not worrisome at all. Routine mammogram screening 41 Diagnostic Mammogram Results of the diagnostic mammogram (cont): The abnormality has a high likelihood of being benign (not cancer). Come back sooner for next screening (e.g., 4-6 months) The lesion is more suspicious a biopsy or another test is needed for diagnosis 42 21

22 Other Imaging Tests MRI: Use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays. May be used to decide the size of the cancer and to look for other cancers Ultrasound: Also known as sonography; uses sound waves. May be particularly helpful in women with very dense breasts

23 Making the Diagnosis by Biopsy Fine needle aspiration Uses a thin, hollow needle is to take tissue cells Core biopsy: Uses a larger needle to take a larger tissue sample Surgical (open) biopsy: Removes all or part of the abnormal tissue Excisional biopsy removes all Incisional biopsy - removes part 45 Identifying the Type of Breast Cancer The most common type begins in the milk ducts of the breasts and is called ductal carcinoma The second most common begins in the lobules of the breast and is call lobular carcinoma There are many other different types 46 23

24 47 Next Steps in Diagnosing & Staging Breast Cancer Identifying the tumor type and grading the tumor cells Staging the tumor through blood tests, scans and other examinations Deciding on what treatment is needed and when treatment should begin Discussing treatment options with the patient and family 48 24

Cancer Diagnosis and Staging

Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Cancer diagnosis and Staging Module 4 Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Target Audience: Community members Staff of Indian health programs, including Community Health Representatives Contents of Learning Module:

More information

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor.

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor. Breast Cancer Introduction Cancer of the breast is the most common form of cancer that affects women but is no longer the leading cause of cancer deaths. About 1 out of 8 women are diagnosed with breast

More information

Benign Breast Diseases

Benign Breast Diseases Benign Breast Diseases Most women have changes in their breasts during their lifetime. Many of these changes are caused by hormones. For example, your breasts may feel more lumpy or tender at different

More information

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too.

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Male Breast Cancer Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Many people do not know that men can get breast

More information

Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond. Adriana Corben, M.D.

Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond. Adriana Corben, M.D. Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond Adriana Corben, M.D. About breast anatomy Breasts are special organs that develop in women during puberty when female hormones are

More information

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary The risk of breast cancer among Asian Americans living in the U.S. is relatively low compared to caucasian women. However, there is concern that the risk of breast

More information

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer Main Page Risk Factors Reducing Your Risk Screening Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Overview Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Surgical Procedures Medications Lifestyle Changes Living With Thyroid Cancer Talking

More information

Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points

Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Metastatic Cancer: Questions

More information

Understanding Your Breast Cancer Pathology Report *

Understanding Your Breast Cancer Pathology Report * Understanding Your Breast Cancer Pathology Report * * Note: Your pathology report may contain all or some of the sections covered in this guide. Remember, your healthcare team is always available to help

More information

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder.

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found

More information

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast Cancer Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast cancer in the UK Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Around 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer It most commonly affects women over

More information

Sam & Jennie Bennett Breast Care Center

Sam & Jennie Bennett Breast Care Center Sam & Jennie Bennett Breast Care Center Sam & Jennie Bennett Breast Care Center d Central Maine Medical Center s Sam & Jennie Bennett Breast Care Center is a private place where a woman can find comprehensive

More information

Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the part of bile duct that is outside the liver.

Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the part of bile duct that is outside the liver. EXTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCT CANCER General Information Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the part of bile duct that is outside the liver. A network of

More information

Thyroid Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thyroid cancer is and what treatment options are available.

Thyroid Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thyroid cancer is and what treatment options are available. Thyroid Cancer Introduction The thyroid is a gland in the neck. Thyroid cancer is a common type of cancer. It accounts for 1% to 5% of cancer cases worldwide. As medical technology advances, more cases

More information

Information provided in these web pages was last updated on November 2, 2009 BREAST CANCER

Information provided in these web pages was last updated on November 2, 2009 BREAST CANCER BREAST CANCER BACKGROUND Facts about breast cancer Breast cancer affects both men and women, though it occurs rarely in men. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women with the exception

More information

Liver Cancer What is the liver? What is liver cancer?

Liver Cancer What is the liver? What is liver cancer? Liver Cancer What is the liver? The liver is the largest internal organ in the body and is important in digesting food. The liver performs many other functions, including collecting and filtering blood

More information

Nicole Kounalakis, MD

Nicole Kounalakis, MD Breast Disease: Diagnosis and Management Nicole Kounalakis, MD Assistant Professor of Surgery Goal of Breast Evaluation The goal of breast evaluation is to classify findings as: normal physiologic variations

More information

Invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) Invasive breast cancer of no special type (NST) Breast cancer not otherwise specified (NOS)

Invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) Invasive breast cancer of no special type (NST) Breast cancer not otherwise specified (NOS) Invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) Invasive breast cancer of no special type (NST) Breast cancer not otherwise specified (NOS) This booklet describes what invasive ductal breast cancer is, the symptoms,

More information

BREAST CANCER WHAT DO MY BIOPSY RESULTS MEAN?

BREAST CANCER WHAT DO MY BIOPSY RESULTS MEAN? BREAST CANCER WHAT DO MY BIOPSY RESULTS MEAN? Contents: The type of breast cancer The grade of the tumour Hormone receptor status HER2 status Questions to ask your doctor A biopsy is a procedure which

More information

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Pancreatic Cancer

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Pancreatic Cancer Main Page Risk Factors Reducing Your Risk Screening Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Overview Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Surgical Procedures Lifestyle Changes Managing Side Effects Talking to Your Doctor

More information

Automatic Breast Cancer Classification from Histopathological Images

Automatic Breast Cancer Classification from Histopathological Images Automatic Breast Cancer Classification from Histopathological Images SticAmsud - meeting #2 Fabio Alexandre Spanhol PhD student Luiz Eduardo Soares de Oliveira,PhD professor advisor Department of Informatics

More information

Small cell lung cancer

Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found within

More information

Provider Reimbursement for Women's Cancer Screening Program

Provider Reimbursement for Women's Cancer Screening Program Reimbursement Schedule July 1, 2015 June 30, 2016 Office Visits - Established Patients Office Visit / Minimal / no physician 99211 $ 16.70 Office Visit / Problem focused History / exam 99212 $ 36.46 Preventive

More information

Areola: The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple.

Areola: The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple. Glossary of Terms Adenocarcinoma: Cancer arising in gland-forming tissue; the medical term meaning related to a gland is adeno ; breast lobules and ducts are types of glands. Adjuvant: Treatment given

More information

General Information on Mammography and Breast Cancer Screening

General Information on Mammography and Breast Cancer Screening General Information on Mammography and Breast Cancer Screening General Information on Mammography and Breast Cancer Screening You have made an appointment with your doctor for a mammogram. If this is your

More information

There are many different types of cancer and sometimes cancer is diagnosed when in fact you are not suffering from the disease at all.

There are many different types of cancer and sometimes cancer is diagnosed when in fact you are not suffering from the disease at all. About Cancer Cancer is a disease where there is a disturbance in the normal pattern of cell replacement. The cells mutate and become abnormal or grow uncontrollably. Not all tumours are cancerous (i.e.

More information

HAVE YOU BEEN NEWLY DIAGNOSED with DCIS?

HAVE YOU BEEN NEWLY DIAGNOSED with DCIS? HAVE YOU BEEN NEWLY DIAGNOSED with DCIS? Jen D. Mother and volunteer. Diagnosed with DCIS breast cancer in 2012. An educational guide prepared by Genomic Health This guide is designed to educate women

More information

Understanding breast changes

Understanding breast changes Understanding breast changes UHN For women Read this resource to learn: Parts of your breast Types of breast changes What follow up appointments you may need Breast Imaging Department Princess Margaret

More information

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) DIAGNOSIS: DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) This factsheet gives information on an early form of breast cancer called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). It explains what it is, how your breast is made

More information

Ultrasound - Breast. What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast?

Ultrasound - Breast. What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? Scan for mobile link. Ultrasound - Breast Ultrasound imaging of the breast uses sound waves to produce pictures of the internal structures of the breast. It s primarily used to help diagnose breast lumps

More information

Breast screening results and assesment

Breast screening results and assesment Breast screening results and assesment This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding breast screening. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 9. Contents

More information

Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis

Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and

More information

Breast Cancer. The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer.

Breast Cancer. The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer. Breast Cancer What Does the Pathology Report Say Normal Cells The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer. Non-Invasive

More information

Guide to Understanding Breast Cancer

Guide to Understanding Breast Cancer An estimated 220,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, and one in eight will be diagnosed during their lifetime. While breast cancer is a serious disease, most patients

More information

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200 GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? Like tobacco smoking, exposure to asbestos can result in the development of lung cancer. Similarly, the risk of developing asbestos induced lung

More information

Breast Cancer Toolkit. Marion DePuit, MSN, Faith Community Nurse. Leslie Brown, BA, Community Advocate 9/2014. Understanding Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Toolkit. Marion DePuit, MSN, Faith Community Nurse. Leslie Brown, BA, Community Advocate 9/2014. Understanding Breast Cancer GENERAL: Breast Cancer Toolkit Marion DePuit, MSN, Faith Community Nurse Leslie Brown, BA, Community Advocate 9/2014 Understanding Breast Cancer (Adapted from the American Cancer Society and Breast Cancer.org)

More information

Cervical Cancer The Importance of Cervical Screening and Vaccination

Cervical Cancer The Importance of Cervical Screening and Vaccination Cervical Cancer The Importance of Cervical Screening and Vaccination Cancer Cells Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body. Sometimes, this

More information

Breast Cancer Awareness Month

Breast Cancer Awareness Month Aon Kenya Insurance Brokers Ltd Aon Hewitt Healthcare Division Breast Cancer Awareness Month Issue 12 October 2015 In this Issue 2 Cancer Statistics in Kenya 3 What is Breast Cancer? 4 Symptoms of Breast

More information

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1 Mesothelioma Introduction Mesothelioma is a type of cancer. It starts in the tissue that lines your lungs, stomach, heart, and other organs. This tissue is called mesothelium. Most people who get this

More information

The TV Series. www.healthybodyhealthymind.com INFORMATION TELEVISION NETWORK

The TV Series. www.healthybodyhealthymind.com INFORMATION TELEVISION NETWORK The TV Series www.healthybodyhealthymind.com Produced By: INFORMATION TELEVISION NETWORK ONE PARK PLACE 621 NW 53RD ST BOCA RATON, FL 33428 1-800-INFO-ITV www.itvisus.com 2005 Information Television Network.

More information

Breast Imaging Made Brief and Simple. Jane Clayton MD Associate Professor Department of Radiology LSUHSC New Orleans, LA

Breast Imaging Made Brief and Simple. Jane Clayton MD Associate Professor Department of Radiology LSUHSC New Orleans, LA Breast Imaging Made Brief and Simple Jane Clayton MD Associate Professor Department of Radiology LSUHSC New Orleans, LA What women are referred for breast imaging? Two groups of women are referred for

More information

Know about Non-Cancer (Benign) Breast Changes: Cysts

Know about Non-Cancer (Benign) Breast Changes: Cysts Know about Non-Cancer (Benign) Breast Changes: Cysts For women who have breast changes Princess Margaret Read this brochure to learn: What are benign breast changes How are benign breast changes diagnosed

More information

Florida Breast Health Specialists Breast Cancer Information and Facts

Florida Breast Health Specialists Breast Cancer Information and Facts Definition Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. There are two main types of breast cancer: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to

More information

What is DCIS? Contents. The breasts

What is DCIS? Contents. The breasts This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding ductal carinoma in situ (DCIS). You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 6. Contents The breasts What is

More information

Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer Media Contact: Gerri Gomez Howard Cell: 303-748-3933 gerri@gomezhowardgroup.com Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer What is ovarian cancer? Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in tissues

More information

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer.

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer. Renal cell cancer Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which

More information

Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma

Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma Medical Expert: Breast Rotation Specific Competencies/Objectives 1.0 Medical History

More information

BREAST CANCER PATHOLOGY

BREAST CANCER PATHOLOGY BREAST CANCER PATHOLOGY FACT SHEET Version 4, Aug 2013 This fact sheet was produced by Breast Cancer Network Australia with input from The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia I m a nurse and know

More information

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available.

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available. Lung Cancer Introduction Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of men and women. Over 165,000 people die of lung cancer every year in the United States. Most cases of lung cancer are related to cigarette

More information

CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND RADIOLOGY QUIZ QUESTION

CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND RADIOLOGY QUIZ QUESTION Donald L. Renfrew, MD Radiology Associates of the Fox Valley, 333 N. Commercial Street, Suite 100, Neenah, WI 54956 12/17/2011 Radiology Quiz of the Week # 51 Page 1 CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND RADIOLOGY

More information

The best treatment Your guide to breast cancer treatment in England and Wales

The best treatment Your guide to breast cancer treatment in England and Wales The best treatment Your guide to breast cancer treatment in England and Wales If you are looking for information on the treatment of secondary breast cancer (also known as advanced or metastatic breast

More information

For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy

For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy Mary s doctor calls to give her the results of her mammogram. The doctor says, It s not normal, and I think we need to biopsy the area in question. Mary s first thought

More information

PART TWO: DIAGNOSING BREAST CANCER

PART TWO: DIAGNOSING BREAST CANCER PART TWO: DIAGNOSING BREAST CANCER What is Breast Cancer? Normal cells can turn into cancer because of genetic inheritance or repeated exposure to a cancer-related substance in the environment, such as

More information

Understanding. Pancreatic Cancer

Understanding. Pancreatic Cancer Understanding Pancreatic Cancer Understanding Pancreatic Cancer The Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that is about 6 inches long. It s located deep in your belly between your stomach and backbone. Your

More information

Understanding your pathology report

Understanding your pathology report Understanding your pathology report 2 Contents Contents Introduction 3 What is a pathology report? 3 Waiting for your results 4 What s in a pathology report? 4 Information about your breast cancer 5 What

More information

dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER

dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER When you are diagnosed with breast cancer, you need a team of specialists who will share their knowledge of breast disease and the latest treatments available. At Cancer

More information

AFTER DIAGNOSIS: PROSTATE CANCER Understanding Your Treatment Options

AFTER DIAGNOSIS: PROSTATE CANCER Understanding Your Treatment Options AFTER DIAGNOSIS: PROSTATE CANCER Understanding Your Treatment Options INTRODUCTION This booklet describes how prostate cancer develops, how it affects the body and the current treatment methods. Although

More information

Symptoms and diagnosis of breast cancer

Symptoms and diagnosis of breast cancer Symptoms and diagnosis of breast cancer This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding breast cancer in women. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page

More information

Fact Sheet: Molecular Imaging and Cancer

Fact Sheet: Molecular Imaging and Cancer Fact Sheet: Molecular Imaging and Cancer Cancer causes one in every four deaths in the United States, second only to heart disease. According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 1.48 million new

More information

FRIEND TO FRIEND CPT CODES 2015 2016. Diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis, unilateral (list separately in addition to code for primary procedure)

FRIEND TO FRIEND CPT CODES 2015 2016. Diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis, unilateral (list separately in addition to code for primary procedure) FRIEND TO FRIEND CPT CODES 2015 2016 CPT CODE SERVICE DESCRIPTION FEE EFFECTIVE G0101 Screening pelvic examination $36.69 01 Jan 16 G0202 Mammography, screening, digital, bilateral (2 view film study of

More information

Benign Breast Disorders

Benign Breast Disorders Benign Breast Disorders Valerie Swiatkowski, MD Medical Student Lecture Introduction 16% of women ages 40-69 will seek advice from their physician regarding breast complaints over 10 years. Failure to

More information

Pancreatic Cancer. What does the pancreas do? What is cancer?

Pancreatic Cancer. What does the pancreas do? What is cancer? Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer mainly occurs in people over 60. If it is diagnosed at an early stage, then an operation to remove the cancer followed by chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy

More information

Cancer of the Cervix

Cancer of the Cervix Cancer of the Cervix WOMENCARE A Healthy Woman is a Powerful Woman (407) 898-1500 A woman's cervix (the opening of the uterus) is lined with cells. Cancer of the cervix occurs when those cells change,

More information

Oncology. Objectives. Cancer Nomenclature. Cancer is a disease of the cell Cancer develops when certain cells begin to grow out of control

Oncology. Objectives. Cancer Nomenclature. Cancer is a disease of the cell Cancer develops when certain cells begin to grow out of control Oncology Objectives Describe the etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of cancer Discuss medical and family history findings relevant to cancer Identify general signs and symptoms associated with

More information

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them.

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them. Brain Cancer Introduction Brain tumors are not rare. Thousands of people are diagnosed every year with tumors of the brain and the rest of the nervous system. The diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors

More information

Male Breast Cancer Published on Diagnostic Imaging (http://www.diagnosticimaging.com)

Male Breast Cancer Published on Diagnostic Imaging (http://www.diagnosticimaging.com) Case Studies [1] July 22, 2014 By Danielle DeMulder, MD [2] and Erini Makariou, MD [3] Case History: 54-year-old male presents with palpable right retroareolar abnormality. Case History: 54-year-old male

More information

Understanding Metastatic Disease

Understanding Metastatic Disease Supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Pfizer Understanding Metastatic Disease Metastatic disease or metastases are phrases that mean the same as Secondary cancer. This means that the cancer

More information

Malignant Lesions. 1. Distribution of Tumor. 1.1. Unifocal Carcinoma

Malignant Lesions. 1. Distribution of Tumor. 1.1. Unifocal Carcinoma 23 Malignant Lesions 1. Distribution of Tumor 1.1. Unifocal Carcinoma Figure 23.1. A 40-year-old woman presented with a palpable mass in the periareolar region. Ultrasound core biopsy yielded invasive

More information

Breast Cancer Screening

Breast Cancer Screening Breast Cancer Screening The American Cancer Society and Congregational Health Ministry Team October Module To access this module via the Web, visit www.cancer.org and type in congregational health ministry

More information

Understanding. Breast Changes. National Cancer Institute. A Health Guide for Women. National Institutes of Health

Understanding. Breast Changes. National Cancer Institute. A Health Guide for Women. National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Understanding Breast Changes A Health Guide for Women U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health It was easier to talk with my doctor after reading

More information

Having a Breast Biopsy. A Guide for Women and Their Families

Having a Breast Biopsy. A Guide for Women and Their Families Having a Breast Biopsy A Guide for Women and Their Families Fast Facts n n Most women who have a breast biopsy do not have breast cancer. About 4 out of every 5 breast biopsies are negative for cancer.

More information

Breast Cancer. CSC Cancer Experience Registry Member, breast cancer

Breast Cancer. CSC Cancer Experience Registry Member, breast cancer ESSENTIALS Breast Cancer Take things one step at a time. Try not to be overwhelmed by the tidal wave of technical information coming your way. Finally you know your body best; you have to be your own advocate.

More information

I VE FOUND A BREAST LUMP WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?

I VE FOUND A BREAST LUMP WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? I VE FOUND A BREAST LUMP WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Contents: Possible cancerous breast changes Common non-cancerous (benign) breast changes Diagnostic tests / procedures Questions to ask your doctor You may have

More information

WHI - Volume 8, Section 4 - Outcome Classifications: Cancer Outcomes Page 4-1 SECTION 4 OUTCOME CLASSIFICATIONS: CANCER OUTCOMES

WHI - Volume 8, Section 4 - Outcome Classifications: Cancer Outcomes Page 4-1 SECTION 4 OUTCOME CLASSIFICATIONS: CANCER OUTCOMES WHI - Volume 8, Section 4 - Outcome Classifications: Cancer Outcomes Page 4-1 SECTION 4 OUTCOME CLASSIFICATIONS: CANCER OUTCOMES INTRODUCTION Breast and colorectal cancers are primary outcomes of the Dietary

More information

Phyllodes tumours: borderline malignant and malignant

Phyllodes tumours: borderline malignant and malignant Phyllodes tumours: borderline malignant and malignant This booklet is for people who would like more information on borderline malignant or malignant phyllodes tumours. It describes what they are, the

More information

The Diagnosis of Cancer in the Pathology Laboratory

The Diagnosis of Cancer in the Pathology Laboratory The Diagnosis of Cancer in the Pathology Laboratory Dr Edward Sheffield Christmas Select 74 Meeting, Queen s Hotel Cheltenham, 3 rd December 2014 Agenda Overview of the pathology of cancer How specimens

More information

Invasive lobular breast cancer

Invasive lobular breast cancer Invasive lobular breast cancer This booklet is about invasive lobular breast cancer. It describes what invasive lobular breast cancer is, the symptoms, how it s diagnosed and possible treatments. Diagnosed

More information

What You Need to Know Before Treatment About: Breast Cancer

What You Need to Know Before Treatment About: Breast Cancer What You Need to Know Before Treatment About: Breast Cancer Publication MDCH-1234 Revised: September 2008 Authority: Public Act 368 of 1978, as amended by Public Act 195 of 1986 and Public Act 15 of 1989.

More information

Breast Cancer. The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer.

Breast Cancer. The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer. Breast Cancer What Does the Pathology Report Say Normal Cells The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer. Non-Invasive

More information

THORACIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSESMENT PROGRAM (DAP) PATIENT INFORMATION FOR:

THORACIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSESMENT PROGRAM (DAP) PATIENT INFORMATION FOR: central east regional cancer program in partnership with cancer care ontario THORACIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSESMENT PROGRAM (DAP) PATIENT INFORMATION FOR: Thoracic dap booklet March2012.indd 1 SCHEDULED TESTS YOUR

More information

BREAST CANCER. What you should know about breast cancer. Saint Louis University Cancer Center

BREAST CANCER. What you should know about breast cancer. Saint Louis University Cancer Center SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY CANCER CENTER Our standing as an academic medical center puts the Saint Louis University Cancer Center at the forefront in developing and providing the latest medical treatment and

More information

NWT Clinical Practice Information Notice

NWT Clinical Practice Information Notice NWT Clinical Practice Information Notice Upon receipt, please file this notice in Section C, Clinical Practice Information Binder for future reference. The following Clinical Practice has been approved

More information

Your breast clinic appointment

Your breast clinic appointment Your breast clinic appointment This booklet explains what to expect if you ve been referred to a breast clinic by your GP or asked to attend an assessment clinic after routine breast screening. Lorem ipsum

More information

Salivary Gland Disorders

Salivary Gland Disorders Salivary Gland Disorders Introduction Located in your mouth and throat, the salivary glands make saliva. Saliva is the watery fluid in the mouth. There are many problems that can affect the salivary glands.

More information

Mammograms & Breast Health. An Information Guide for Women U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Mammograms & Breast Health. An Information Guide for Women U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mammograms & Breast Health An Information Guide for Women This booklet was developed by the Centers for Disease Control

More information

Breast Imaging East Duarte Road Duarte, CA HOPE MED M

Breast Imaging East Duarte Road Duarte, CA HOPE  MED M Breast Imaging 1500 East Duarte Road Duarte, CA 91010-3000 800.826.HOPE www.cityofhope.org MED 8116 0607 25M Breast Imaging Benefits of Early Detection One out of eight women in the U.S. will develop breast

More information

Guideline for the Imaging of Patients Presenting with Breast Symptoms incorporating the guideline for the use of MRI in breast cancer

Guideline for the Imaging of Patients Presenting with Breast Symptoms incorporating the guideline for the use of MRI in breast cancer Guideline for the Imaging of Patients Presenting with Breast Symptoms incorporating the guideline for the use of MRI in breast cancer Version History Version Date Summary of Change/Process 0.1 09.01.11

More information

Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report

Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report Developed for you by Breastcancer.org is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing education and information on breast health and breast cancer. The

More information

Breast cancer affects one in eight Australian women. It is the most common cancer for Victorian women, with almost 3,700 diagnoses in 2012.

Breast cancer affects one in eight Australian women. It is the most common cancer for Victorian women, with almost 3,700 diagnoses in 2012. Breast cancer Summary Breast cancer affects one in nine Australian women. It is important for all women to get to know the normal look and feel of their breasts. Although most breast changes aren t caused

More information

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount

More information

Breast Health Starts Here

Breast Health Starts Here Breast Health Starts Here k Breast Health Knowledge and self-awareness are powerful tools. Understanding and utilizing these tools starts with Lake Charles Memorial s Breast Health Program. Developing

More information

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available.

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available. Thymus Cancer Introduction Thymus cancer is a rare cancer. It starts in the small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. The thymus makes white blood cells that protect the body against

More information

Mammography. What is Mammography?

Mammography. What is Mammography? Scan for mobile link. Mammography Mammography is a specific type of breast imaging that uses low-dose x-rays to detect cancer early before women experience symptoms when it is most treatable. Tell your

More information

Mammography: Risks and benefits. Zahra Anjomani

Mammography: Risks and benefits. Zahra Anjomani Mammography: Risks and benefits Zahra Anjomani Content Overview of Breast Cancer Mammography machine Risks and Benefits of Mammography Overview of Breast Cancer The most common form of cancer among women

More information

Changes in Breast Cancer Reports After Second Opinion. Dr. Vicente Marco Department of Pathology Hospital Quiron Barcelona. Spain

Changes in Breast Cancer Reports After Second Opinion. Dr. Vicente Marco Department of Pathology Hospital Quiron Barcelona. Spain Changes in Breast Cancer Reports After Second Opinion Dr. Vicente Marco Department of Pathology Hospital Quiron Barcelona. Spain Second Opinion in Breast Pathology Usually requested when a patient is referred

More information

(Osteosarcoma; Chondrosarcoma; Ewing s Sarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Primary Lymphoma of Bone; Giant Cell Tumor; Chordoma)

(Osteosarcoma; Chondrosarcoma; Ewing s Sarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Primary Lymphoma of Bone; Giant Cell Tumor; Chordoma) Bone Cancer (Osteosarcoma; Chondrosarcoma; Ewing s Sarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Primary Lymphoma of Bone; Giant Cell Tumor; Chordoma) by Krisha McCoy, MS En Español (Spanish Version)

More information

A912: Kidney, Renal cell carcinoma

A912: Kidney, Renal cell carcinoma A912: Kidney, Renal cell carcinoma General facts of kidney cancer Renal cell carcinoma, a form of kidney cancer that involves cancerous changes in the cells of the renal tubule, is the most common type

More information

MELANOMA INSTITUTE AUSTRALIA PATHOLOGY AND STAGING

MELANOMA INSTITUTE AUSTRALIA PATHOLOGY AND STAGING MELANOMA INSTITUTE AUSTRALIA PATHOLOGY AND STAGING PATIENT INFORMATION PATHOLOGY AND STAGING FOR MELANOMA If you have been diagnosed with melanoma, this brochure can provide you with information to help

More information

The best treatment Your guide to breast cancer treatment in Scotland

The best treatment Your guide to breast cancer treatment in Scotland The best treatment Your guide to breast cancer treatment in Scotland If you are looking for information on secondary breast cancer treatment, please see Breast Cancer Now s website: breastcancernow.org/

More information