Oncology. Objectives. Cancer Nomenclature. Cancer is a disease of the cell Cancer develops when certain cells begin to grow out of control

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Oncology. Objectives. Cancer Nomenclature. Cancer is a disease of the cell Cancer develops when certain cells begin to grow out of control"

Transcription

1 Oncology Objectives Describe the etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of cancer Discuss medical and family history findings relevant to cancer Identify general signs and symptoms associated with cancer Identify specific signs and symptoms associated with particular types of cancer Describe the TNM System for staging cancer Discuss presentation, treatment options, prognosis, and survival rates for common types of cancer Cancer Nomenclature Cancer is a disease of the cell Cancer develops when certain cells begin to grow out of control inherit damaged DNA person s DNA can become damaged by environmental factors 1

2 Cancer Nomenclature Abnormal cell growth leads to masses or tumors (neoplasms) Benign (noncancerous) Abnormal accumulations of normal cells Malignant (cancerous) Accumulations of abnormal cells (rapid division) Cancers within the blood and lymph systems may not form tumors, but rather may interfere with the function of normal tissues or cells Cancer Nomenclature Individual types of cancers are named by the organ or tissue of origin Breast cancer Colon cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Cancer Nomenclature Cancer that has spread to other organs or tissues is said to have metastasized Common sites for metastasis Spine Lungs Brain Liver 2

3 Cancer Nomenclature Cancer that metastasizes to bone is still named for its tissue of origin not referred to as bone cancer i.e. Metastatic colon cancer When cancer metastasizes, the prognosis is much worse (lower survival rates) General Signs & Symptoms Fever Fatigue Malaise Unexplained weight loss Night symptoms Sweats Pain Other symptoms that wake you at night General Signs & Symptoms Cyclical pain patterns Regular bouts of intermittent pain Pain with normal bodily functions Pain patterns will follow those of normal systemic disease Unusual muscle or joint pain 3

4 Family History Increased risk factor for some cancers Breast Colon Ovarian Personal History Should determine the following characteristics of symptoms Intensity Duration Inspection/Palpation Changes in size or appearance of moles Tender, swollen lymph nodes Visible or palpable masses 4

5 Physical Examination No specific special tests for the athletic trainer to perform Evaluation would be system specific based on symptoms and history Cancer Diagnosis Initial identification Self-exam Medical imaging CT scan MRI Mammogram Bone scan Blood work Serum tumor markers Cancer Diagnosis Confirmation can only be made through tissue biopsy Needle inserted into mass, small piece of tissue withdrawn Tissue examined under microscope Each type of cancer has a specific cellular appearance 5

6 TNM Staging System Once cancer diagnosis made, disease is staged using the TNM System T tumor size Determined via imaging studies, lumpectomy, or surgical resection N involvement of lymph nodes Sentinel node biopsy or resection M metastasis to other organs Identified through imaging studies TNM Staging System Following TNM identification, disease is further staged based on criteria for the specific type of cancer Stages 0 IV TNM Staging System Breast Cancer Stage 0 Noninvasive disease cancer cells have not escaped the area of the breast in which it started Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) A ducts B lobules C dilated section of duct D nipple E fat F pectoralis major G rib cage 6

7 TNM Staging System Breast Cancer Stage I invasive disease cancer cells have escaped into adjacent normal tissue Invasive ductal carcinoma Tumor < 2 cm (1 inch) No node involvement TNM Staging System Breast Cancer Stage II invasive disease cancer cells have escaped into adjacent normal tissue Invasive lobular carcinoma Tumor > 2 cm but < 5 cm Some node involvement TNM Staging System Breast Cancer Stage IIIA invasive disease cancer cells have escaped into adjacent normal tissue Tumor > 5 cm OR significant node involvement 7

8 TNM Staging System Breast Cancer Stage IIIB invasive disease cancer cells have escaped into adjacent normal tissue Cancer involves skin OR Cancer has spread to chest wall TNM Staging System Breast Cancer Stage IV Metastatic disease Cancer Treatment Options Based on the specific type of cancer Based on the staging results Most common Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Other Stem cells Bone marrow transplant 8

9 Cancer Treatment Options Surgery Not all tumors or cancers are operable In some cases, surgery is the only treatment needed Other cases, surgery will be followed by chemo and/or radiation (adjuvant therapy) in attempt to target any remaining cancer cells Cancer Treatment Options Chemotherapy Oral IV Porta cathether Cancer Treatment Options Chemotherapy Specific cocktail selected based on the specific cancer Number of rounds determined by staging and oncologist s philosophy 9

10 Cancer Treatment Options Chemotherapy Targets and kills fast growing cells It can t tell the difference between normal and abnormal fast growing cells Cancer Treatment Options Chemotherapy Side effects Nausea/vomiting Hair loss Fatigue Inflammation of mucous membranes (mouth, esophagus, stomach) Anemia Suppressed immune system Neuropathy (depending on the drugs used) Cancer Treatment Options Radiation Local effects Administers highenergy x-rays to damage the DNA of cancer cells 10

11 Cancer Treatment Options Radiation Side effects Fatigue Skin reactions Cancer Prognosis 5 year survival rates 10 year survival rates Types of Cancer Breast Testicular Colon Leukemia Hodgkin s lymphoma (Hodgkin s disease) Non-Hodgkin s lymphoma Multiple myeloma Skeletal cancers 11

12 Leukemia Cancer of the bone marrow and blood Leukemia Normally, the bone marrow produces stem cells (immature cells) Stem cells develop into 1 of 3 types of blood cells Red blood cell White blood cell Platelet Leukemia Four Main Types Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem cells produce too many myeloblasts (immature WBCs) Most common form of acute leukemia in adults Progresses rapidly Can spread to CNS Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Stem cells produce too many granulocytes Occurs most often in middle age (rarely occurs in children) Progresses slowly 12

13 Leukemia Four Main Types Acute Lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) Leukemia Stem cells produce too many lymphacytes Progresses rapidly Can spread to CNS Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Stem cells produce too many lymphocytes Occurs most often in middle age 2 nd most common form of adult leukemia Progresses slowly Leukemia Signs & Symptoms Weakness or feeling tired Fever Easy bruising or bleeding Shortness of breath Recurrent infections Weight loss or loss of appetite Pain in the bones Nausea/vomiting Painless lumps in the neck, underarm, stomach, or groin Splenomegaly Hepatomegaly Leukemia Diagnosis Complete blood count (CBC) Bone marrow biopsy Treatment Chemotherapy Bone marrow transplant 13

14 Hodgkin s Disease Cancer that forms in the lymph system Occurs in both adults and children Often metastisizes to liver, spleen, lungs, and bone Hodgkin s Disease Signs & Symptoms Painless, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin Fever for no known reason Drenching night sweats Weight loss for no known reason Feeling very tired Hodgkin s Disease Diagnosis CBC Lymph node biopsy Treatment Chemotherapy Radiation Bone marrow transplant 14

15 Hodgkin s Disease Prognosis When detected early, 5 year survival rate is 85% Non-Hodgkin s Disease Typically more serious than Hodgkin s disease Two types Fast growing (aggressive) Slow growing Non Hodgkin s Disease Signs and Symptoms Night sweats Fever Unintentional weight loss Swollen lymph nodes Treatment Chemo Radiation Bone marrow transplant 15

16 Multiple Myeloma Cancer that starts in the plasma cells (a type of WBC) Forms tumors in the bone marrow Reduce the normal functioning of the bone marrow Multiple Myeloma Signs and Symptoms Bone pain (particularly in back, hip, & ribs) S/S of anemia Multiple Myeloma Diagnosis CBC Urine tests X-rays Bone marrow biopsy 16

17 Multiple Myeloma Treatment Chemo Radiation Bone marrow transplant Poor prognosis <10% survive 10 years Skeletal Cancers Osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma Osteochondroma Chondroblastoma Osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma Osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma Benign bone tumors Osteoma small Osteoblastoma large (> 2cm) 17

18 Osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma Most commonly occurs between ages of 7 and 25 More common in men 50-60% of cases occur in femur or tibia 20% of cases occur in hands and feet Slow growing, may take patient months or years to seek medical care Osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma Signs & Symptoms dull or aching pain, initially mild and intermittent but increasing in intensity and persistence with time (worse at night) Soft tissue swelling and tenderness May cause deformity Osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma Signs & Symptoms (cont.) Reduced ROM Neurological symptoms if nerve impingement occurs 18

19 Osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma Treatment Surgical excision Bone stabilization (if needed) Osteochondroma Benign tumor made up of cartilage and bone Most common bone tumor Most commonly occurs at the ends of long bones, near growth plates shoulder knee Osteochondroma Signs & Symptoms hard, immobile, detectable mass that is painless soreness of the adjacent muscles may also be asymptomatic 19

20 Chondroblastoma Benign bone tumor that typically occurs within the epiphysis of long bones Believed to form from immature cartilage cells Common sites Shoulder Hip Knee Chondroblastoma Signs & Symptoms Varies depending on location of tumor Dull ache Atrophy in muscle(s) surrounding involved bone Decreased ROM Chondroblastoma Diagnosis X-ray MRI Treatment Surgical excision Bone grafting when necessary 20

21 Osteosarcoma Malignant bone tumor Most common type of malignant bone cancer Most commonly occurs in metaphysis of long bones 50-80% occur in the knee Most common in males during growth spurt Osteosarcoma Signs & Symptoms Pain, worse at night and with exercise First sign may be fracture due to weakening of the bone Lump or swelling in the area Unexplained limp Osteosarcoma Diagnosis X-ray MRI CT scan 21

22 Osteosarcoma Treatment Surgery (amputation when necessary) Chemotherapy Prognosis 60-80% survival rates when the cancer hasn t metastasized Better prognosis with tumor in extremities, rather than spine, hip, or ribs Chondrosarcoma Malignant bone tumor that originates in cartilage tissue Most commonly involves Arm Spine Hip Femur Chondrosarcoma Signs & Symptoms Pain Possible soft tissue swelling Decreased ROM if tumor is near joint 22

23 Chondrosarcoma Diagnosis X-ray MRI CT scan Biopsy Treatment Surgery Radiation 23

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia Introduction Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. The increased number of these cells leads to overcrowding of healthy blood cells. As a result, the healthy cells are not

More information

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too.

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Male Breast Cancer Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Many people do not know that men can get breast

More information

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor.

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor. Breast Cancer Introduction Cancer of the breast is the most common form of cancer that affects women but is no longer the leading cause of cancer deaths. About 1 out of 8 women are diagnosed with breast

More information

.org. Osteochondroma. Solitary Osteochondroma

.org. Osteochondroma. Solitary Osteochondroma Osteochondroma Page ( 1 ) An osteochondroma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops during childhood or adolescence. It is an abnormal growth that forms on the surface of a bone near the growth

More information

ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA (AML),

ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA (AML), 1 ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA (AML), ALSO KNOWN AS ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA WHAT IS CANCER? The body is made up of hundreds of millions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly

More information

LYMPHOMA IN DOGS. Diagnosis/Initial evaluation. Treatment and Prognosis

LYMPHOMA IN DOGS. Diagnosis/Initial evaluation. Treatment and Prognosis LYMPHOMA IN DOGS Lymphoma is a relatively common cancer in dogs. It is a cancer of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid tissue is normally present in many places in the

More information

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options.

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options. Multiple Myeloma Introduction Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. Each year, thousands of people find out that they have multiple myeloma. This reference summary will help

More information

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary The risk of breast cancer among Asian Americans living in the U.S. is relatively low compared to caucasian women. However, there is concern that the risk of breast

More information

OBJECTIVES By the end of this segment, the community participant will be able to:

OBJECTIVES By the end of this segment, the community participant will be able to: Cancer 101: Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Linda U. Krebs, RN, PhD, AOCN, FAAN OCEAN Native Navigators and the Cancer Continuum (NNACC) (NCMHD R24MD002811) Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway

More information

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1 Mesothelioma Introduction Mesothelioma is a type of cancer. It starts in the tissue that lines your lungs, stomach, heart, and other organs. This tissue is called mesothelium. Most people who get this

More information

Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points

Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Metastatic Cancer: Questions

More information

Leukemias and Lymphomas: A primer

Leukemias and Lymphomas: A primer Leukemias and Lymphomas: A primer Normal blood contains circulating white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets 700 red cells (oxygen) 1 white cell Neutrophils (60%) bacterial infection Lymphocytes

More information

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200 GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? Like tobacco smoking, exposure to asbestos can result in the development of lung cancer. Similarly, the risk of developing asbestos induced lung

More information

Aggressive lymphomas. Michael Crump Princess Margaret Hospital

Aggressive lymphomas. Michael Crump Princess Margaret Hospital Aggressive lymphomas Michael Crump Princess Margaret Hospital What are the aggressive lymphomas? Diffuse large B cell Mediastinal large B cell Anaplastic large cell Burkitt lymphoma (transformed lymphoma:

More information

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available.

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available. Thymus Cancer Introduction Thymus cancer is a rare cancer. It starts in the small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. The thymus makes white blood cells that protect the body against

More information

Liver Cancer What is the liver? What is liver cancer?

Liver Cancer What is the liver? What is liver cancer? Liver Cancer What is the liver? The liver is the largest internal organ in the body and is important in digesting food. The liver performs many other functions, including collecting and filtering blood

More information

Estimated New Cases of Leukemia, Lymphoma, Myeloma 2014

Estimated New Cases of Leukemia, Lymphoma, Myeloma 2014 ABOUT BLOOD CANCERS Leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are types of cancer that can affect the

More information

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. Adult

More information

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available.

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available. Lung Cancer Introduction Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of men and women. Over 165,000 people die of lung cancer every year in the United States. Most cases of lung cancer are related to cigarette

More information

.org. Metastatic Bone Disease. Description

.org. Metastatic Bone Disease. Description Metastatic Bone Disease Page ( 1 ) Cancer that begins in an organ, such as the lungs, breast, or prostate, and then spreads to bone is called metastatic bone disease (MBD). More than 1.2 million new cancer

More information

dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER

dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER When you are diagnosed with breast cancer, you need a team of specialists who will share their knowledge of breast disease and the latest treatments available. At Cancer

More information

Early-stage Breast Cancer Treatment: A Patient and Doctor Dialogue

Early-stage Breast Cancer Treatment: A Patient and Doctor Dialogue page 1 Early-stage Breast Cancer Treatment: A Patient and Doctor Dialogue Q: What is breast cancer, and what type do I have? A: Cancer is a disease in which cells become abnormal and form more cells in

More information

Prostate Cancer. There is no known association with an enlarged prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Prostate Cancer. There is no known association with an enlarged prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostate Cancer Definition Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure that makes up part of a man's reproductive system. It wraps around

More information

Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer: Questions and Answers

Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer: Questions and Answers CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Adjuvant Therapy for Breast

More information

Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond. Adriana Corben, M.D.

Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond. Adriana Corben, M.D. Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond Adriana Corben, M.D. About breast anatomy Breasts are special organs that develop in women during puberty when female hormones are

More information

Guide to Understanding Breast Cancer

Guide to Understanding Breast Cancer An estimated 220,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, and one in eight will be diagnosed during their lifetime. While breast cancer is a serious disease, most patients

More information

An Introduction to Cancer and Basic Cancer Vocabulary

An Introduction to Cancer and Basic Cancer Vocabulary An Introduction to Cancer and Basic Cancer Vocabulary Marc B. Garnick, MD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School, Boston Medical Director Cancer Programs Northeast Hospital Corporation,

More information

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer.

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer. Renal cell cancer Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which

More information

How CanCer becomes critical in the claims

How CanCer becomes critical in the claims How CanCer becomes critical in the claims arena Cancer is a disease in which cells in your body grow in an uncontrolled way and form a lump called a tumour. In a healthy individual cells grow and reproduce

More information

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them.

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them. Brain Cancer Introduction Brain tumors are not rare. Thousands of people are diagnosed every year with tumors of the brain and the rest of the nervous system. The diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors

More information

Cancer in Children. What is cancer?

Cancer in Children. What is cancer? What is cancer? Cancer in Children The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide to make new cells, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person

More information

Understanding Metastatic Disease

Understanding Metastatic Disease Supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Pfizer Understanding Metastatic Disease Metastatic disease or metastases are phrases that mean the same as Secondary cancer. This means that the cancer

More information

Understanding. Pancreatic Cancer

Understanding. Pancreatic Cancer Understanding Pancreatic Cancer Understanding Pancreatic Cancer The Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that is about 6 inches long. It s located deep in your belly between your stomach and backbone. Your

More information

Small cell lung cancer

Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found within

More information

Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis

Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount

More information

X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary

X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary Introduction Breast cancer is a common condition that affects one out of every 11 women. Your doctor has recommended

More information

Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis

Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and

More information

CHAPTER 2. Neoplasms (C00-D49) March 2014. 2014 MVP Health Care, Inc.

CHAPTER 2. Neoplasms (C00-D49) March 2014. 2014 MVP Health Care, Inc. Neoplasms (C00-D49) March 2014 2014 MVP Health Care, Inc. CHAPTER SPECIFIC CATEGORY CODE BLOCKS C00-C14 Malignant neoplasms of lip, oral cavity and pharynx C15-C26 Malignant neoplasms of digestive organs

More information

Men s Health: Testicular & Breast. September 2012

Men s Health: Testicular & Breast. September 2012 Men s Health: Testicular & Breast September 2012 Objectives: You will learn: How to perform a testicular self-exam and breast self-exam. You will know when to perform testicular and breast self-exams.

More information

PERIPHERAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT INTRODUCTION

PERIPHERAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT INTRODUCTION PERIPHERAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT INTRODUCTION This booklet was designed to help you and the important people in your life understand the treatment of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell support: a procedure

More information

Canine Lymphoma Frequently Asked Questions by Pet Owners

Canine Lymphoma Frequently Asked Questions by Pet Owners Canine Lymphoma Frequently Asked Questions by Pet Owners What is lymphoma? The term lymphoma describes a diverse group of cancers in dogs that are derived from white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes

More information

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment Cancer begins in our cells. Cells are the building blocks of our tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.

More information

RADIATION THERAPY FOR LYMPHOMA. Facts to Help Patients Make an Informed Decision TARGETING CANCER CARE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY

RADIATION THERAPY FOR LYMPHOMA. Facts to Help Patients Make an Informed Decision TARGETING CANCER CARE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY RADIATION THERAPY FOR Facts to Help Patients Make an Informed Decision TARGETING CANCER CARE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY FACTS ABOUT The lymphatic system is a network of tiny vessels extending

More information

CLL. Handheld record. Stockport NHS foundation trust

CLL. Handheld record. Stockport NHS foundation trust CLL 2015 Handheld record Contains- Patient information booklet, details of haematology clinic assessment and ongoing clinical assessment at GP surgery Stockport NHS foundation trust You have been diagnosed

More information

Symptoms of non-hodgkin lymphoma

Symptoms of non-hodgkin lymphoma Produced 28.02.2011 Revision due 28.02.2013 Symptoms of non-hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma is a cancer of cells called lymphocytes. These cells are part of our immune system, which helps us to fight off infections.

More information

Malignant Lymphomas and Plasma Cell Myeloma

Malignant Lymphomas and Plasma Cell Myeloma Malignant Lymphomas and Plasma Cell Myeloma Dr. Bruce F. Burns Dept. of Pathology and Lab Medicine Overview definitions - lymphoma lymphoproliferative disorder plasma cell myeloma pathogenesis - translocations

More information

Florida Breast Health Specialists Breast Cancer Information and Facts

Florida Breast Health Specialists Breast Cancer Information and Facts Definition Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. There are two main types of breast cancer: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to

More information

Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers

Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Mesothelioma: Questions

More information

Breast Cancer. CSC Cancer Experience Registry Member, breast cancer

Breast Cancer. CSC Cancer Experience Registry Member, breast cancer ESSENTIALS Breast Cancer Take things one step at a time. Try not to be overwhelmed by the tidal wave of technical information coming your way. Finally you know your body best; you have to be your own advocate.

More information

Breast Cancer. Your right to know. Illinois Department of Public Health

Breast Cancer. Your right to know. Illinois Department of Public Health Breast Cancer Your right to know Illinois Department of Public Health The information contained in this brochure regarding recommendations for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast disease

More information

Leukemia. Understanding your diagnosis

Leukemia. Understanding your diagnosis Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount of information

More information

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast Cancer Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast cancer in the UK Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Around 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer It most commonly affects women over

More information

Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer Page 1

Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer Page 1 Breast Cancer Summary Breast cancers which are detected early are curable by local treatments. The initial surgery will give the most information about the cancer; such as size or whether the glands (or

More information

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount

More information

Lymph Nodes and Cancer What is the lymph system?

Lymph Nodes and Cancer What is the lymph system? Lymph Nodes and Cancer What is the lymph system? Our bodies have a network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes. (Lymph is pronounced limf.) This network is a part of the body s immune system. It collects

More information

4/15/2013. bi/o carcin/ chem/o immun/o onc/o radi/o sarc/o. anabrachydysectoendoneo- -ectomy -genesis -oma -plasia -sarcoma

4/15/2013. bi/o carcin/ chem/o immun/o onc/o radi/o sarc/o. anabrachydysectoendoneo- -ectomy -genesis -oma -plasia -sarcoma Chapter Sixteen Oncology bi/o carcin/ chem/o immun/o onc/o radi/o sarc/o Combining Forms Prefixes and Suffixes Carcinogenesis anabrachydysectoendoneo- -ectomy -genesis -oma -plasia -sarcoma Causes of cancer

More information

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of Cancer

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of Cancer Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of Cancer A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers Is This Information Right

More information

Introduction. About 10,500 new cases of acute myelogenous leukemia are diagnosed each

Introduction. About 10,500 new cases of acute myelogenous leukemia are diagnosed each Introduction 1.1 Introduction: About 10,500 new cases of acute myelogenous leukemia are diagnosed each year in the United States (Hope et al., 2003). Acute myelogenous leukemia has several names, including

More information

Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma

Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma Medical Expert: Breast Rotation Specific Competencies/Objectives 1.0 Medical History

More information

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder.

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found

More information

Breast Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

Breast Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Breast Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Introduction Breast cancer is a common condition that affects millions of women every year. It usually shows up as a lump that can be felt and/or seen on

More information

Cancer in Children. What is cancer?

Cancer in Children. What is cancer? What is cancer? Cancer in Children The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide to make new cells, and die in an orderly way. During the early years of a person s life,

More information

Areola: The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple.

Areola: The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple. Glossary of Terms Adenocarcinoma: Cancer arising in gland-forming tissue; the medical term meaning related to a gland is adeno ; breast lobules and ducts are types of glands. Adjuvant: Treatment given

More information

PATIENT INFORMATION ABOUT ADJUVANT THERAPY AFTER THE WHIPPLE OPERATION FOR ADENOCARCINOMA ( CANCER ) OF THE PANCREAS AND RELATED SITES.

PATIENT INFORMATION ABOUT ADJUVANT THERAPY AFTER THE WHIPPLE OPERATION FOR ADENOCARCINOMA ( CANCER ) OF THE PANCREAS AND RELATED SITES. PATIENT INFORMATION ABOUT ADJUVANT THERAPY AFTER THE WHIPPLE OPERATION FOR ADENOCARCINOMA ( CANCER ) OF THE PANCREAS AND RELATED SITES. Radiation Oncology Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Last

More information

There are many different types of cancer and sometimes cancer is diagnosed when in fact you are not suffering from the disease at all.

There are many different types of cancer and sometimes cancer is diagnosed when in fact you are not suffering from the disease at all. About Cancer Cancer is a disease where there is a disturbance in the normal pattern of cell replacement. The cells mutate and become abnormal or grow uncontrollably. Not all tumours are cancerous (i.e.

More information

Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report

Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report Developed for you by Breastcancer.org is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing education and information on breast health and breast cancer. The

More information

1400 Telegraph Bloomfield Hills, MI 48302 248-334-6877-Phone number/248-334-6877-fax Number CANCER TREATMENT

1400 Telegraph Bloomfield Hills, MI 48302 248-334-6877-Phone number/248-334-6877-fax Number CANCER TREATMENT 1400 Telegraph Bloomfield Hills, MI 48302 248-334-6877-Phone number/248-334-6877-fax Number CANCER TREATMENT Learning that your pet has a diagnosis of cancer can be overwhelming. We realize that your pet

More information

Kidney Cancer OVERVIEW

Kidney Cancer OVERVIEW Kidney Cancer OVERVIEW Kidney cancer is the third most common genitourinary cancer in adults. There are approximately 54,000 new cancer cases each year in the United States, and the incidence of kidney

More information

Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma

Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma Produced 28.02.2011 Revision due 28.02.2013 Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma is a cancer of cells called lymphocytes. These cells are part of our immune system, which helps us to fight off infections.

More information

Skin cancer Patient information

Skin cancer Patient information Skin cancer Patient information What is cancer? The human body is made up of billions of cells. In healthy people, cells grow, divide and die. New cells constantly replace old ones in an orderly way. This

More information

Melanoma The Skin Understanding Cancer

Melanoma The Skin Understanding Cancer Melanoma A form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin). It may begin in a mole (skin melanoma), but can also begin in other pigmented tissues, such as in the eye or

More information

Adult Medical-Surgical Nursing H A E M A T O L O G Y M O D U L E : L E U K A E M I A 2

Adult Medical-Surgical Nursing H A E M A T O L O G Y M O D U L E : L E U K A E M I A 2 Adult Medical-Surgical Nursing H A E M A T O L O G Y M O D U L E : L E U K A E M I A 2 Leukaemia: Description A group of malignant disorders affecting: White blood cells (lymphocytes or leucocytes) Bone

More information

RESEARCH EDUCATE ADVOCATE. Just Diagnosed with Melanoma Now What?

RESEARCH EDUCATE ADVOCATE. Just Diagnosed with Melanoma Now What? RESEARCH EDUCATE ADVOCATE Just Diagnosed with Melanoma Now What? INTRODUCTION If you are reading this, you have undergone a biopsy (either of a skin lesion or a lymph node) or have had other tests in which

More information

General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing

More information

Care and Problems of The Circulatory System. Chapter 17 Lesson 2

Care and Problems of The Circulatory System. Chapter 17 Lesson 2 Care and Problems of The Circulatory System Chapter 17 Lesson 2 Care of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems Most of the risk factors related to problems with your circulatory system are within your control.

More information

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Understanding your diagnosis

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Understanding your diagnosis Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the

More information

Follow-Up Care for Breast Cancer

Follow-Up Care for Breast Cancer A Patient s Guide Follow-Up Care for Breast Cancer Recommendations of the American Society of Clinical Oncology The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a nonprofit organization which represents

More information

Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis

Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount of information

More information

Small Intestine Cancer

Small Intestine Cancer Small Intestine Cancer What is the Small Intestine? The small intestine, also called the small bowel, is part of the body s gastrointestinal tract or digestive system. Its jobs are to: Break down food

More information

METASTASES TO THE BONE

METASTASES TO THE BONE RADIATION THERAPY FOR METASTASES TO THE BONE Facts to Help Patients Make an Informed Decision TARGETING CANCER CARE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY WHAT ARE BONE METASTASES? Cancer that starts

More information

Osteosarcoma What are the differences between cancers in adults and children?

Osteosarcoma What are the differences between cancers in adults and children? Osteosarcoma What are the differences between cancers in adults and children? The types of cancers that develop in children and teens are often different from the types that develop in adults. Childhood

More information

Pancreatic Cancer Understanding your diagnosis

Pancreatic Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Pancreatic Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Pancreatic Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone

More information

The lungs What is lung cancer? How common is it? Risks & symptoms Diagnosis & treatment options

The lungs What is lung cancer? How common is it? Risks & symptoms Diagnosis & treatment options Why We re Here The lungs What is lung cancer? How common is it? Risks & symptoms Diagnosis & treatment options What Are Lungs? What Do They Do? 1 Located in the chest Allow you to breathe Provide oxygen

More information

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes Information for patients Introduction This leaflet is for people who have had surgery for

More information

NON-HODGKIN S LYMPHOMA FACTSHEET

NON-HODGKIN S LYMPHOMA FACTSHEET What is Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma? Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a cancer which affects cells in the lymphatic system called lymphocytes. The various types of non-hodgkin's lymphoma are divided into 'high grade'

More information

An overview of CLL care and treatment. Dr Dean Smith Haematology Consultant City Hospital Nottingham

An overview of CLL care and treatment. Dr Dean Smith Haematology Consultant City Hospital Nottingham An overview of CLL care and treatment Dr Dean Smith Haematology Consultant City Hospital Nottingham What is CLL? CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too

More information

Breast cancer. A guide for journalists on breast cancer and its treatment

Breast cancer. A guide for journalists on breast cancer and its treatment Breast cancer A guide for journalists on breast cancer and its treatment Contents Contents 2 3 Section 1: Breast Cancer 4 i. What is breast cancer? 4 ii. Types of breast cancer 4 iii. Causes and risk factors

More information

Report series: General cancer information

Report series: General cancer information Fighting cancer with information Report series: General cancer information Eastern Cancer Registration and Information Centre ECRIC report series: General cancer information Cancer is a general term for

More information

NEOPLASMS C00 D49. Presented by Jan Halloran CCS

NEOPLASMS C00 D49. Presented by Jan Halloran CCS NEOPLASMS C00 D49 Presented by Jan Halloran CCS 1 INTRODUCTION A neoplasm is a new or abnormal growth. In the ICD-10-CM classification system, neoplastic disease is classified in categories C00 through

More information

Cancer in Children What are the differences between cancers in adults and children?

Cancer in Children What are the differences between cancers in adults and children? Cancer in Children What are the differences between cancers in adults and children? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer,

More information

Gallbladder Diseases and Problems

Gallbladder Diseases and Problems Gallbladder Diseases and Problems Introduction Your gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ under your liver. It stores bile, a fluid made by your liver to digest fat. There are many diseases and problems that

More information

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment Cancer starts in our cells. Cells are the building blocks of our tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.

More information

Table 16a Multiple Myeloma Average Annual Number of Cancer Cases and Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates* for 2002-2006

Table 16a Multiple Myeloma Average Annual Number of Cancer Cases and Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates* for 2002-2006 Multiple Myeloma Figure 16 Definition: Multiple myeloma forms in plasma cells that are normally found in the bone marrow. 1 The plasma cells grow out of control and form tumors (plasmacytoma) or crowd

More information

Cancer: DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, and Meiosis

Cancer: DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, and Meiosis Chapter 5 Cancer: DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, and Meiosis Copyright 2007 Pearson Copyright Prentice Hall, 2007 Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 What Is Cancer? Benign tumors do not invade surrounding tissue

More information

This module consists of four units which will provide the user a basic knowledge of cancer as a disease.

This module consists of four units which will provide the user a basic knowledge of cancer as a disease. Module 5: What is Cancer? This module consists of four units which will provide the user a basic knowledge of cancer as a disease. After completing this module, cancer abstractors will be able to: Define

More information

95% of childhood kidney cancer cases are Wilms tumours. Childhood kidney cancer is extremely rare, with only 90 cases a year in

95% of childhood kidney cancer cases are Wilms tumours. Childhood kidney cancer is extremely rare, with only 90 cases a year in James Whale Fund for Kidney Cancer Childhood kidney cancer factsheet Kidney cancer rarely afflicts children and about 90 paediatric cases are diagnosed in the UK each year. About 75% of childhood kidney

More information

Treating Hodgkin s Lymphoma A Quick Guide

Treating Hodgkin s Lymphoma A Quick Guide Treating Hodgkin s Lymphoma A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating Hodgkin s lymphoma from CancerHelp UK. You will find more detailed information on the website.

More information

National Cancer Institute. What You Need TM. To Know About. Breast Cancer. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health

National Cancer Institute. What You Need TM. To Know About. Breast Cancer. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute What You Need TM To Know About Breast Cancer U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Services This is only one of

More information

Surgery Choices. National Cancer Institute. For Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer. National Institutes of Health

Surgery Choices. National Cancer Institute. For Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer. National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Surgery Choices For Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health The National Cancer Institute is grateful for our

More information

Cancer Diagnosis and Staging

Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Cancer diagnosis and Staging Module 4 Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Target Audience: Community members Staff of Indian health programs, including Community Health Representatives Contents of Learning Module:

More information