Breast Cancer Awareness Month

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1 Aon Kenya Insurance Brokers Ltd Aon Hewitt Healthcare Division Breast Cancer Awareness Month Issue 12 October 2015 In this Issue 2 Cancer Statistics in Kenya 3 What is Breast Cancer? 4 Symptoms of Breast Cancer 5 Coping and support for Breast Cancer Survivors October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. It is an annual international health campaign organized by major breast cancer charities every October to increase awareness of the disease and to raise funds for research into its cause, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and cure. The campaign also offers information and support to those affected by breast cancer. It was founded in 1985 in the US, as a partnership between the American Cancer Society and the pharmaceutical division of Imperial Chemical Industries whose initial goal was to encourage use of mammograms in the prevention and early detection of breast cancer. Cancer Statistics Global Globally, Cancer causes more deaths than HIV, TB and Malaria combined 70% of the global Cancer burden is in low and middle income countries like Kenya 30% of cancers are curable if detected early; 30% of cancers are treatable with prolonged survival if detected early; 30% of cancer patients can be provided with adequate symptom management and palliative care. Risk. Reinsurance. Human Resources.

2 Cancer Statistics Kenya Cancer is the 3rd highest cause of morbidity in Kenya [7% of deaths per year], after infectious diseases and cardiovascular diseases Difficult to get accurate national data because most data is coming from Nairobi and other urbanized settings. Estimate 39,000 new cases of Cancer each year in Kenya with more than 27,000 deaths per year 60% of Kenyans affected by Cancer are younger than 70 years old Leading Cancers: Women: Breast (34 per 100,000), Cervical (25 per 100,000) Men: Prostate (17 per 100,000), Esophageal (9 per 100,000) 70-80% of cancer cases are diagnosed in late stages Due to: Lack of awareness; Inadequate diagnostic facilities; Lack of treatment facilities; High cost of treatment; High poverty Index Number of radiation centers in the country: 4 (all in Nairobi KNH, MP Shah, Nairobi Hospital, Aga Khan) Number of treatment facilities: 4 (2 main, 2 limited) Human Capacity for cancer treatment in Kenya (public sector): 4 radiation oncologists 6 medical oncologists 4 pediatric oncologists 5 radiation therapy technologists 3 oncology nurses 2 medical physicist Surviving breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to divide and grow in an abnormal way. Breast cancer is not one single disease there are several types of breast cancer. It can be diagnosed at different stages and can grow at different rates. This means that people can have different treatments, depending on what will work best for them. The biggest risk factors for developing breast cancer are getting older, being female and, for a few, having a significant family history of the disease. Just over 80% of breast cancers occur in women who are over the age of 50. Nearly half of all cases are diagnosed in people in the age group. Earlier detection, increased knowledge and understanding of the biology of breast cancer and better treatments mean that survival rates after a diagnosis of breast cancer are improving. More than 8 out of 10 people survive breast cancer beyond five years. Breast Cancer Awareness Month Aon Hewitt

3 What is breast cancer? Diagram portraying a normal breast Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too (1% ). The Normal Breast To understand breast cancer, it helps to have some basic knowledge about the normal structure of the breasts, shown in the diagram above ducts and lobules, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels). cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts (ductal cancers). Some begin in the cells that line the lobules (lobular cancers), while a small number start in other tissues. Benign breast lumps Most breast lumps are not cancerous (benign). Still, some may need to be biopsied (sampled and viewed under a microscope) to prove they are not cancer. The female breast is made up mainly of lobules (milk-producing glands), ducts (tiny tubes that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple), and stroma (fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the Breast Cancer Awareness Month Aon Hewitt

4 What Are the Symptoms of Breast Cancer? A lump in the breast or underarm that persists after your menstrual cycle. This is often the first apparent symptom of breast cancer. Lumps associated with breast cancer are usually painless, although some may cause a prickly sensation. Lumps are usually visible on a mammogram long before they can be seen or felt. Swelling in the armpit. Pain or tenderness in the breast. Although lumps are usually painless, pain or tenderness can be a sign of breast cancer. A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast, which may indicate a tumor that cannot be seen or felt. Any change in the size, contour, texture, or temperature of the breast. A reddish, pitted surface like the skin of an orange could be a sign of advanced breast cancer. A change in the nipple, such as a nipple retraction, dimpling, itching, a burning sensation, or ulceration. A scaly rash of the nipple is symptomatic of Paget s disease, which may be associated with an underlying breast cancer. Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody, or another color. It s usually caused by benign conditions but could be due to cancer in some cases. A marble-like area under the skin. An area that is distinctly different from any other area on either breast. Causes and Risk Factors No major cause is known but there are risk factors A breast cancer risk factor is anything that makes it more likely you ll get breast cancer. But having one or even several breast cancer risk factors doesn t necessarily mean you ll develop breast cancer. Many women who develop breast cancer have no known risk factors other than simply being women. In its early stages, breast cancer usually has no symptoms. As a tumor develops, you may note the following signs: The following symptoms might indicate Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Awareness Month Aon Hewitt

5 Optional Page/Section Header Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include: Being female Increasing age A personal history of breast cancer A family history of breast cancer Inherited genes that increase cancer risk.. The most common gene mutations are referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don t make cancer inevitable Radiation exposure Obesity Beginning your period at a younger age Beginning menopause at an older age Having your first child at an older age Having never been pregnant Postmenopausal hormone therapy Benign breast disease Drinking alcohol Factors not associated with Breast Cancer Hair dyes Anti-perspirants Breast Implants Prevention of Breast Cancer There is no guaranteed way to prevent breast cancer. Reviewing the risk factors and modifying the ones that can be altered (increase exercise, keep a good body weight, limit alsocholetc.) can help in decreasing the risk. Regular breast cancer screening is also a good way to prevent and manage breast cancer. The following recommendations are good for breast cancer screenings: Women age 40 and older should have a screening every year and should continue to do so as long as they are in good health Women in their 20s and 30s should have a clinical breast exam (CBE) as part of regular health exams by a health-care professional about every three years for women in their 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 years of age and over CBE are an important tool to detect changes in your breast and also trigger a discussion with your health-care provider about early cancer detection and risk factors Breast self-exam (BSE) is an option for women starting in their 20s. Women should report any breast changes to their health-care professional Coping and Support For Breast Cancer Survivors Breast cancer survivors are encouraged to do the following: Learn what they need to know about breast cancer Talk with other survivors Share theirfeelings Keep their friends and family close Maintain intimacy with their partner Limit postmenopausal hormone therapy Diagnosis Although breast cancer can be diagnosed by the above signs and symptoms described above, the use of screening mammography has made it possible to detect many of the cancers early before they cause any symptoms. Other tests may include; Ultrasound, MRI, Biopsy etc. Breast Cancer Treatment Patients with breast cancer have many treatment options. Most treatments are adjusted specifically to the type of cancer and the staging group. Treatment options should be discussed with your health-care team. This can range from surgery to chemotherapy to radiation to use of hormonal medications. Breast Cancer Awareness Month Aon Hewitt

6 Key Contacts Joseph Mwagi Wellness Manager Mary Wanjiku Wellness Officer Regina Mulei Wellness Officer - CDM About Aon Kenya Aon Kenya is a leading provider of insurance broking, risk management and human capital consulting solutions. We are part of Aon plc (NYSE: Aon), a global giant in the insurance arena with more than 66,000 colleagues worldwide across 600 offices, in over 120 countries. We unite to provide our clients with distinctive client value via innovative and effective risk management and workforce productivity solutions. We stand ready to draw on our international network and the knowledge of our local experts to give you the best advise, proven solutions and attentive service. Risk. Reinsurance. Human Resources.

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