HIV/AIDS 101 Teens and Young Adults. Chara McGill

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1 HIV/AIDS 101 Teens and Young Adults Chara McGill 1

2 Disclosure AS MANDATED BY ACCME SPEAKERS ARE ASKED TO DISCLOSE ANY REAL OR APPARENT CONFLICT RELATED TO THE CONTENT OF THEIR PRESENTATION TODAYS SPEAKER HAS NO DISCLOSURE TO MAKE 2

3 Objective Describe what HIV is, how it is transmitted, and how it is treated Understand statistics for demographics Apply information with teens living with HIV or at risk for HIV Empathize with the complexities of those living with HIV disease 3

4 Why This Message Is Important.., 1 in 4 new infections of HIV are among the ages of 13 to 24 60% Don t Know Every 9½ minutes, someone is infected with HIV About 12,000 youth were infected with HIV in 2010; that s about 1,000 per month,. 4

5 What Is HIV? HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus It is the virus that causes AIDS It attacks the immune system, which protects the body from infections. It locates and destroys CD4+ (T-cells), a type of white blood cell There is no cure; treatment available (ART s) 5

6 What Are The Stages of HIV When a person is infected with HIV and doesn t get treatment, HIV will eventually overwhelm their immune system Acute (Severe) Infection: Occurs as early as 2 to 4 weeks after infection. Often described as the worst flu ever People with HIV are very infectious during this time 6

7 Clinical Latency (or Dormancy) After the initial infection, the virus becomes less active in the body, but still present. Persons still can give infection to others 7

8 8 AIDS-This is the final stage of HIV infection. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A person s immune system is badly damaged and he or she becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections (infections that typically does not affect normal immune systems).

9 What Is A CD4 Count? CD4/TCell Count: the number of CD4+ cells in a person s blood CD4 Count measures how healthy someone s immune system is and how well it fights infections A CD4 count of fewer than 200 cells/mm3 signals progression to AIDS A low CD4 Count puts someone at risk of opportunistic infections (OI s) 9

10 What Is A Viral Load Viral Load (VL) is the amount of HIV, or HIV RNA, in a person s blood To maintain health, it is important to keep viral load at undetectable levels o Undetectable does not mean cured People with high VL s are more likely to progress to AIDS faster than those with lower levels of HIV 10

11 HIV Is Transmitted by. Bodily Fluids Blood Semen Vaginal Fluid Breast Milk Having sex without a condom Sharing needles and syringes A baby s exposure 11

12 You Cannot Get HIV Through Saliva or Tears Mosquitoes Casual Contact Sharing dishes or utensils Sharing bathrooms Drinking Fountains Swimming Pools Touching, a handshake, hug, or close-mouth Kissing What other myths have you heard? 12

13 Who Is At Risk for HIV? Those who engage in risky behaviors Unprotected sex with an infected partner Having multiple sex partners Using Alcohol and Drugs Sharing needles with an infected person IV Drug Use Body piercing/tattooing/branding 13

14 Risky Behaviors Con Nearly half of the 19 million new STDs each year are among young people aged years More than 400,000 teen girls aged years gave birth in 2009 According to a study by the American Federation of AIDS Research (2001), the sexual behaviors of young people are highly influenced by the use of alcohol and drugs. This study found that an estimated 3 million teenagers were alcoholics. 14

15 Diagnoses of HIV infection, by area of residence, 2009-United States (Includes data from areas w confidential named based reporting since 2006) Area of residence No. Estimated No. Rate Rank Florida 5,775 6, Georgia 2,073 3, New York 4,649 5, Louisiana 1,247 1, New Jersey 1,252 1, Mississippi South Carolina North Carolina 1,719 1, Texas 4,291 4, Tennessee 999 1, (t) Virginia 997 1, (t) Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2009; vol. 21. Published Feb Accessed Apr

16 Area of residence No. Estimated No. Rate Rank Baton Rouge, LA Miami, FL 1,436 1, Jackson, MS Baltimore Towson, MD New Orleans Metairie Kenner, LA Columbia, SC Washington, DC VA MD WV 928 1, New York, NY NJ PA 2,986 4, Memphis, TN MS AR Orlando, FL Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2010; vol. 22. Published Mar Accessed Mar

17 Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adolescents and Young Adults Aged Years, by Race/Ethnicity, United States and 6 Dependent Areas 17.

18 Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adolescents and Young Adults Aged Years, by Transmission Category United States and 6 Dependent Areas 18

19 19

20 20 Diagnoses of HIV Infection and Population among Adolescents Aged Years, by Race/Ethnicity 2011 United States

21 21 Diagnoses of HIV Infection and Population among Young Adults Aged Years, by Race/Ethnicity 2011 United States

22 Of Particular Concern HIV rates have remained consistently high among adolescents despite decades of research and advances in educational programming and treatment Old approach Programs have focused on individual behavior factors (less partners and condom usages) factors, Designed to change attitudes or beliefs. Problem: many young people do not perceive themselves as being directly at risk for STIs and HIV, and may therefore fail to respond to interventions 22

23 Continue. New approach to HIV prevention with this population may be needed. HIV as a Psychosocial disease Poverty drastically increases adolescents risk Treat or prevent substance abuse, alleviate psychological distress, increase parenting skills, and reduce interpersonal dating violence A comprehensive understanding of the epidemic is needed to combat the spread of HIV, as well as to alleviate the negative consequences for those people living with HIV and AIDS 23

24 HIV Care and Treatment An Open Letter to Tyler Perry Dear Mr. Perry, We write as people living with HIV and their allies to express our deep disappointment with your latest film, Temptation. This disappointment is made all the greater because you have done much that can be applauded. Audiences see your plays and films not simply as entertainment, but as opportunities for inspiration, spiritual healing, and unity. In Temptation, however, you have done a great disservice to people with HIV, and particularly to the African American community, which, as you know, is disproportionately affected by HIV. 24

25 Care and Treatment cont Healthcare providers report that many young people, when they learn they are HIV-positive, take several months to accept their diagnosis and return for treatment. This is due to AIDS-Related STIGMA AIDS-related stigma and discrimination refers to prejudice, negative attitudes, abuse and maltreatment directed at people living with HIV and AIDS. The consequences of stigma and discrimination are wide-ranging: being shunned by family, peers and the wider community, poor treatment in healthcare and education settings, an erosion of rights, psychological damage, and a negative effect on the success of HIV testing and treatment 25

26 Care and Treatment cont People with HIV can live long and healthy lives with access to treatment. There are now more than 20 approved antiretroviral drugs Taking HIV treatment requires effort and commitment as drugs must be taken at around same times each day. Some people may experience serious side-effects or may not respond to certain drugs. Without treatment, everyone with HIV will eventually get AIDS 26

27 What You Can Do Healthcare providers may be able to help young people understand their situation during visits by Ensuring confidentiality Explaining the information clearly Eliciting questions Emphasizing the success of newly available treatments 27

28 Before We End.. Hear The Stories of HIV Positive Individuals 28

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