HIV/AIDS PAPER OUTLINE. 0.Introduction. -Definitions. 1. AIDS as a stigma. -Factors to the AIDS stigma. 2. Transmission to HIV

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1 HIV/AIDS PAPER OUTLINE 0.Introduction -Definitions 1. AIDS as a stigma -Factors to the AIDS stigma 2. Transmission to HIV - The most common ways that people get HIV 3. Where you can not get AIDS 4. Conclusion -My contribution -Who needs HIV prevention? HIV / AIDS Definitions: HIV stands for: Human Immunodeficiency VirusHIV is a virus. Viruses such as HIV cannot grow or reproduce on their own, they need to infect the cells of a living organism in order to replicate (make new copies of themselves). The human immune system usually finds and kills viruses fairly quickly, but HIV attacks the immune system itself the very thing that would normally get rid of a virus. AIDS stands for: Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeAIDS is a medical condition. A person is diagnosed with AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infections.

2 Since AIDS was first identified in the early 1980s, an unprecedented number of people have been affected by the global AIDS epidemic.with around 2.7 million people becoming infected with HIV in 2007, there are now an estimated 33 million people around the world who are living with HIV, including millions who have developed AIDS. It is a threating desease. AIDS as a stigma. AIDS stigma and discrimination have been seen all over the world, although they manifests themselves differently between countries, communities, religious groups and individuals. They are often seen alongside other forms of stigma and discrimination, such as racism, homophobia or misogyny and can be associated with behaviours often considered socially unacceptable such as prostitution or drug use. Here are some factors that contribute to HIV/AIDS stigma: HIV/AIDS is a life-threatening disease. HIV infection is associated with behaviours (such as homosexuality, drug addiction, prostitution or promiscuity) that are already stigmatised in many societies. Most people become infected with HIV through sex. There is a lot of inaccurate information about how HIV is transmitted. HIV infection is often thought to be the result of personal irresponsibility. It is difficult to talk about HIV/AIDS-related stigma as a singular phenomenon, as attitudes towards the epidemic and those affected vary massively. Even within one country reactions to HIV/AIDS will vary between different groups of people and individuals. Religion, gender, sexuality, age and levels of AIDS education can all affect how somebody feels about the disease. Women living with HIV may be treated very differently from men in some societies where they are economically, culturally and socially disadvantaged. They are sometimes mistakenly perceived to be the main transmitters of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Men are more likely than women to be 'excused' for the behaviour that resulted in their infection. "Even a married woman who has been infected by her husband will be accused by her inlaws In such a male-dominated society no-one ever accepts that the man is actually the one who did something wrong It is even harder on women since it is seen as a fair result of their sexual misbehaviour."hiv-positive woman, Lebanon Some people have to contend with stigma even before their HIV is considered. Older people for example, are sometimes seen as part of a non-economically productive community who consume resources without contributing. Older people living with HIV may therefore have a double burden.

3 Transmission of HIV HIV is a virus that damages human immune cells. It weakens the immune system and, without treatment, leads most infected people to develop AIDS. Like all viruses, HIV infects the cells of a living organism in order to make new copies of itself. HIV is found in blood and other body fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids. It cannot live for long outside the body, so to be infected with HIV you need to allow some body fluid from an infected person to get inside your body. The virus can enter the body via contact with the bloodstream. The most common ways that people become infected with HIV are: having sexual intercourse with an infected partner. injecting drugs using a needle or syringe that has been used by someone who is infected. as a baby of an infected mother, during pregnancy, labour or delivery, or through breastfeeding. Through these ways, there you can not get AIDS Kissing To become infected with HIV you must get a sufficient quantity of the virus into your body. Saliva does contain HIV, but the virus is only present in very small quantities and as such cannot cause HIV infection. Unless both partners have large open sores in their mouths, or severely bleeding gums, there is no transmission risk from mouth-to-mouth kissing. Sneezing, coughing, sharing glasses/cups, etc HIV is unable to reproduce outside its living host, except under strictly controlled laboratory conditions. HIV does not survive well in the open air, and this makes the possibility of this type of environmental transmission remote. In practice no environmental transmission has been recorded. This means that HIV cannot be transmitted through spitting, sneezing, sharing glasses, cutlery, or musical instruments. You also can't be infected in swimming pools, showers or by sharing washing facilities or toilet seats. Insects

4 Studies conducted by many researchers have shown no evidence of HIV transmission through insect bites, even in areas where there are many cases of AIDS and large populations of insects such as mosquitoes. Lack of such outbreaks, despite considerable efforts to detect them, supports the conclusion that insects do not transmit HIV. HIV only lives for a short time and cannot reproduce inside an insect. So, even if the virus enters a mosquito or another sucking or biting insect, the insect does not become infected and cannot transmit HIV to the next human it feeds on or bites. Then, HIV can be transmitted in three main ways: Sexual transmission Transmission through blood Mother-to-child transmission For each route of transmission there are things that an individual can do to reduce or eliminate risk. There are also interventions that have been proven to work at the community, local and national level. Wherever there is HIV, all three routes of transmission will take place. However the number of infections resulting from each route will vary greatly between countries and population groups. The share of resources allocated to each area should reflect the nature of the local epidemic - for example, if most infections occur among men who have sex with men then this group should be a primary target for prevention effort. When I go back to my home-country, I want to help people and the politicians to know more about HIV and to speak about it without shame or to see it as a stigma.hiv prevention should be comprehensive, making use of all approaches known to be effective rather than just implementing one or a few select actions in isolation. Successful HIV prevention programmes not only give information, but also build skills and provide access to essential commodities such as condoms or sterile injecting equipment. It should be remembered that many people don t fit into only one risk category. For example, injecting drug users need access to condoms and safer sex counselling as well as support to reduce the risk of transmission through blood. Who needs HIV prevention? HIV prevention needs to reach both people who are at risk of HIV infection and those who are already infected: People who do not have HIV need interventions that will enable them to protect themselves from becoming infected.

5 People who are already living with HIV need knowledge and support to protect their own health and to ensure that they don t transmit HIV to others - known as positive prevention. Positive prevention has become increasingly important as improvements in treatment have led to a rise in the number of people living with HIV. HIV counselling and testing are fundamental for HIV prevention. People living with HIV are less likely to transmit the virus to others if they know they are infected and if they have received counselling about safer behaviour. For example, a pregnant woman who has HIV will not be able to benefit from interventions to protect her child unless her infection is diagnosed. Those who discover they are not infected can also benefit, by receiving counselling on how to remain uninfected. References

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