1 TERI ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY DELHI NCR AND KARNATKA
2 2 1. Introduction The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) conducted an online Environmental Survey in two selected geographical areas of India the National Capital Region (Delhi NCR) and the state of Karnataka with the objective of assessing perceptions, opinions, behaviour and awareness of citizens on issues related to resources and environmental quality Methodology The online survey was conducted using the limesurvey.com software in April 2012 and targeted people above the age of 18, from all walks of life. The survey received a total of 685 responses, with 468 responses from Delhi NCR and 217 from Karnataka. The questionnaire used for the survey was divided into five sections: 1. Background information 2. Perception and relational aspects 3. Awareness 4. Opinion 5. Behaviour The survey responses were assessed across the two selected geographical areas and different backgrounds (age, education and occupation) of the respondents and are discussed in this report. 1 This online survey was also conducted in states of Assam, Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan, but given very poor responses, this report does not cover those states.
3 3 KEY FINDINGS FROM DELHI NCR A large number of people felt that the quality of the environment around them had worsened. Drinking water quality and availability are key concerns. Forty eight percent of respondents from Delhi NCR found the forest/green cover to have reduced. Attitude of people were identified to be the most important reason for littering in public spaces. Fifty nine percent of the respondents under the age of 34 found the air quality to have worsened, whereas more than 47 percent of those above 35 years believed that the air quality has improved. High awareness exists of global environmental concerns, especially climate change. Internet, national newspaper and television are the most important sources of information. Approximately 50 percent of the respondents were aware of environmental organisations. Plantation of trees was perceived to be the most important measure to address environmental concerns. The most inconvenient source of noise pollution reported is that from vehicles. Over 80 percent of responses stated that they looked at energy efficient labelling while buying electrical appliances. Most of the respondents were willing to use public transport or were already doing so. Those respondents who were not willing to use public transport cited the lack of convenient options as the main reason for their willingness. Safety for women is a concern in the region. KEY FINDINGS FROM KARNATAKA Drinking water quality and availability were key reported concerns. Seventy five percent of respondents from Karnataka found forest cover to have declined in their state. The most important reason for littering in public spaces was identified as attitude of people. Most respondents felt that the air quality had worsened and that there were no differences in responses by age. The respondents were highly aware of the different global environmental concerns. Internet, magazines and national newspapers were identified to be the most important sources of information. Plantation of trees was perceived as the most important measure to address environment related problems followed by waste management. The most inconvenient source of noise reported was that from vehicles. Over 80 percent of the respondents said that they looked at energy efficient labelling while purchasing electrical appliances. High use of or willingness to use public transport exists Respondents not willing to use public transport, cited lack of convenience as the main reason; not a single respondent reported safety as the reason for not choosing public transport.
4 4 The survey indicates that most people across the two geographical areas, age groups, occupation and education perceive the quality of the overall environment and various dimensions of the environment that affect their lives to have deteriorated over the last decade. 3. Respondent characteristics Delhi NCR Majority of the respondents were in the age group of years, followed by the years age group. Almost two thirds of the total respondents were males. In terms of education, more than half (56 percent) of the respondents were postgraduate degree holders followed by graduates (27 percent) and PhD (10 percent) degree holders. Most of the respondents belonged to the business and industry sector, followed by students, government and research institutes.
5 5 In terms of location of the respondents, 80 percent of the respondents belonged to the metropolitan area of Delhi NCR and 20 percent of the respondents were from smaller pockets of city, town and village in the region. Karnataka Karnataka had the highest number of respondents from the age group years, followed by years and years. However the percentage of responses in the latter two age groups in Karnataka was greater than in Delhi NCR. The gender classification of the respondents in Karnataka, (as in Delhi NCR) was skewed in favour of male responses with the male female ratio of 65:35 and one response in the category of others. Majority of the respondents in Karnataka were also postgraduate degree holders, followed by graduates and PhD degree holders. Among the different occupation of the respondents, there was a domination of the business and industry category, followed by students from school, college or university.
6 6 The locational classification of the respondents from the state of Karnataka was a little more diverse than in Delhi NCR with 60 percent residing in metropolitan areas, as compared to 80% percent in Delhi NCR. 4. Results of the survey This section presents the results of the online survey. It is important to note here that when the results were assessed by gender, there were no substantial
7 7 differences in responses. Even for issues such as the usage of public transport, drinking water availability etc., which we expected would have had gender differences, no noticeable differences were found Perception and relational aspects In order to assess how residents of Delhi NCR and Karnataka perceive the state of environment around them, responses were collected about the state of different environmental dimensions such as air quality, water quality, tree cover, level of noise etc., in their areas. The respondents had to choose between three options remained the same, improved, or deteriorated over the last decade. Air quality 2 : In both the geographical areas, the majority of respondents (82 percent in state of Karnataka and 50.5 percent in Delhi NCR) perceived the air quality to have deteriorated. In Delhi NCR, the responses varied by age. Fifty nine percent of the respondents under the age of 34 found the air quality to have worsened, whereas more than 47 percent of those above 35 years believed that the air quality has improved. While comparing responses for different levels of education, only the respondents with a PhD degree felt that the air quality had improved. There 2 Clean air, smog, particles, smell
8 8 were differences in the responses by occupational classification as well. Government officials, self-employed and research institutes perceived an improvement in air quality, while the business and industry, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs), students, unemployed, retired and others perceived a decline in air quality. There were equal number of responses on perception of worsening or improving of air quality for the educators and housewives.
9 9 Majority of the respondents in the age group of and years felt that environmental quality has deteriorated. However, a significant proportion of the respondents, in the age group of 35-44, and above 60 years, felt that the environmental quality has improved. In the state of Karnataka, most respondents felt that the air quality had worsened and there were no differences in responses by age, occupation and educational qualifications.
10 10 Drinking water quality: In Delhi NCR, most people felt that the water quality in the area had deteriorated. However, while comparing responses across the different age groups, respondents above the age of 60 felt that there was no change in the water quality. All other age groups felt that the water quality had worsened. Respondents holding a PhD degree felt that the water quality had
11 11 improved, unlike people from all other levels of education who felt that the water quality had reduced substantially. Most respondents in the state of Karnataka, even while comparing across different age groups, levels of education and occupational classification felt that water quality had deteriorated. In both geographical areas, the majority (greater than 60 percent) of the respondents felt that the drinking water quality impacts the life of residents the most and these observations hold across age and education groups. However, occupation wise, it is interesting to note that about 50 percent of the housewives in Delhi NCR felt that drinking water quality does not impact them, as against 100 percent of housewives in Karnataka who felt that water quality impacts them the most. Drinking water availability: In terms of drinking water availability, respondents from both the geographical areas felt that there was worsening of the water
12 12 availability situation in their localities. These responses were independent of age, occupational and educational classification. In Delhi NCR, amongst the respondents who perceived a decline in drinking water quality, 63 percent felt that the drinking water availability had also worsened.
13 13 Surface water quality 3 : Majority of the respondents in both the geographical areas felt that surface water quality has deteriorated. Seventy four percent of the respondents in the state of Karnataka and 69 percent in the Delhi NCR shared this view. It is interesting to note here that in the Delhi NCR where a river and a few small water bodies exist, nearly 20 percent of the respondents chose no direct experience as an option. Also in Delhi NCR no significant differences was observed based on age, occupation or education. However, in Karnataka, there was variation in responses by age where most of the respondents in the age group years and above 60 years felt they had no direct experience. 3 Lakes, rivers, ponds etc.
14 14 Surface water availability 4 : In both Delhi NCR and Karnataka, majority of the people felt that there was a decline in availability of surface water. But there were also responses (24 percent in Karnataka and 11percent in Delhi NCR) that indicated no direct experience with surface water availability. 4 Lakes, rivers, ponds etc.
15 15 Of those respondents in Delhi NCR who felt that the surface water quality had worsened, 77 percent also perceived a worsening of water availability. In Karnataka, 82 percent of the respondents who perceived a decline in surface water quality felt that the surface water availability had also worsened. Level of noise 5 : Majority of the respondents, 76 percent in Delhi NCR and 85 percent in Karnataka, perceived an increase in the level of noise in the last decade. Eleven percent of the respondents from Delhi NCR perceived the level of noise to have actually declined as against 4 percent of the respondents in Karnataka. 5 Noise from sources such as vehicles, industrial activities, loudspeakers, etc.
16 16 Forest or green cover 6 : There is a marked difference in the perception towards forest/green cover between the two responding geographical areas. Only 48 percent of respondents from Delhi NCR found the forest/green cover to have reduced, whereas as high as 75 percent of respondents from Karnataka found it to have declined in their state. 6 This includes trees, parks and other green spaces.
17 17 Thirty one percent of respondents from Delhi NCR found the green cover to have increased in contrast to a mere 15 percent in Karnataka. In Delhi NCR, responses from the age group years and from the occupation category of NGO were equally divided between increase and decrease of green cover over the last decade.
18 18 Variety of plant species: In Delhi NCR, 37 percent respondents perceived the variety of plant species to have decreased. However, 23 percent felt the variety of species had actually increased and 19 percent found no change over the last decade. While comparing across the different levels of education, most of the respondents with school level education found the variety of plant species
19 19 unchanged, whereas majority of respondents from all the other education levels perceived a decline. In Karnataka, majority of the respondents said the variety of plant species had declined, and these responses did not change across age, education and occupational classification. Overall environment: In both Delhi NCR and Karnataka, majority of the respondents felt that the overall quality of environment had deteriorated in the last decade. While 65 percent of respondents form Delhi NCR perceive the overall environment to have deteriorated, as high as 83 percent of the respondents from Karnataka shared this perception.
20 20 Environment and impact on life Most of the above domains of the environment where quality and availability is perceived to have worsened also have the greatest impact on the lives of respondents. Respondents feel that drinking water quality and availability, air quality and level of noise are the domains that impact their lives highly. More than half of the respondents feel that the domains which impact their lives the most are also the ones which have deteriorated over the last decade in both Karnataka and Delhi NCR. The observations across age, occupational and educational classification are similar.
21 21 Awareness of environmental issues This section tried to gauge the level of awareness of local and global environmental concerns by age and occupation; source of information; and awareness about environmental organisations. Awareness: Familiarity level of respondents from both geographical areas for global environmental concerns are quite high (more than 80 percent). Of those not familiar with global environmental concerns, respondents were most unfamiliar with the issue of endangered species in both the geographical areas followed by waste generation in Delhi NCR and depletion of the ozone layer in Karnataka. The respondents were also well aware of the local environmental issues like air and water pollution and solid waste management.
22 22 While asked about climate change, over 98 percent of the respondents said they were familiar with the term climate change. Those respondents who were aware of climate change were then asked about their familiarity with different aspects of climate change, such as extreme events (cyclones, flood, hurricanes, storm surges, drought, etc.), sea level rise, changes in rainfall patterns and temperature changes. Majority of the respondents (over 66 percent in both geographical areas) were aware of these aspects. Delhi NCR Karnataka Awareness Familiar Not Familiar Familiar Not Familiar In percentage Climate change Endangered species Depletion of ozone layer Air pollution Water pollution Waste generation Source of information: In Delhi NCR, the most popular sources of information on environmental issues reported were the internet, followed by national newspapers and television. The least popular source was local or regional newspapers followed very closely by school and college curriculum. In the state of Karnataka, the most popular source was the internet, followed by magazines and national newspapers, while the least popular source was school and college curriculum. Amongst the 40 respondents who were educators, 30 percent said they got their information from school or college curriculum, showing the low value assigned to environmental studies at the school and college level.
23 23 Source of information Delhi NCR Karnataka Most popular sources of information collection Internet, national newspapers and television Internet, magazines and national newspapers Least popular sources of information collection Local or regional newspapers School and college curriculum Environmental organisations: Respondents were asked if they were aware of any environmental organisations working in their area and the names of organisations they knew of. In Delhi NCR, 51 percent of the respondents were aware of such organisations. Lowest awareness of environmental organisations was observed in the age group years. In terms of the level of education, awareness was very low amongst higher-secondary and undergraduate respondents. Finally with regard to occupational classification, retired people had the least awareness about environmental organisations followed by the self-employed and students.
24 24 The lowest awareness of environmental organisations was also observed in the age group years in Karnataka. In terms of level of education, awareness was very low amongst undergraduate respondents in this state. Finally, with regard to occupational classification, housewives had the least awareness of environmental organisations followed by students, and business and industry.
25 25. Opinions on measures to address environmental concerns The most important measure reported to address environmental concerns for both the geographical areas is perceived to be plantation of trees and the least important is cleaner cooking fuel. This view was uniform across different
26 26 age groups, education and occupation. However, the second most important measure reported in Delhi NCR is creating awareness and public sensitization, but in Karnataka, it is better waste management 7. Measures to address environmental concerns Delhi NCR Karnataka Rank 1 (highest priority) Plantation of trees Plantation of trees Rank 2 Creating awareness Better waste and public sensitization management Rank 10 (least priority) Cleaner cooking fuel Cleaner cooking fuel Reasons for littering in public spaces: In both Delhi NCR and Karnataka, respondents felt that a mix of factors such as insufficient number of dustbins, poor placement of dustbins and attitude of people was a major factor responsible for littering in public spaces. However, the most important reason for littering was cited as attitude of people in both the states (at approximately 80 percent amongst single reasons). Poor placement of dustbins was more of an influential factor in Delhi NCR as compared to in Karnataka. Only a handful of respondents in Karnataka, exclusively from the age group of years and students opined, that poor placement of dustbins is a problem. Most inconvenient source of noise: In both Delhi NCR and Karnataka, noise from vehicles inconvenienced the respondents the most, followed by construction work near the place of residence or workplace. Across the different age groups, levels of education and occupation, there was no difference in the highest and lowest ranking. In both Delhi NCR and Karnataka, the second rank across age group and education was given to construction work near the place of 7 Even while assigning weights to each response according to rank, the responses were the same as overall counting under each rank.
27 27 residence/work place or loudspeakers. Across different types of occupation, the second rank was given to construction work, noise from industries near the place of residence/ work place and loudspeakers 8. Inconvenience caused Delhi NCR Karnataka Rank 1 (highest) Noise from vehicles Noise from vehicles Rank 2 Construction work near your Construction work near your house/workplace house/workplace Rank 5 (lowest) Any other Any other Not a single respondent in the state of Karnataka selected vehicular noise or construction work near the place of residence or work place as the lowest ranking amongst the responses. Behavioural Energy efficiency labelling in purchase: Respondents were asked if they look at energy efficiency labelling before purchasing electrical appliances. More than 80 percent respondents in both Delhi NCR and Karnataka answered in the affirmative. In terms of occupation, all the respondents from the category of housewives in Karnataka considered energy efficiency labelling while purchasing appliances as against 50 percent in Delhi NCR. 8 Even while assigning weights to each response according to rank, the responses were the same as overall counting under each rank.
28 28 Usage of public transport: In order to assess the behavioural pattern of the respondents and their willingness to switch to public transport, they were asked if they would use public transport, given the increasing congestion on the roads. Majority of the respondents in both geographical areas either said they were willing to use public transport or were already using them. In Delhi NCR, 47 percent of the respondents were willing to use and 41 percent were already using public transport. In Karnataka, 56 percent of respondents were willing to use and 32 percent were already using public transport. Nine percent of the respondents in Delhi and 8 percent in Karnataka indicated unwillingness to use public transport. Maximum number of responses for usage of public transport Age groups Delhi NCR Karnataka Already using Already using Already using Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Above 60 Yes Yes
29 29 Maximum number of responses for usage of public transport Educational classification Delhi NCR Karnataka Senior Secondary (10th) NA Yes Higher Secondary (12th) Same number of responses from Yes and Already using NA Graduate (Bachelors) Same number of responses from Yes and Already using Yes Postgraduate (Masters) Yes Yes PhD Yes Yes Other Already using Already using Maximum number of responses for usage of public transport Occupational classification Delhi NCR Karnataka Government official Yes Yes Business and industry Yes Yes Self employed Yes Yes Research institute Already using Yes NGO Yes Yes Educator Yes Yes Student Already using Already using Unemployed Already using Already using Housewife Retired Same number of responses from Yes and Already using Yes Same number of responses from Yes and Already using Same number of responses from Yes and Already using
30 30 Other Yes Yes Those respondents who were not willing to switch to public transport were asked to provide a reason. In Delhi NCR, 52 percent said lack of convenient options was the main reason for not choosing public transport, followed by 24 percent of respondents citing access to public transport in terms of distance and time spent as a deterrent. None of the respondents felt that cost was a reason for not using public transport in Delhi NCR. In Karnataka, 44 percent of the respondents chose lack of convenient options as the main reason, followed by 39 percent respondents choosing lack of access to public transport (in terms of time and distance) as a reason for not using public transport. Interestingly, not a single respondent from Karnataka cited safety or frequency as a reason to not use public transport. In Delhi NCR, of the 9 percent respondents that said no for using public transport, 21 percent stated safety as a reason, of which 78% were women. Limitations of the survey There are some limitations to the online survey which are stated below: The population having access to the internet is low in India. According to Internet World Stats, the population in India having access to the internet was just 8.5 percent 9. This reduces the total target population for the survey. The speed of the internet and technical related problems could have led to lower response rate. 9
31 31 There are occasions where there are no significant variations in the results. For example, most of the respondents had a high level of education. Since the survey was online, there was a need to keep the questionnaire short. This at times led to limiting the amount of information to be collected. With an online survey, there can be problems in understanding of questions by the respondents. It was not possible to provide any clarifications required for the questions to the respondents. Although attempt was made to explain some of the questions in foot notes. While conducting a face-to-face survey, there are many ways to validate the information but in an online survey, there are none. Conclusion The survey responses suggest that respondents feel that the environment has been deteriorating around their area. Plantation of trees, improved waste management, creating awareness and sensitizing the people about environmental issues are seen as key to improved environmental practices. The source of noise which causes most inconvenience is reported to be that from vehicles. This is an issue that needs to be addressed with urgency through introducing simple regulations such as less use of horns by buses, cars and motor cycles, improved noise abaters in vehicles, etc., more silent zones, time related silent zones. Given that most respondents were already using or willing to use public transport, and the reason for not using is convenience, government should increase the availability of public transport. In addition, measures need to be taken to make public transport safer for women.
32 32 Business and industry groups were the largest group of respondents in both the geographical areas suggesting an interest in environmental issues. So voluntary initiatives, especially from these groups can play a big role in improving the local environment and therefore, the living conditions of people. If environmental education is to be enhanced, school and college curricula needs to be more attentive to these issues, including the training of educationists on environmental issues.
33 33 For any suggestions/feedback, please contact: Ms. Ipsita Kumar
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