1 Secondary Analysis of the Gender Pay Gap Changes in the gender pay gap over time March 2014
2 Department for Culture, Media & Sport
3 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 3 Contents Chapter 1: Introduction... 4 Chapter 2: Key Findings... 5 Chapter 3: Findings... 6 Age... 6 Occupations Distribution of Earnings Annex A SOC (2010) Occupation Groups Annex B Background information... 20
4 4 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Chapter 1: Introduction This analysis into how the gender pay gap has changed over time was carried out by DCMS analysts, using ONS data sources. A breakdown of the gender pay gap by age, occupation and income percentile is included. What is the Gender Pay Gap? The Gender Pay Gap refers to the difference between men s earnings and women s earnings as a percentage of men s earnings. The measure of the gender pay gap used in this analysis is median gross hourly earnings excluding overtime. The gender pay gap was 19.7 per cent in 2013, which means that the average woman will earn 19.7 per cent less than the average man per hour. Gender pay gaps are an important element in analysing and monitoring progress on pay equalities both nationally and within organisations. Why use median earnings to measure the pay gap? The median is the numerical value which splits the top 50 per cent of the population from the bottom 50 per cent. The median, therefore, shows the middle point of a population. It is the ONS's preferred measure of average earnings as it is less affected by a relatively small number of very high earners and the skewed distribution of earnings. It therefore gives a better indication of typical pay than the mean. Why use hourly earnings to measure the pay gap? Hourly earnings are used to partly account for the effects of different part time / full time working patterns for men and women. Whilst men and women make up similar proportions of the employee workforce (men 51%, women 49%), 86 per cent of men work full time compared to only 57 per cent of women. If we used weekly, monthly or annual earnings then we would see a much larger pay gap, almost entirely due to different working patterns. Source used to measure the Gender Pay Gap. The Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE), updated annually, is the main source of data on the Gender Pay Gap. ASHE is a one per cent sample of employee jobs taken from the (HMRC) PAYE records. There are certain limitations that go along with this, notably that ASHE does not cover non-paye jobs e.g. those self-employed. While these limitations are not inconsequential, this is still the best source of data on the Gender Pay Gap.
5 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 5 Chapter 2: Key Findings The gender pay gap for all staff in the UK in 2013 was 19.7 per cent, as measured by hourly earnings for all employees. This was marginally higher than in 2012, when the gender pay gap was 19.6 per cent. However, the pay gap has decreased markedly over the longer term. This paper looks at changes in the gender pay gap over this longer period by: age; occupation; & for high / low earners. Age: The gender pay gap, and how it has changed over time, varies for the different age groups Occupations: In 2013, the gender pay gap was lowest for those in the youngest age groups. It then increases up to the 40 to 49 year old age group, before falling for the older age bands. Between 1997 and 2013, the gender pay gap has, in general, narrowed for all age bands up to and including 40 to 49 year olds. For the oldest age groups the pay gap has stayed fairly static since Median earnings rose faster between 1997 and 2013 for women between 30 and 39 than for any other age group. This has coincided with the pay gap for this age group decreasing by more than any other. The gender pay gap within different groups of occupations varies considerably, and has changed in different ways for occupations between 1997 and 2013: The pay gap has consistently been high for those in the skilled trades (plumbers, electricians etc.), & for managers and directors. The pay gap has been consistently lower than the national average for professional & associate professional occupations. With increased attendance at universities, there have been more people (and proportionately more women) entering these occupational groups. Distribution of Earnings: The gender pay gap across high and low earners also varies: In 2013 the gender pay gap was lowest for those in the 10 th percentile of earnings (the value which 10% of the population earn less than). The pay gap has also decreased by the most for this group between 1997 and The gender pay gap has decreased in a similar manner for those between the 40 th and 80 th percentiles of earnings. However, the gender pay gap for those earning the most has not decreased by as much as the other groups between 1997 and This shows that the gap between the highest earning males and females is not narrowing at the same rate as the rest of the economy.
6 6 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Chapter 3: Findings Age The gender pay gap is different for the different age groups. Since 1997, the gender pay gap has narrowed for those under 49. For those over 50 the gender pay gap has stayed at a similar level since Figure 1 gender pay gap for all employees by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable Data from before 2005 was for 50+ rather than & 60+ and have therefore been excluded Between 1997 and 2013, the pay gap decreased by more for 30 to 39 year olds than for any other age group. This is due to median earnings for women in this age group rising much faster than men. In general, the gender pay gap widens between the ages of 18 and 49, and then narrows from 50 onwards. This is shown by the distance between the lines in figure 1, or more clearly in figure 2. This has, in general, been the case since the data became available in 1997.
7 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 7 Table 1 increase in earnings between 1997 and 2013 by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) 2013 median earnings per hour ( ) Male Percentage change since median earnings per hour ( ) Female Percentage change since % % % % % % % % ALL AGES % % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Data for over 50s have been excluded from table due to data before 2005 being for 50+ rather than & 60+ No adjustment has been made for the effects of inflations. RPIJ, a measure for inflation, increased by 49.5% between 1997 and Median earnings increase for men up to and including the 40 to 49 age group, before decreasing. However, median earnings for women are highest for the 30 to 39 age group. This may in part be attributable to the increase in the proportion of women working part time increasing between the and age groups. The proportion of men working part time stays relatively constant over the period. The differences that exist between full time and part time earnings are largely because of: (1) differences due to the different occupations of part time employees compared to full time employees; (2) pay and conditions for part time employees being different to full time employees in equivalent roles. These will be explored further in the occupations section of this report. There is a large rise in part time earnings for women between the and age groups which indicates higher skilled and better paid women taking part time work to fit around childcare responsibilities. This leads to a negative pay gap of -8.2% for part time workers in this age group. Table 2 gender pay gap for part time employees in 2013 (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Male Female Part Median Median Time Age Proportion part Proportion part Gender Group working time working time Pay part time earnings part time earnings Gap ( p.h) ( p.h % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % All Ages 13.7% % % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 1997, 2013 Proportions of jobs are indicative and should not be considered an accurate representation of job counts The pay gap for part time staff compares women working part time to men working part time.
8 8 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Figure 2 gender pay gap for all employees by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Data for each of the 3 lines are not perfectly comparable due to changes in definitions between periods Data from before 2005 was for 50+ rather than & 60+ and, therefore, the category in 1997 shows the pay gap for all employees over 50 An apparent cohort effect exists, where the pay gap has fallen first for younger age groups, before falling for older age groups. For example, the pay gap for somebody in the 30 to 39 age group in 1997 was 25.1 per cent. 10 years later, these people would be in the 40 to 49 year old age group, which had a pay gap of 30.3 per cent in 2007, much lower than it had been for that age group in 1997 (37.2%). The way that the gender pay gap changes with age has also altered over time, with the curve in figure 2 (above) flattening out between 1997 and There was a large difference between the gender pay gap in 1997 and 2005 for 22 to 29 year olds, with a similar difference between 2005 and 2013 for 30 to 39 year olds. Part of the change in the pay gap may be the result of differences in education levels and qualifications between generations. The total volume of people obtaining university degrees has increased substantially over the past 30 years with women as a proportion of graduates increasing from 44 per cent of those gaining a first degree in 1990, to 56 per cent in This could have the impact of lowering the gender pay gap by enabling more women to enter managerial, professional, and associate professional occupations. 1 Bolton, P., 2012, Education: Historical Statistics, House of Commons Library
9 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 9 Gender Pay Gap by Age for Full Time Employees: The full time pay gap is lower than the pay gap for all staff over each age group. Figure 3 gender pay gap for full time employees by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) 16.6% 7.6% Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable Data from before 2005 was for 50+ rather than & 60+ and have therefore been excluded The full time gender pay gap is very low for those in the age groups between 18 and 39, for whom the gap now sits at or around zero. However, the pay gap for all employees still exists for these age groups and is fairly substantial for 30 to 39 year olds at 12.0%. Given the higher proportion of women in this age group working part time this suggests that the differences between part time and full time pay are significant in driving this. Table 3 difference between the gender pay for all employees and only full time employees in 2013 by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Age Group Gender Pay Gap for All Employees Gender Pay Gap for Full Time Employees Difference (percentage points) % 1.4% % -0.3% % 1.0% % 15.7% % 17.5% % 11.8% 8.8
10 10 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Occupations The gender pay gap also varies depending on the occupation. Data is split into nine high level groups of occupations, and the pay gap in each assessed. Occupational groups are defined on a set of international codes known as the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 2010). These groups have changed twice between 1997 and 2013, leading to major changes in the pay gap for some groups. A table of the different groups, and the kinds of activities that are contained within each, can be found in Annex A. The two groups with the highest earnings for both women and men are Managers, Directors and Senior Officials & Professional occupations. The Professional Occupations consistently have a lower pay gap than the national average. These jobs are occupations whose main tasks require a high level of knowledge and experience in the natural sciences, engineering, life sciences, social sciences, humanities and related fields. For Managers, Directors and Senior Officials, there has consistently been a large pay gap (20.2% in 2013). Figure 4 gender pay gap for all employees by occupational group (SOC2010) (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable There were two major changes in the Standard Occupational Classifications which account for differences between 2001 and 2002, as well as differences between 2010 and 2011.
11 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 11 More women going to university has increased the number of women working in the Professional Occupations (which in general require a degree), as well as Associate Professional and Technical Occupations. These groups are better paid, therefore more women moving into these occupations helps to reduce the overall gender pay gap. The widest gender pay gap was for the Skilled Trades Occupations. This category contains occupations such as plumbers and electricians, as well as chefs. There are a very low proportion of women working in this group, 11.3 per cent of employee jobs in Skilled Trades Occupations were women in 2013, and two thirds of those women were chefs / cooks. This is, generally, a lower paid occupation than the other jobs in this group, which is the main cause of this large pay gap. Median earnings for women working as chefs were slightly higher (1.6%) than men in the same occupation Figure 5 number of jobs in 2013 by occupational group split into full time and part time (SOC 2010)
12 12 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013 Numbers of jobs are indicative and should not be considered an accurate representation of job counts The occupations which are higher paid tend to have fewer part time jobs than those with lower pay. One third of female employees who worked part time worked in Sales and Customer Service Occupations & Elementary Occupations in These two groups have relatively low median earnings for part time work ( 6.79 and 6.53 per hour, respectively). Both of these categories also have more women working part time than full time. The difference in median earnings between full time and part time employees also varies depending on the occupational group. Table 4 difference between full time and part time earnings in 2013 by occupational group (SOC 2010) (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Full Time ( ) Male Part Time ( ) Percentage Difference Full Time ( ) Female Part Time ( ) Percentage Difference Managers, directors and senior officials % % Professional occupations % % Associate professional and technical occupations % % Administrative and secretarial occupations % % Skilled trades occupations % % Caring, leisure and other service occupations % % Sales and customer service occupations % % Process, plant and machine operatives Elementary occupations Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings % % % % For all occupational groups, the difference between full time and part time median earnings is greater for men than for women. There is a negative difference for Professional Occupations, which shows that the median earnings were higher for part time than full time employees. The difference between part time and full time earnings was smallest for the Professional Occupations. The Professional Occupations include: health professionals; teaching professionals; business and public service professionals; & science, research engineering and technology professionals. The largest gender pay gap of these groups in 2013 was for health professionals (15.4%).
13 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 13 Table 5 the gender pay gap for professional occupations in 2013 (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Male median earnings Female median earnings Gender Pay Gap Group Science, research, engineering and technology professionals % Health professionals % Teaching and educational professionals % Business, media and public service professionals % All Professional occupations % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013 More women than men worked as health professionals & teaching and education professionals in The lower median earnings of female health professionals were, in part, due to the large number of nurses included in this category. There are about 6 times as many women working in Nursing and Midwifery Occupations as men. The median earnings for female nurses in 2013 were per hour in 2013, substantially less than the median earnings of the profession occupations in general. Gender Pay Gap by Occupation for Full Time Employees: The full time pay gap for different occupation groups follows a very similar pattern to the pay gap for all employees. Figure 6 gender pay gap for full time employees by occupational group (SOC2010) (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable
14 14 Department for Culture, Media & Sport There were two major changes in the Standard Occupational Classifications which account for differences between 2001 and 2002, as well as differences between 2010 and Table 6 difference between the gender pay for all employees and only full time employees in 2013 by occupation (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) SOC (2010) Group GPG for All employees GPG for Full Time employees Difference (percentage points) Managers, directors and senior officials 20.2% 17.7% 2.5 Professional occupations 9.0% 9.3% -0.3 Associate professional and technical occupations 14.1% 12.3% 1.8 Administrative and secretarial occupations 9.0% 8.1% 0.9 Skilled trades occupations 30.0% 24.7% 5.3 Caring, leisure and other service occupations 6.5% 7.6% -1.1 Sales and customer service occupations 7.0% 3.6% 3.4 Process, plant and machine operatives 21.5% 21.8% -0.3 Elementary occupations 13.6% 15.7% -2.1 The largest difference between full time employees and all employees was for skilled trade occupations, where the pay gap for full time employees was 5.3 percentage points lower than the pay gap for all employees. The pay gap was 2.1 percentage points wider for full time staff doing elementary occupations than the pay gap for all staff in similar occupations.
15 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 15 Distribution of Earnings Another view of the pay gap can be taken by looking at the way that earnings of men and women are distributed differently. By focussing only on the median it is easy to forget that, while this is a good measure of average earnings, the majority of people do not earn the average income. The data can be split by percentile of earnings for both men and women. The 10 th percentile shows the value that 10 per cent of men / women earn less than, similarly the 20 th percentile looks at the value that 20 per cent of men / women earn less than. The 50 th percentile is the median, as 50 per cent earn less, and 50 per cent more, than that value. Table 7 percentile of earnings for all employees in 2013 (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Earnings ( ) Male Female Gender Pay Gap 10% earn less than % 20% earn less than % 30% earn less than % 40% earn less than % 50% earn less than % 60% earn less than % 70% earn less than % 80% earn less than % 90% earn less than % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013 There was a low gender pay gap between those who earn the least. The gender pay gap was widest (23.4%) between the top 10 per cent of male and female employees. Figure 7 gender pay gap for all employees by percentile of earnings (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable
16 16 Department for Culture, Media & Sport The pay gap was lowest between men and women who earn the least, those in the 10 th to 30 th percentiles, in each year between 1997 and The gender pay gap has, also, decreased by most for the 10 th percentile, from 19.2 per cent in 1997 to 7.2 percent in A large part of this may be attributable to the implementation of, and subsequent increases in, the minimum wage. The 40 th to 80 th percentiles have decreased by similar amounts to each other, and from similar starting positions. This suggests that changes in the median (50 per cent) are a good measure for what is experienced by the majority of the population. However, the gender pay gap between top 10 per cent of men and top 10 per cent of women has not decreased in the same manner. This is because gross earnings for the top 10 per cent of men increased by more than any other decile between 1997 and 2013, while the increase in the earnings of the top 10 per cent of women increased at roughly the same rate as the rest of the female population. Table 8 change in earnings between 1997 and 2013 for men and women by earnings percentile (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Male Female Gender Pay Gap Percentage Percentage Percentile Difference Difference 10th % % 19.2% 7.2% 20th % % 23.6% 13.2% 30th % % 25.0% 16.5% 40th % % 26.6% 18.3% 50th % % 27.5% 19.7% 60th % % 27.9% 19.5% 70th % % 27.2% 19.1% 80th % % 26.4% 18.5% 90th % % 27.2% 23.4% Source Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 1997, 2013 No adjustment has been made for the effects of inflations. RPIJ, a measure for inflation, increased by 49.5% between 1997 and 2013.
17 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 17 Gender Pay Gap by Earnings Decile for Full Time Employees: The gender pay gap by percentile of earnings is different for full time employees compared to all employees. Figure 8 gender pay gap for full time employees by percentile of earnings (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable The most noticeable difference between the gender pay gap for full time employees and all employees is that the pay gap is lower for each percentile. This difference is greatest for the percentiles in the middle, which has the effect of decreasing the difference in pay gap between the lowest earners and middle earners whilst increasing the difference in pay gap between the middle earners and those earning the most. Table 9 difference between the gender pay for all employees and only full time employees in 2013 by percentile of earnings (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Percentile GPG for All employees GPG for Full Time employees Difference (percentage points) 10 th 7.2% 6.7% th 13.2% 8.1% th 16.5% 8.7% th 18.3% 9.9% th 19.7% 10.0% th 19.5% 10.3% th 19.1% 11.8% th 18.5% 13.9% th 23.4% 20.4% 3.0 Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013
18 18 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Annex A SOC (2010) Occupation Groups MANAGERS, DIRECTORS AND SENIOR OFFICIALS PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE AND SECRETARIAL OCCUPATIONS SKILLED TRADES OCCUPATIONS This major group covers occupations whose tasks consist of planning, directing and coordinating resources to achieve the efficient functioning of organisations and businesses. Working proprietors in small businesses are included, although allocated to separate minor groups within the major group. Most occupations in this major group will require a significant amount of knowledge and experience of the production processes, administrative procedures or service requirements associated with the efficient functioning of organisations and businesses. This major group covers occupations whose main tasks require a high level of knowledge and experience in the natural sciences, engineering, life sciences, social sciences, humanities and related fields. The main tasks consist of the practical application of an extensive body of theoretical knowledge, increasing the stock of knowledge by means of research and communicating such knowledge by teaching methods and other means. Most occupations in this major group will require a degree or equivalent qualification, with some occupations requiring postgraduate qualifications and/or a formal period of experience-related training. This major group covers occupations whose main tasks require experience and knowledge of principles and practices necessary to assume operational responsibility and to give technical support to Professionals and to Managers, Directors and Senior Officials. The main tasks involve the operation and maintenance of complex equipment; legal, business, financial and design services; the provision of information technology services; providing skilled support to health and social care professionals; serving in protective service occupations; and managing areas of the natural environment. Culture, media and sports occupations are also included in this major group. Most occupations in this major group will have an associated high-level vocational qualification, often involving a substantial period of full-time training or further study. Some additional task-related training is usually provided through a formal period of induction. Occupations within this major group undertake general administrative, clerical and secretarial work, and perform a variety of specialist clientorientated administrative duties. The main tasks involve retrieving, updating, classifying and distributing documents, correspondence and other records held electronically and in storage files; typing, wordprocessing and otherwise preparing documents; operating other office and business machinery; receiving and directing telephone calls to an organisation; and routing information through organisations. Most job holders in this major group will require a good standard of general education. Certain occupations will require further additional vocational training or professional occupations to a well-defined standard. This major group covers occupations whose tasks involve the performance of complex physical duties that normally require a degree of initiative, manual dexterity and other practical skills. The main tasks of these occupations require experience with, and understanding of, the work situation, the materials worked with and the requirements of the structures, machinery and other items produced.
19 Department for Culture, Media & Sport CARING, LEISURE AND OTHER SERVICE OCCUPATIONS SALES AND CUSTOMER SERVICE OCCUPATIONS PROCESS, PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATIVES ELEMENTARY OCCUPATIONS Most occupations in this major group have a level of skill commensurate with a substantial period of training, often provided by means of a workbased training programme. This major group covers occupations whose tasks involve the provision of a service to customers, whether in a public protective or personal care capacity. The main tasks associated with these occupations involve the care of the sick, the elderly and infirm; the care and supervision of children; the care of animals; and the provision of travel, personal care and hygiene services. Most occupations in this major group require a good standard of general education and vocational training. To ensure high levels of integrity, some occupations require professional qualifications or registration with professional bodies or relevant background checks. This major group covers occupations whose tasks require the knowledge and experience necessary to sell goods and services, accept payment in respect of sales, replenish stocks of goods in stores, provide information to potential clients and additional services to customers after the point of sale. The main tasks involve knowledge of sales techniques, a degree of knowledge regarding the product or service being sold, familiarity with cash and credit handling procedures and a certain amount of record keeping associated with those tasks. Most occupations in this major group require a general education and skills in interpersonal communication. Some occupations will require a degree of specific knowledge regarding the product or service being sold, but are included in this major group because the primary task involves selling. This major group covers occupations whose main tasks require the knowledge and experience necessary to operate and monitor industrial plant and equipment; to assemble products from component parts according to strict rules and procedures and to subject assembled parts to routine tests; and to drive and assist in the operation of various transport vehicles and other mobile machinery. Most occupations in this major group do not specify that a particular standard of education should have been achieved but will usually have a period of formal experience-related training. Some occupations require licences issued by statutory or professional bodies. This major group covers occupations which require the knowledge and experience necessary to perform mostly routine tasks, often involving the use of simple hand-held tools and, in some cases, requiring a degree of physical effort. Most occupations in this major group do not require formal educational qualifications but will usually have an associated short period of formal experience-related training.
20 20 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Annex B Background information The data used throughout this publication comes from published tables from the ONS Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). ASHE is a survey of 1 per cent of employee jobs in the United Kingdom. It provides information about the levels, distribution and make-up of earnings and hours worked for employees in all industries and occupations. The tables contain UK data on earnings for employees by sex and full-time/part-time workers. More information can be found on the ONS website (http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/ashe/annual-survey-of-hoursand-earnings/index.html) The gender pay gap can be seen as a measure of gender equality in the workplace. However, there are several more factors to consider (labour market participation, educational attainment, and more). It is important, therefore, to look at more than just the gender pay gap when drawing conclusions about gender equality. Contact for enquiries: Department for Culture Media and Sport 100 Parliament Street London SW1A 2BQ The responsible policy contact for this release is Martyn Henderson. The responsible statistician for this release is Douglas Cameron. For general enquiries telephone: For enquiries on this release contact: This release was produced by Douglas Cameron and Alex Wilkinson (DCMS).
Statistical Bulletin Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, 2013 Provisional Results Coverage: UK Date: 12 December 2013 Geographical Areas: Country, European (NUTS), Local Authority and County, Parliamentary
CLOSE THE GAP 14 WORKING PAPER GENDER PAY GAP STATISTICS April 2015 This paper is an updated version of Working Paper 11 Statistics published in 2014.It provides the latest gender pay gap statistics for
UK Wages Over the Past Four Decades - 2014 Coverage: UK Date: 03 July 2014 Geographical Area: Region Theme: Labour Market Theme: Economy Key Points Employees aged 21 in 1995 earned 40% more after adjusting
Full report - Women in the labour market Coverage: UK Date: 25 September 2013 Geographical Area: UK Theme: Labour Market Key points The key points are: Rising employment for women and falling employment
Employment by occupation industry Key points Employment in the UK was found to be fairly evenly spread among the different occupation groups. When the distribution was examined by industry group, public
Statistical Bulletin Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, 2014 Provisional Results Coverage: UK Date: 19 November 2014 Geographical Areas: Country, European (NUTS), Local Authority and County, Parliamentary
TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP 2014 Statistical Bulletin JUNE 2015 Contents Contents... 2 Introduction... 3 Key findings... 5 1. Long Term Trends... 6 2.Private and Public Sectors. 12 3. Personal and job characteristics...
TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP 2012 Statistical Bulletin MAY 2013 Contents Correction... 3 Introduction... 4 Key findings... 6 1. Long Term Trends... 7 2. Private and Public Sectors... 8 3. Personal and job characteristics...11
TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP 2013 Statistical Bulletin MAY 2014 Contents Contents... 2 Introduction... 3 Key findings... 5 1. Long Term Trends... 5 2. Private and Public Sectors... 6 3. Personal and job characteristics...
427 The hourly earnings distribution before and after the National Minimum Wage By Tim Butcher, Low Pay Commission Key points The National Minimum Wage was introduced in 999. Between 992 and 997 the hourly
Public and Private Sector Earnings - March 2014 Coverage: UK Date: 10 March 2014 Geographical Area: Region Theme: Labour Market Theme: Government Key Points Average pay levels vary between the public and
Employment and Wages for Alberta Workers with a Post-Secondary Education Abstract Between 2013 and 2017, Alberta s economy is expected to add approximately 163,000 new jobs. 1 In addition, approximately
Patterns of Pay: Estimates from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, UK, 1997 to 2013 Author Name(s): David Bovill, Office for National Statistics Abstract Patterns of Pay describes trends in UK earnings.
Mandatory Gender Pay Gap Reporting Government Consultation on Draft Regulations Issue date: 12 February 2016 Respond by: 11 March 2016 Contents About this Consultation 3 Ministerial Foreword 5 Introduction
Paying the National Living Wage In partnership with 1 Summary 1 Sectors and employees affected Around a quarter of private sector employees will be directly affected by the introduction of the National
Coverage: United Kingdom Theme: The Economy Released: 13 February 2015 Next Release: May 2015 Frequency of release: Twice yearly (Jan/Feb and Apr/May) Income Tax Liabilities Statistics 2012-13 to 2014-15
Key points In half of all employees had been working for the same firm for five years or less. This had fallen to four years by. In 9 per cent of employees worked for the same firm as 12 months ago compared
The Living Wage and the Impact of the July 2015 Budget Communities Analytical Services, October 2015 October 2015 THE LIVING WAGE AND THE IMPACT OF THE JULY 2015 BUDGET COMMUNITIES ANALYTICAL SERVICES,
Calculating the proportion of under the living wage - A methodology article Key points The ONS publishes estimates of proportions of paying less than the living wage; these estimates are based on micro
Still more (better paid) jobs for the boys Apprenticeships and Gender Segregation Introduction In recent years, the issue of occupational segregation in Apprenticeships has received increasing attention.
Labour Market Profile - Parliamentary Constituency The profile brings together data from several sources. Details about these and related terminology are given in the definitions section. Resident Population
Labour Market Profile - Parliamentary Constituency The profile brings together data from several sources. Details about these and related terminology are given in the definitions section. Resident Population
Labour Market Profile - North And Parliamentary Constituency The profile brings together data from several sources. Details about these and related terminology are given in the definitions section. Resident
Health and Safety Executive Changes in shift work patterns over the last ten years (999 to 009) Prepared by Office for National Statistics for the Health and Safety Executive 0 RR887 Research Report Crown
Findings from the YouGov Survey June 2014 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Department for Culture, Media & Sport 3 Section 1: Introduction This report gives a first snapshot of public opinion on equality
Labour Market Profile - The profile brings together data from several sources. Details about these and related terminology are given in the definitions section. Resident Population Total population (2015)
GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE 1990-91 RECESSION Commonwealth of Australia 2009 ISBN: 978 1 921380 47 1 This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright act 1968, no part may be reproduced
Using the Labour Force Survey to map the care workforce 201 Using the Labour Force Survey to map the care workforce By Antonia Simon and Charlie Owen, Institute of Education Key points Using the Standard
Labour Market Profile - The profile brings together data from several sources. Details about these and related terminology are given in the definitions section. Resident Population Total population (2015)
State of Working Britain Aim is to Gives an up to date assessment of the performance of UK labour market, to highlight recent important developments seeks to describe and understand the major long-term
8 Occupational Outlook Quarterly Fall 1999 ow many people would object to a raise in pay? Not many. Everyone agrees that high earnings are better than low earnings. Statistics show that high-earning workers
Graduate Labour Market Statistics: 2015 APRIL 2016 Contents List of Figures and Tables... 3 Executive Summary... 5 Introduction... 6 Headline Statistics... 8 Employment Rates, Unemployment Rates and Inactivity
Social work education in England 2009-2014 A report for the Department of Health (DH) March 2015 Produced by Skills for Care for the Department of Health Contents Introduction 3 1. Enrolments 4 Interim
The Training Needs of Older Workers Katrina Ball, Josie Misko and Andrew Smith National Centre for Vocational Education Research ABSTRACT The nature of work has been the subject of significant change in
Full story: The gender gap in unpaid care provision: is there an impact on health and economic position? Coverage: England and Wales Date: 16 May 2013 Geographical Area: Local Authority and County Theme:
RESEARCH Apprenticeship Pay: A Survey of Earnings by Sector Anna Ullman & Gemma Deakin BMRB Social Research Research Report RR674 Research Report No 674 Apprenticeship Pay: A Survey of Earnings by Sector
Regional characteristics of foreignborn people living in the United Kingdom By Alice Reid and Caroline Miller, Office for National Statistics Abstract This article examines the characteristics of foreign-born
WOMEN AND ECONOMIC SECURITY IN MISSISSIPPI: A DATA BRIEF INTRODUCTION: COMPOUNDED CHALLENGES Across the United States, many women face disparities in wages and employment while providing for their families
Hadlow College Equal Pay Audit Report 2013 Sandra Wisdom Associate Director, Human Resources April 2013 1 Contents 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. What is an Equal Pay Audit? 4. Data Collection 5. Gender
Coverage: United Kingdom Theme: The Economy Released: 22 May 2015 Next Release: Jan/Feb 2016 Frequency of release: Twice yearly (Jan/Feb and Apr/May) Media contact: HMRC Press Office (Individuals) Tel:
The value of apprenticeships: Beyond wages NIDA BROUGHTON June 2016 There is strong political commitment to the apprenticeships programme as a part of the strategy to achieve a high quality workforce that
IWPR #C414 April 2014 The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2013 and by Race and Ethnicity Women s median are lower than men s in nearly all s, whether they work in s predominantly done by women, s predominantly
Quarterly Employment Survey: September 2011 quarter Embargoed until 10:45am 01 November 2011 Key facts This is the first quarter in which the Quarterly Employment Survey has seasonally adjusted employment
BIS RESEARCH PAPER NUMBER 143 Learning from Futuretrack: The Impact of Work Experiences on Higher Education Student Outcomes OCTOBER 2013 1 The views expressed in this report are the authors and do not
Report December 2008 Community and Technical Colleges (CTC) Job Preparatory Training Washington s 34 community and technical colleges offer job preparatory training that provides students with skills required
Social Security Administration Act 1992 National Insurance Fund - Long-term Financial Estimates Report by the Government Actuary on the Quinquennial Review for the period ending 5 April 1995 under Section
Research Report May 2016 Which Countries in Europe Have the Best Gender Equality in the Workplace? Foreword Despite improvements in gender equality in recent decades, much remains to be done. Around the
Jersey Household Income Distribution 2014/15 Statistics Unit: www.gov.je/statistics @JsyStats Key statistics Average (mean) household weekly income: 860 per week before, and 720 after, housing costs an
Trends in part-time and temporary work This analysis has been carried out using the latest available quarterly data from the Labour Force Survey. This was used to examine trends in temporary and part-time
Education 2009 Adult Education Survey 2006, European comparison Adults in the Nordic countries actively participate in education and training Persons aged 25 to 64 who live in the Nordic countries (Finland,
IWPR # C431 April 2015 The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2014 and by Race and Ethnicity Women s are lower than men s in nearly all s, whether they work in s predominantly done by women, s predominantly
WOMEN S MEN S & WAGES Detail analyses Significance of other assumptions... side 58 Wage differences within main occupations... side 63 Wage differences within major sectors... side 67 Labour market experience
A Divided Britain? Inequality Within and Between the Regions Contents Introduction 3 Key points 4 The pay gap - pay inequality across the UK 5 Where do the highest and lowest paid people live? 8 Average
Exploring the UK Freelance Workforce in 2015 Executive Summary John Kitching April 2016 Introduction Freelance workers are an important, but hidden, part of the small business population. United Kingdom
The Career Paths of Physics Graduates A longitudinal study 2006 2010 1 Acknowledgments The Institute would like to thank the research team at the Centre for Education and Industry (CEI) at the University
THE HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE SECTOR in greater manchester overview of skills ISSUES 1. INTRODUCTION This briefing summarises the findings of primary and secondary research in respect of the skills and training
British Women in Science and Engineering: the problem of employment loss rates Professor Bob Hart and Mrs J. Elizabeth Roberts 01/07/2011 Division of Economics University of Stirling Stirling FK82AW Email:
Trends in life expectancy by the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification 1982 2006 Date: 22 February 2011 Coverage: England and Wales Theme: Health & Care This bulletin presents the first estimates
Income protection insurance for independent information About us We are an independent watchdog set up by the Government to: regulate firms that provide financial services; and help you make informed decisions
Married only at the weekends? A study of the amount of time spent together by spouses. Reg Gatenby, Office for National Statistics Abstract Studies of time use generally concentrate on the amount of time
2. Incidence, prevalence and duration of breastfeeding Key Findings Mothers in the UK are breastfeeding their babies for longer with one in three mothers still breastfeeding at six months in 2010 compared
BRIEFING Characteristics and Outcomes of Migrants in the UK Labour Market AUTHOR: CINZIA RIENZO PUBLISHED: 12/11/2014 NEXT UPDATE: 12/11/2015 3rd Revision www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk This briefing
Policy Discussion Paper The Working Poor in Ireland: An Analysis of EU-SILC 2005 Executive Summary March 2009 Acknowledgements This report was funded by the Combat Poverty Agency under its Poverty Research
Working paper: uprating the UK Living Wage in 2015 This paper updates calculations by Centre for Research in Social Policy on the UK Living Wage outside London. It uses the basis first set out in 2011,
COMHAIRLE NAN EILEAN SIAR EQUAL PAY AUDIT JULY 2015 1 Introduction 1.1 Comhairle nan Eilean Siar supports the principle of equal pay for work of equal value and believes that pay systems should be based
The Employment of Disabled People in the Public Sector: A Review of Data and Literature Michael Hirst, Patricia Thornton and Melissa Dearey, Social Policy Research Unit, University of York, and Sue Maynard
IWPR #C440 April 2016 The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2015 and by Race and Ethnicity Women s median are lower than men s in nearly all s, whether they work in s predominantly done by women, s predominantly
Results of the Second Flexible Working Employee Survey 297 Results of the Second Flexible Working Employee Survey By Heidi Grainger and Heather Holt, Employment Market Analysis and Research, Department
Regional Trends 43 21/11 Impact of the recession By Cecilia Campos, Alistair Dent, Robert Fry and Alice Reid, Office for National Statistics Abstract This report looks at the impact that the most recent
An Analysis of the Tulsa Area Labor Force Summary Report for the Tulsa Chamber of Commerce and Oklahoma Department of Commerce David A. Penn, Robert C. Dauffenbach and John G. McCraw Center for Economic
Equal pay, gender pay gap and occupational segregation 1. Statement on equal pay 1.1 Glasgow Caledonian University is committed to the principle of equal pay as part of our wider commitment to equality
Industry Outlook Construction ISSN 2201-3660 Table of Contents Employment... 1 Sectoral Employment... 2 Geographic Distribution... 4 Workforce Characteristics... 6 Workforce Age Profile... 6 Gender and
Introduction This data sheet provides an analysis of earnings data for tech specialists drawing upon published and bespoke data provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Annual Survey of Hours
115 Gender roles An incomplete revolution? Female participation in the labour market has increased markedly over the past 30 years. Both men and women in Britain s couple families now tend to work, albeit
Changes in real earnings in the UK and London, 2002 to 2012 Author Name(s): Sarah Levy, Office for National Statistics Abstract Average earnings of employees in the UK have fallen in real terms since 2009.
Employment and intangible spending in the UK's creative industries A view from the micro data Eric Scheffel and Andrew Thomas Office for National Statistics Summary The UK's creative industries and creative
Welfare and Wellbeing Group Equality Impact Assessment Support for Mortgage Interest Planned change to the standard interest rate at which Support for Mortgage Interest is paid August 2010 Equality Impact
2070 Work Life Balance Survey - Employees Record no: Introduction We would be grateful if you could spare the time to take part in our survey it should only take around 15 minutes to complete. The survey
All Employees Rewards/HR May 2014 Contents 1. Introduction 2. Context 3. What is an Equal Pay Audit? 4. The University s Approach 5. Data Collection 6. Methods for Estimating the Pay Gap 7. Overall Gender
EDUCATION: Springboard to Employment and Higher Earnings A 200 Census Analytical Brief Introduction Between July and August 202, more than 0,000 athletes from 204 countries participated in over 300 events
The puzzle of graduate wages IFS Briefing Note BN185 Richard Blundell David Green Wenchao Jin The puzzle of graduate wages Richard Blundell, David Green and Wenchao Jin 1 Institute for Fiscal Studies The
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.