1 Secondary Analysis of the Gender Pay Gap Changes in the gender pay gap over time March 2014
2 Department for Culture, Media & Sport
3 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 3 Contents Chapter 1: Introduction... 4 Chapter 2: Key Findings... 5 Chapter 3: Findings... 6 Age... 6 Occupations Distribution of Earnings Annex A SOC (2010) Occupation Groups Annex B Background information... 20
4 4 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Chapter 1: Introduction This analysis into how the gender pay gap has changed over time was carried out by DCMS analysts, using ONS data sources. A breakdown of the gender pay gap by age, occupation and income percentile is included. What is the Gender Pay Gap? The Gender Pay Gap refers to the difference between men s earnings and women s earnings as a percentage of men s earnings. The measure of the gender pay gap used in this analysis is median gross hourly earnings excluding overtime. The gender pay gap was 19.7 per cent in 2013, which means that the average woman will earn 19.7 per cent less than the average man per hour. Gender pay gaps are an important element in analysing and monitoring progress on pay equalities both nationally and within organisations. Why use median earnings to measure the pay gap? The median is the numerical value which splits the top 50 per cent of the population from the bottom 50 per cent. The median, therefore, shows the middle point of a population. It is the ONS's preferred measure of average earnings as it is less affected by a relatively small number of very high earners and the skewed distribution of earnings. It therefore gives a better indication of typical pay than the mean. Why use hourly earnings to measure the pay gap? Hourly earnings are used to partly account for the effects of different part time / full time working patterns for men and women. Whilst men and women make up similar proportions of the employee workforce (men 51%, women 49%), 86 per cent of men work full time compared to only 57 per cent of women. If we used weekly, monthly or annual earnings then we would see a much larger pay gap, almost entirely due to different working patterns. Source used to measure the Gender Pay Gap. The Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE), updated annually, is the main source of data on the Gender Pay Gap. ASHE is a one per cent sample of employee jobs taken from the (HMRC) PAYE records. There are certain limitations that go along with this, notably that ASHE does not cover non-paye jobs e.g. those self-employed. While these limitations are not inconsequential, this is still the best source of data on the Gender Pay Gap.
5 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 5 Chapter 2: Key Findings The gender pay gap for all staff in the UK in 2013 was 19.7 per cent, as measured by hourly earnings for all employees. This was marginally higher than in 2012, when the gender pay gap was 19.6 per cent. However, the pay gap has decreased markedly over the longer term. This paper looks at changes in the gender pay gap over this longer period by: age; occupation; & for high / low earners. Age: The gender pay gap, and how it has changed over time, varies for the different age groups Occupations: In 2013, the gender pay gap was lowest for those in the youngest age groups. It then increases up to the 40 to 49 year old age group, before falling for the older age bands. Between 1997 and 2013, the gender pay gap has, in general, narrowed for all age bands up to and including 40 to 49 year olds. For the oldest age groups the pay gap has stayed fairly static since Median earnings rose faster between 1997 and 2013 for women between 30 and 39 than for any other age group. This has coincided with the pay gap for this age group decreasing by more than any other. The gender pay gap within different groups of occupations varies considerably, and has changed in different ways for occupations between 1997 and 2013: The pay gap has consistently been high for those in the skilled trades (plumbers, electricians etc.), & for managers and directors. The pay gap has been consistently lower than the national average for professional & associate professional occupations. With increased attendance at universities, there have been more people (and proportionately more women) entering these occupational groups. Distribution of Earnings: The gender pay gap across high and low earners also varies: In 2013 the gender pay gap was lowest for those in the 10 th percentile of earnings (the value which 10% of the population earn less than). The pay gap has also decreased by the most for this group between 1997 and The gender pay gap has decreased in a similar manner for those between the 40 th and 80 th percentiles of earnings. However, the gender pay gap for those earning the most has not decreased by as much as the other groups between 1997 and This shows that the gap between the highest earning males and females is not narrowing at the same rate as the rest of the economy.
6 6 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Chapter 3: Findings Age The gender pay gap is different for the different age groups. Since 1997, the gender pay gap has narrowed for those under 49. For those over 50 the gender pay gap has stayed at a similar level since Figure 1 gender pay gap for all employees by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable Data from before 2005 was for 50+ rather than & 60+ and have therefore been excluded Between 1997 and 2013, the pay gap decreased by more for 30 to 39 year olds than for any other age group. This is due to median earnings for women in this age group rising much faster than men. In general, the gender pay gap widens between the ages of 18 and 49, and then narrows from 50 onwards. This is shown by the distance between the lines in figure 1, or more clearly in figure 2. This has, in general, been the case since the data became available in 1997.
7 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 7 Table 1 increase in earnings between 1997 and 2013 by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) 2013 median earnings per hour ( ) Male Percentage change since median earnings per hour ( ) Female Percentage change since % % % % % % % % ALL AGES % % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Data for over 50s have been excluded from table due to data before 2005 being for 50+ rather than & 60+ No adjustment has been made for the effects of inflations. RPIJ, a measure for inflation, increased by 49.5% between 1997 and Median earnings increase for men up to and including the 40 to 49 age group, before decreasing. However, median earnings for women are highest for the 30 to 39 age group. This may in part be attributable to the increase in the proportion of women working part time increasing between the and age groups. The proportion of men working part time stays relatively constant over the period. The differences that exist between full time and part time earnings are largely because of: (1) differences due to the different occupations of part time employees compared to full time employees; (2) pay and conditions for part time employees being different to full time employees in equivalent roles. These will be explored further in the occupations section of this report. There is a large rise in part time earnings for women between the and age groups which indicates higher skilled and better paid women taking part time work to fit around childcare responsibilities. This leads to a negative pay gap of -8.2% for part time workers in this age group. Table 2 gender pay gap for part time employees in 2013 (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Male Female Part Median Median Time Age Proportion part Proportion part Gender Group working time working time Pay part time earnings part time earnings Gap ( p.h) ( p.h % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % All Ages 13.7% % % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 1997, 2013 Proportions of jobs are indicative and should not be considered an accurate representation of job counts The pay gap for part time staff compares women working part time to men working part time.
8 8 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Figure 2 gender pay gap for all employees by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Data for each of the 3 lines are not perfectly comparable due to changes in definitions between periods Data from before 2005 was for 50+ rather than & 60+ and, therefore, the category in 1997 shows the pay gap for all employees over 50 An apparent cohort effect exists, where the pay gap has fallen first for younger age groups, before falling for older age groups. For example, the pay gap for somebody in the 30 to 39 age group in 1997 was 25.1 per cent. 10 years later, these people would be in the 40 to 49 year old age group, which had a pay gap of 30.3 per cent in 2007, much lower than it had been for that age group in 1997 (37.2%). The way that the gender pay gap changes with age has also altered over time, with the curve in figure 2 (above) flattening out between 1997 and There was a large difference between the gender pay gap in 1997 and 2005 for 22 to 29 year olds, with a similar difference between 2005 and 2013 for 30 to 39 year olds. Part of the change in the pay gap may be the result of differences in education levels and qualifications between generations. The total volume of people obtaining university degrees has increased substantially over the past 30 years with women as a proportion of graduates increasing from 44 per cent of those gaining a first degree in 1990, to 56 per cent in This could have the impact of lowering the gender pay gap by enabling more women to enter managerial, professional, and associate professional occupations. 1 Bolton, P., 2012, Education: Historical Statistics, House of Commons Library
9 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 9 Gender Pay Gap by Age for Full Time Employees: The full time pay gap is lower than the pay gap for all staff over each age group. Figure 3 gender pay gap for full time employees by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) 16.6% 7.6% Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable Data from before 2005 was for 50+ rather than & 60+ and have therefore been excluded The full time gender pay gap is very low for those in the age groups between 18 and 39, for whom the gap now sits at or around zero. However, the pay gap for all employees still exists for these age groups and is fairly substantial for 30 to 39 year olds at 12.0%. Given the higher proportion of women in this age group working part time this suggests that the differences between part time and full time pay are significant in driving this. Table 3 difference between the gender pay for all employees and only full time employees in 2013 by age group (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Age Group Gender Pay Gap for All Employees Gender Pay Gap for Full Time Employees Difference (percentage points) % 1.4% % -0.3% % 1.0% % 15.7% % 17.5% % 11.8% 8.8
10 10 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Occupations The gender pay gap also varies depending on the occupation. Data is split into nine high level groups of occupations, and the pay gap in each assessed. Occupational groups are defined on a set of international codes known as the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 2010). These groups have changed twice between 1997 and 2013, leading to major changes in the pay gap for some groups. A table of the different groups, and the kinds of activities that are contained within each, can be found in Annex A. The two groups with the highest earnings for both women and men are Managers, Directors and Senior Officials & Professional occupations. The Professional Occupations consistently have a lower pay gap than the national average. These jobs are occupations whose main tasks require a high level of knowledge and experience in the natural sciences, engineering, life sciences, social sciences, humanities and related fields. For Managers, Directors and Senior Officials, there has consistently been a large pay gap (20.2% in 2013). Figure 4 gender pay gap for all employees by occupational group (SOC2010) (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable There were two major changes in the Standard Occupational Classifications which account for differences between 2001 and 2002, as well as differences between 2010 and 2011.
11 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 11 More women going to university has increased the number of women working in the Professional Occupations (which in general require a degree), as well as Associate Professional and Technical Occupations. These groups are better paid, therefore more women moving into these occupations helps to reduce the overall gender pay gap. The widest gender pay gap was for the Skilled Trades Occupations. This category contains occupations such as plumbers and electricians, as well as chefs. There are a very low proportion of women working in this group, 11.3 per cent of employee jobs in Skilled Trades Occupations were women in 2013, and two thirds of those women were chefs / cooks. This is, generally, a lower paid occupation than the other jobs in this group, which is the main cause of this large pay gap. Median earnings for women working as chefs were slightly higher (1.6%) than men in the same occupation Figure 5 number of jobs in 2013 by occupational group split into full time and part time (SOC 2010)
12 12 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013 Numbers of jobs are indicative and should not be considered an accurate representation of job counts The occupations which are higher paid tend to have fewer part time jobs than those with lower pay. One third of female employees who worked part time worked in Sales and Customer Service Occupations & Elementary Occupations in These two groups have relatively low median earnings for part time work ( 6.79 and 6.53 per hour, respectively). Both of these categories also have more women working part time than full time. The difference in median earnings between full time and part time employees also varies depending on the occupational group. Table 4 difference between full time and part time earnings in 2013 by occupational group (SOC 2010) (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Full Time ( ) Male Part Time ( ) Percentage Difference Full Time ( ) Female Part Time ( ) Percentage Difference Managers, directors and senior officials % % Professional occupations % % Associate professional and technical occupations % % Administrative and secretarial occupations % % Skilled trades occupations % % Caring, leisure and other service occupations % % Sales and customer service occupations % % Process, plant and machine operatives Elementary occupations Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings % % % % For all occupational groups, the difference between full time and part time median earnings is greater for men than for women. There is a negative difference for Professional Occupations, which shows that the median earnings were higher for part time than full time employees. The difference between part time and full time earnings was smallest for the Professional Occupations. The Professional Occupations include: health professionals; teaching professionals; business and public service professionals; & science, research engineering and technology professionals. The largest gender pay gap of these groups in 2013 was for health professionals (15.4%).
13 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 13 Table 5 the gender pay gap for professional occupations in 2013 (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Male median earnings Female median earnings Gender Pay Gap Group Science, research, engineering and technology professionals % Health professionals % Teaching and educational professionals % Business, media and public service professionals % All Professional occupations % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013 More women than men worked as health professionals & teaching and education professionals in The lower median earnings of female health professionals were, in part, due to the large number of nurses included in this category. There are about 6 times as many women working in Nursing and Midwifery Occupations as men. The median earnings for female nurses in 2013 were per hour in 2013, substantially less than the median earnings of the profession occupations in general. Gender Pay Gap by Occupation for Full Time Employees: The full time pay gap for different occupation groups follows a very similar pattern to the pay gap for all employees. Figure 6 gender pay gap for full time employees by occupational group (SOC2010) (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable
14 14 Department for Culture, Media & Sport There were two major changes in the Standard Occupational Classifications which account for differences between 2001 and 2002, as well as differences between 2010 and Table 6 difference between the gender pay for all employees and only full time employees in 2013 by occupation (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) SOC (2010) Group GPG for All employees GPG for Full Time employees Difference (percentage points) Managers, directors and senior officials 20.2% 17.7% 2.5 Professional occupations 9.0% 9.3% -0.3 Associate professional and technical occupations 14.1% 12.3% 1.8 Administrative and secretarial occupations 9.0% 8.1% 0.9 Skilled trades occupations 30.0% 24.7% 5.3 Caring, leisure and other service occupations 6.5% 7.6% -1.1 Sales and customer service occupations 7.0% 3.6% 3.4 Process, plant and machine operatives 21.5% 21.8% -0.3 Elementary occupations 13.6% 15.7% -2.1 The largest difference between full time employees and all employees was for skilled trade occupations, where the pay gap for full time employees was 5.3 percentage points lower than the pay gap for all employees. The pay gap was 2.1 percentage points wider for full time staff doing elementary occupations than the pay gap for all staff in similar occupations.
15 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 15 Distribution of Earnings Another view of the pay gap can be taken by looking at the way that earnings of men and women are distributed differently. By focussing only on the median it is easy to forget that, while this is a good measure of average earnings, the majority of people do not earn the average income. The data can be split by percentile of earnings for both men and women. The 10 th percentile shows the value that 10 per cent of men / women earn less than, similarly the 20 th percentile looks at the value that 20 per cent of men / women earn less than. The 50 th percentile is the median, as 50 per cent earn less, and 50 per cent more, than that value. Table 7 percentile of earnings for all employees in 2013 (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Earnings ( ) Male Female Gender Pay Gap 10% earn less than % 20% earn less than % 30% earn less than % 40% earn less than % 50% earn less than % 60% earn less than % 70% earn less than % 80% earn less than % 90% earn less than % Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013 There was a low gender pay gap between those who earn the least. The gender pay gap was widest (23.4%) between the top 10 per cent of male and female employees. Figure 7 gender pay gap for all employees by percentile of earnings (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable
16 16 Department for Culture, Media & Sport The pay gap was lowest between men and women who earn the least, those in the 10 th to 30 th percentiles, in each year between 1997 and The gender pay gap has, also, decreased by most for the 10 th percentile, from 19.2 per cent in 1997 to 7.2 percent in A large part of this may be attributable to the implementation of, and subsequent increases in, the minimum wage. The 40 th to 80 th percentiles have decreased by similar amounts to each other, and from similar starting positions. This suggests that changes in the median (50 per cent) are a good measure for what is experienced by the majority of the population. However, the gender pay gap between top 10 per cent of men and top 10 per cent of women has not decreased in the same manner. This is because gross earnings for the top 10 per cent of men increased by more than any other decile between 1997 and 2013, while the increase in the earnings of the top 10 per cent of women increased at roughly the same rate as the rest of the female population. Table 8 change in earnings between 1997 and 2013 for men and women by earnings percentile (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Male Female Gender Pay Gap Percentage Percentage Percentile Difference Difference 10th % % 19.2% 7.2% 20th % % 23.6% 13.2% 30th % % 25.0% 16.5% 40th % % 26.6% 18.3% 50th % % 27.5% 19.7% 60th % % 27.9% 19.5% 70th % % 27.2% 19.1% 80th % % 26.4% 18.5% 90th % % 27.2% 23.4% Source Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 1997, 2013 No adjustment has been made for the effects of inflations. RPIJ, a measure for inflation, increased by 49.5% between 1997 and 2013.
17 Department for Culture, Media & Sport 17 Gender Pay Gap by Earnings Decile for Full Time Employees: The gender pay gap by percentile of earnings is different for full time employees compared to all employees. Figure 8 gender pay gap for full time employees by percentile of earnings (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Dotted lines represent discontinuities in the data which make periods not perfectly comparable The most noticeable difference between the gender pay gap for full time employees and all employees is that the pay gap is lower for each percentile. This difference is greatest for the percentiles in the middle, which has the effect of decreasing the difference in pay gap between the lowest earners and middle earners whilst increasing the difference in pay gap between the middle earners and those earning the most. Table 9 difference between the gender pay for all employees and only full time employees in 2013 by percentile of earnings (gross hourly earnings excluding overtime) Percentile GPG for All employees GPG for Full Time employees Difference (percentage points) 10 th 7.2% 6.7% th 13.2% 8.1% th 16.5% 8.7% th 18.3% 9.9% th 19.7% 10.0% th 19.5% 10.3% th 19.1% 11.8% th 18.5% 13.9% th 23.4% 20.4% 3.0 Source - Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2013
18 18 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Annex A SOC (2010) Occupation Groups MANAGERS, DIRECTORS AND SENIOR OFFICIALS PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE AND SECRETARIAL OCCUPATIONS SKILLED TRADES OCCUPATIONS This major group covers occupations whose tasks consist of planning, directing and coordinating resources to achieve the efficient functioning of organisations and businesses. Working proprietors in small businesses are included, although allocated to separate minor groups within the major group. Most occupations in this major group will require a significant amount of knowledge and experience of the production processes, administrative procedures or service requirements associated with the efficient functioning of organisations and businesses. This major group covers occupations whose main tasks require a high level of knowledge and experience in the natural sciences, engineering, life sciences, social sciences, humanities and related fields. The main tasks consist of the practical application of an extensive body of theoretical knowledge, increasing the stock of knowledge by means of research and communicating such knowledge by teaching methods and other means. Most occupations in this major group will require a degree or equivalent qualification, with some occupations requiring postgraduate qualifications and/or a formal period of experience-related training. This major group covers occupations whose main tasks require experience and knowledge of principles and practices necessary to assume operational responsibility and to give technical support to Professionals and to Managers, Directors and Senior Officials. The main tasks involve the operation and maintenance of complex equipment; legal, business, financial and design services; the provision of information technology services; providing skilled support to health and social care professionals; serving in protective service occupations; and managing areas of the natural environment. Culture, media and sports occupations are also included in this major group. Most occupations in this major group will have an associated high-level vocational qualification, often involving a substantial period of full-time training or further study. Some additional task-related training is usually provided through a formal period of induction. Occupations within this major group undertake general administrative, clerical and secretarial work, and perform a variety of specialist clientorientated administrative duties. The main tasks involve retrieving, updating, classifying and distributing documents, correspondence and other records held electronically and in storage files; typing, wordprocessing and otherwise preparing documents; operating other office and business machinery; receiving and directing telephone calls to an organisation; and routing information through organisations. Most job holders in this major group will require a good standard of general education. Certain occupations will require further additional vocational training or professional occupations to a well-defined standard. This major group covers occupations whose tasks involve the performance of complex physical duties that normally require a degree of initiative, manual dexterity and other practical skills. The main tasks of these occupations require experience with, and understanding of, the work situation, the materials worked with and the requirements of the structures, machinery and other items produced.
19 Department for Culture, Media & Sport CARING, LEISURE AND OTHER SERVICE OCCUPATIONS SALES AND CUSTOMER SERVICE OCCUPATIONS PROCESS, PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATIVES ELEMENTARY OCCUPATIONS Most occupations in this major group have a level of skill commensurate with a substantial period of training, often provided by means of a workbased training programme. This major group covers occupations whose tasks involve the provision of a service to customers, whether in a public protective or personal care capacity. The main tasks associated with these occupations involve the care of the sick, the elderly and infirm; the care and supervision of children; the care of animals; and the provision of travel, personal care and hygiene services. Most occupations in this major group require a good standard of general education and vocational training. To ensure high levels of integrity, some occupations require professional qualifications or registration with professional bodies or relevant background checks. This major group covers occupations whose tasks require the knowledge and experience necessary to sell goods and services, accept payment in respect of sales, replenish stocks of goods in stores, provide information to potential clients and additional services to customers after the point of sale. The main tasks involve knowledge of sales techniques, a degree of knowledge regarding the product or service being sold, familiarity with cash and credit handling procedures and a certain amount of record keeping associated with those tasks. Most occupations in this major group require a general education and skills in interpersonal communication. Some occupations will require a degree of specific knowledge regarding the product or service being sold, but are included in this major group because the primary task involves selling. This major group covers occupations whose main tasks require the knowledge and experience necessary to operate and monitor industrial plant and equipment; to assemble products from component parts according to strict rules and procedures and to subject assembled parts to routine tests; and to drive and assist in the operation of various transport vehicles and other mobile machinery. Most occupations in this major group do not specify that a particular standard of education should have been achieved but will usually have a period of formal experience-related training. Some occupations require licences issued by statutory or professional bodies. This major group covers occupations which require the knowledge and experience necessary to perform mostly routine tasks, often involving the use of simple hand-held tools and, in some cases, requiring a degree of physical effort. Most occupations in this major group do not require formal educational qualifications but will usually have an associated short period of formal experience-related training.
20 20 Department for Culture, Media & Sport Annex B Background information The data used throughout this publication comes from published tables from the ONS Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). ASHE is a survey of 1 per cent of employee jobs in the United Kingdom. It provides information about the levels, distribution and make-up of earnings and hours worked for employees in all industries and occupations. The tables contain UK data on earnings for employees by sex and full-time/part-time workers. More information can be found on the ONS website ( The gender pay gap can be seen as a measure of gender equality in the workplace. However, there are several more factors to consider (labour market participation, educational attainment, and more). It is important, therefore, to look at more than just the gender pay gap when drawing conclusions about gender equality. Contact for enquiries: Department for Culture Media and Sport 100 Parliament Street London SW1A 2BQ The responsible policy contact for this release is Martyn Henderson. The responsible statistician for this release is Douglas Cameron. For general enquiries telephone: For enquiries on this release contact: This release was produced by Douglas Cameron and Alex Wilkinson (DCMS).
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